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Disgust sensitivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048304/trustworthiness-of-a-smile-as-a-function-of-changes-in-the-eye-expression
#1
Andrés Fernández-Martín, Patricia Álvarez-Plaza, Laura Carqué, Manuel G Calvo
BACKGROUND: Trusting other people is necessary for satisfactory and successful social interaction. A person’s perceived trustworthiness is related to perceived facial happiness. We investigated how trustworthy someone with a smiling face looks depending on changes in eye expression. METHOD: Video-clips of dynamic expressions were presented, with different combinations of the mouth (smiling vs. neutral) and the eyes (happy, neutral, surprised, sad, fearful, disgusted, or angry)...
November 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020867/activation-of-the-behavioral-immune-system-putting-the-brakes-on-affiliation
#2
Natsumi Sawada, Emilie Auger, John E Lydon
Evolutionary psychologists propose that humans evolved a first line of defense against pathogens: the behavioral immune system (BIS). The BIS is thought to be functionally flexible such that the likelihood and magnitude of BIS activation depends on the individual's perceived vulnerability to disease (PVD). Because conspecifics are sources of infection, the BIS has implications for affiliation. By priming and measuring chronic levels of PVD, we examined PVD's relation to affiliation in zero-acquaintance situations in the laboratory, online, and during speed-dating events...
October 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917441/recognition-of-peer-emotions-in-children-with-adhd-evidence-from-an-animated-facial-expressions-task
#3
Aiste Jusyte, Marco Daniel Gulewitsch, Michael Schönenberg
A growing body of literature suggests that ADHD is associated with emotion recognition impairments that may be linked to deficient interpersonal functioning. However, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these recognition impairments is extremely limited. Here, we used dynamic stimuli to investigate whether impaired emotion recognition in children with ADHD may be associated with impairments in perceptual sensitivity. Participants (ADHD: N = 26; Controls: N = 26) viewed video sequences of neutral faces slowly developing into one of the six basic emotional expressions (angry, happy, fearful, sad, disgusted and surprised) and were instructed to indicate via a button press the precise moment at which they were able to correctly recognize the emotional expression...
August 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889805/interferon-%C3%AE-induces-negative-biases-in-emotional-processing-in-patients-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-preliminary-study
#4
C M Cooper, B Godlewska, A L Sharpley, E Barnes, P J Cowen, C J Harmer
BACKGROUND: Treatment of medical patients with the inflammatory cytokine, interferon-α (IFN-α), is frequently associated with the development of clinical depressive symptomatology. Several important biological correlates of the effect of IFN-α on mood have been described, but the neuropsychological changes associated with IFN-α treatment are largely unexplored. The aim of the present preliminary study was to assess the effect of IFN-α on measures of emotional processing. METHOD: We measured changes in emotional processing over 6-8 weeks in 17 patients receiving IFN-α as part of their treatment for hepatitis C virus infection...
September 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883626/moral-judgment-modulation-by-disgust-priming-via-altered-fronto-temporal-functional-connectivity
#5
Julian Lim, Yoanna A Kurnianingsih, How Hwee Ong, O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman
Moral judgments are not just the product of conscious reasoning, but also involve the integration of social and emotional information. Irrelevant disgust stimuli modulate moral judgments, with individual sensitivity determining the direction and size of effects across both hypothetical and incentive-compatible experimental designs. We investigated the neural circuitry underlying this modulation using fMRI in 19 individuals performing a moral judgment task with subliminal priming of disgust facial expressions...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882691/is-that-disgust-i-see-political-ideology-and-biased-visual-attention
#6
Benjamin Oosterhoff, Natalie J Shook, Cameron Ford
Considerable evidence suggests that political liberals and conservatives vary in the way they process and respond to valenced (i.e., negative versus positive) information, with conservatives generally displaying greater negativity biases than liberals. Less is known about whether liberals and conservatives differentially prioritize certain forms of negative information over others. Across two studies using eye-tracking methodology, we examined differences in visual attention to negative scenes and facial expressions based on self-reported political ideology...
January 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872334/disgust-sensitivity-is-primarily-associated-with-purity-based-moral-judgments
#7
Fieke M A Wagemans, Mark J Brandt, Marcel Zeelenberg
Individual differences in disgust sensitivity are associated with a range of judgments and attitudes related to the moral domain. Some perspectives suggest that the association between disgust sensitivity and moral judgments will be equally strong across all moral domains (i.e., purity, authority, loyalty, care, fairness, and liberty). Other perspectives predict that disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with judgments of specific moral domains (e.g., primarily purity). However, no study has systematically tested if disgust sensitivity is associated with moral judgments of the purity domain specifically, more generally to moral judgments of the binding moral domains, or to moral judgments of all of the moral domains equally...
September 4, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810408/emotional-responses-to-disfigured-faces-and-disgust-sensitivity-an-eye-tracking-study
#8
Anna Stone, Anita Potton
Facial disfigurement attracts attention and evokes negative emotion, but evidence is lacking for a link between these two reactions. The present experiment ( n = 29) investigated emotional and attentional reactions to photographs of people with disfigured faces. An eye-tracker was used to measure fixation on internal expressive features and on the forehead. Disfigurement to the internal expressive features invoked a stronger emotional reaction than disfigurement to the forehead. Attention in the area of disfigurement was associated with negative emotion (embarrassment, sympathy, disgust, repulsion) as well as surprise...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776466/mimicking-emotions-how-3-12-month-old-infants-use-the-facial-expressions-and-eyes-of-a-model
#9
Robert Soussignan, Nicolas Dollion, Benoist Schaal, Karine Durand, Nadja Reissland, Jean-Yves Baudouin
While there is an extensive literature on the tendency to mimic emