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Disgust sensitivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635077/self-disgust-within-eating-disordered-groups-associations-with-anxiety-disgust-sensitivity-and-sensory-processing
#1
Katie Bell, Helen Coulthard, Diane Wildbur
This study aimed to assess the relationship between self-disgust and sensory processing within eating psychopathology. Five hundred and ninety-one women with a self-reported diagnosis of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or who had no previous history of an eating disorder completed a battery of online questionnaires measuring disgust, emotion and sensory variables. Those with an eating disorder reported significantly higher rates of self-disgust than those with no history of disordered eating. In groups of women with self-reported bulimia, self-disgust was associated with sensation avoidance and sensation seeking...
June 20, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633464/hyposmia-and-disgust-gender-specific-effects
#2
Rottraut Ille, Axel Wolf, Peter Valentin Tomazic, Anne Schienle
Reduced olfactory function is associated with altered trait disgust in men. This study sought to determine whether hyposmic women show similar changes in disgust responsiveness. We compared patients with hyposmia (25 men, 23 women) and 50 normosmic individuals (25 men, 25 women) with regard to their tendency to experience disgust across different disgust domains (disgust proneness), their self-disgust and their tendency to perceive their own disgust feelings as difficult to control and embarrassing (disgust sensitivity)...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633463/the-body-odor-disgust-scale-bods-development-and-validation-of-a-novel-olfactory-disgust-assessment
#3
Marco Tullio Liuzza, Torun Lindholm, Caitlin Hawley, Marie Gustafsson Sendén, Ingrid Ekström, Mats J Olsson, Maria Larsson, Jonas K Olofsson
Disgust plays a crucial role in the avoidance of pathogen threats. In many species, body odors provide important information related to health and disease, and body odors are potent elicitors of disgust in humans. With this background, valid assessments of body odor disgust sensitivity are warranted. In the present article, we report the development and psychometric validation of the Body Odor Disgust Scale (BODS), a measure suited to assess individual differences in disgust reaction to a variety of body odors...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596932/are-there-sensitive-periods-for-food-acceptance-in-infancy
#4
REVIEW
Gillian Harris, Sarah Mason
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A sensitive period in development is one in which it is easier for learning to take place; the behaviour can however still be learned at a later stage, but with more difficulty. This is in contrast to a critical period, a time at which a behaviour must be learned, and if this window of opportunity is missed, then the behaviour can never be acquired. Both might determine food acceptance in childhood. RECENT FINDINGS: There is evidence to support the idea of a sensitive period for the introduction of tastes, a critical period for the introduction of textures and for the development of oral motor function, and a possible critical period for the introduction of new foods but only in children where there is an innate disposition to develop early and extreme disgust responses...
2017: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553252/validating-the-italian-version-of-the-disgust-and-propensity-scale-revised
#5
Riccardo M Martoni, Paola M V Rancoita, Clelia Di Serio, Chiara Brombin
The aim of this work is to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised (DPSS-R, 16 items) in two samples taken from the general population. In the first study, 285 participants completed the DPSS-R questionnaire through a web-based survey. Exploratory factor analysis for ordinal Likert-type data supported the existence of four underlying factors, reflecting self-focused disgust, disgust propensity, somatic anxiety and disgust sensitivity...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515933/evaluation-of-a-multiprofessional-nonsurgical-obesity-treatment-program-which-parameters-indicated-life-style-changes-and-weight-loss
#6
Pjanic, Roland Müller, Markus Laimer, Niels Hagenbuch, Kurt Laederach, Zeno Stanga
BACKGROUND: According to the current evidence, behavior modifications are an effective part of a non-surgical multiprofessional obesity treatment program (MOTP). The purpose of the present study was to report changes in weight as well in psychological variables during a one year MOTP. We aimed to identify the associations of emotional state and patients' emotion regulation skills with weight change. METHODS: Prospective interventional study. Data of participants attending the one year obesity treatment in either a group or individual structured MOTP were analyzed...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506923/core-social-and-moral-disgust-are-bounded-a-review-on-behavioral-and-neural-bases-of-repugnance-in-clinical-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Carmelo M Vicario, Robert D Rafal, Davide Martino, Alessio Avenanti
Disgust is a multifaceted experience that might affect several aspects of life. Here, we reviewed research on neurological and psychiatric disorders that are characterized by abnormal disgust processing to test the hypothesis of a shared neurocognitive architecture in the representation of three disgust domains: i) personal experience of 'core disgust'; ii) social disgust, i.e., sensitivity to others' expressions of disgust; iii) moral disgust, i.e., sensitivity to ethical violations. Our review provides some support to the shared neurocognitive hypothesis and suggests that the insula might be the "hub" structure linking the three domains of disgust sensitivity, while other brain regions may subserve specific facets of the multidimensional experience...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486665/body-odor-trait-disgust-sensitivity-predicts-perception-of-sweat-biosamples
#8
Marco Tullio Liuzza, Jonas K Olofsson, Agnieszka Sabiniewicz, Agnieszka Sorokowska
Body odors are potent triggers of disgust and regulate social behaviors in many species. The role of olfaction in disgust-associated behaviors has received scant attention in the research literature, in part because olfactory disgust assessments have required laboratory testing with odors. We have devised the "Body Odor Disgust Scale" (BODS) to facilitate research on olfactory disgust. In this study, we evaluated whether individual differences in BODS scores would be associated with the perception of disgust for sweat samples in a laboratory setting...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469271/individual-differences-in-the-early-recognition-of-moral-information-in-lexical-processing-an-event-related-potential-study
#9
Qun Yang, Canhuang Luo, Ye Zhang
Previous studies have shown that intuitive moral cognition occurs at an early stage. However, inconsistent findings indicate that moral information is recognized at a relatively late stage. This study uses the recognition potential (RP) as a neural index and simultaneously measures individuals' moral preferences using the Moral Foundation Questionnaire. We aim to investigate how individual differences in moral preferences modulate the processing of morality in the pre-semantic stage and provide some insights to explain the variation in rapid information processing linked to morality...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406382/reading-what-the-mind-thinks-from-how-the-eye-sees
#10
Daniel H Lee, Adam K Anderson
Human eyes convey a remarkable variety of complex social and emotional information. However, it is unknown which physical eye features convey mental states and how that came about. In the current experiments, we tested the hypothesis that the receiver's perception of mental states is grounded in expressive eye appearance that serves an optical function for the sender. Specifically, opposing features of eye widening versus eye narrowing that regulate sensitivity versus discrimination not only conveyed their associated basic emotions (e...
April 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395642/disgust-sensitivity-accounts-for-some-but-not-all-gender-differences-in-death-attitudes
#11
Jonathan F Bassett
The present study investigated whether gender differences in death attitudes could be attributable to social desirability, locus of control, and disgust sensitivity. A total of 238 university students completed the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale and the Revised Death Attitude Profile in addition to measures of social desirability, locus of control, and disgust sensitivity. Women scored higher than men on many of the fear dimensions and also on approach and escape acceptance. There were no gender differences on locus of control or social desirability, but women reported more disgust sensitivity than did men...
May 2017: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391115/pavlovian-disgust-conditioning-as-a-model-for-contamination-based-ocd-evidence-from-an-analogue-study
#12
Thomas Armstrong, Bunmi O Olatunji
Pavlovian fear conditioning provides a model for anxiety-related disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, disgust is the predominant emotional response to contamination, which is a common theme in OCD. The present study sought to identify disgust conditioning abnormalities that may underlie excessive contamination concerns relevant to OCD. Individuals high and low in contamination concern (HCC, n = 32; LCC, n = 30) completed an associative learning task in which one neutral face (conditioned stimulus; CS+) was followed by a disgusting image (unconditioned stimulus; US) and another neutral face (CS-) was unreinforced...
June 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383634/influence-of-bitter-taste-on-affective-facial-processing-an-erp-study
#13
Anne Schienle, Matteo Giraldo, Benjamin Spiegl, Daniela Schwab
Previous research showed that a bitter taste in the mouth is able to enhance hostile response tendencies to social rejection. The present event-related potential (ERP) study sought to investigate neuronal components of this effect. We presented 52 participants (39 women and 13 men; mean age = 23.3 years) with images of facial expressions signaling social rejection (angry, disgusted) or no rejection (happy, neural), whereas they either experienced a bitter aftertaste (bitter group [BG]: n = 26) or rinsed their mouth with water (control group [CG]: n = 26)...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361986/individual-differences-in-moral-disgust-do-not-predict-utilitarian-judgments-sexual-and-pathogen-disgust-do
#14
Michael Laakasuo, Jukka Sundvall, Marianna Drosinou
The role of emotional disgust and disgust sensitivity in moral judgment and decision-making has been debated intensively for over 20 years. Until very recently, there were two main evolutionary narratives for this rather puzzling association. One of the models suggest that it was developed through some form of group selection mechanism, where the internal norms of the groups were acting as pathogen safety mechanisms. Another model suggested that these mechanisms were developed through hygiene norms, which were piggybacking on pathogen disgust mechanisms...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345150/decoding-facial-expressions-based-on-face-selective-and-motion-sensitive-areas
#15
Yin Liang, Baolin Liu, Junhai Xu, Gaoyan Zhang, Xianglin Li, Peiyuan Wang, Bin Wang
Humans can easily recognize others' facial expressions. Among the brain substrates that enable this ability, considerable attention has been paid to face-selective areas; in contrast, whether motion-sensitive areas, which clearly exhibit sensitivity to facial movements, are involved in facial expression recognition remained unclear. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study used multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to explore facial expression decoding in both face-selective and motion-sensitive areas...
June 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264633/a-neurology-of-the-conservative-liberal-dimension-of-political-ideology
#16
Mario F Mendez
Differences in political ideology are a major source of human disagreement and conflict. There is increasing evidence that neurobiological mechanisms mediate individual differences in political ideology through effects on a conservative-liberal axis. This review summarizes personality, evolutionary and genetic, cognitive, neuroimaging, and neurological studies of conservatism-liberalism and discusses how they might affect political ideology. What emerges from this highly variable literature is evidence for a normal right-sided "conservative-complex" involving structures sensitive to negativity bias, threat, disgust, and avoidance...
2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249187/altered-processing-of-rewarding-and-aversive-basic-taste-stimuli-in-symptomatic-women-with-anorexia-nervosa-and-bulimia-nervosa-an-fmri-study
#17
Alessio Maria Monteleone, Palmiero Monteleone, Fabrizio Esposito, Anna Prinster, Umberto Volpe, Elena Cantone, Francesca Pellegrino, Antonietta Canna, Walter Milano, Marco Aiello, Francesco Di Salle, Mario Maj
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have displayed a dysregulation in the way in which the brain processes pleasant taste stimuli in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). However, exactly how the brain processes disgusting basic taste stimuli has never been investigated, even though disgust plays a role in food intake modulation and AN and BN patients exhibit high disgust sensitivity. Therefore, we investigated the activation of brain areas following the administration of pleasant and aversive basic taste stimuli in symptomatic AN and BN patients compared to healthy subjects...
July 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229500/money-for-microbes-pathogen-avoidance-and-out-group-helping-behaviour
#18
Michael Laakasuo, Nils Köbis, Jussi Palomäki, Markus Jokela
Humans have evolved various adaptations against pathogens, including the physiological immune system. However, not all of these adaptations are physiological: the cognitive mechanisms whereby we avoid potential sources of pathogens-for example, disgust elicited by uncleanliness-can be considered as parts of a behavioural immune system (BIS). The mechanisms of BIS extend also to inter-group relations: Pathogen cues have been shown to increase xenophobia/ethnocentrism, as people prefer to keep their societal in-group norms unaltered and "clean...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208068/altered-olfactory-processing-and-increased-insula-activity-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-an-fmri-study
#19
Heather A Berlin, Emily R Stern, Johnny Ng, Sam Zhang, David Rosenthal, Rachel Turetzky, Cheuk Tang, Wayne Goodman
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients show increased insula activation to disgust-inducing images compared to healthy controls (HC). We explored whether this disgust reactivity was also present in the olfactory domain by conducting the first fMRI study of olfaction in OCD. Neural activation in response to pleasant and unpleasant odors (vs. unscented air) was investigated in 15 OCD and 15 HC participants using fMRI. OCD participants (vs. HC) had increased left anterior insula activation to unpleasant odors (vs...
April 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165888/voxel-based-morphometry-of-disgust-sensitivity
#20
Albert Wabnegger, Sonja Übel, Anne Schienle
BACKGROUND: Difficulties with the regulation of negative affect have been extensively studied in neuroimaging research. However, dysregulation of a specific emotion, disgust, has hardly been investigated. In the present study, we used voxel-based morphometry to identify whether gray matter volume (GMV) of frontal regions is correlated with personality traits associated with general and disgust-specific emotion regulation difficulties. METHOD: We analyzed T1-weighted images of 49 females (mean age = 22...
February 6, 2017: Social Neuroscience
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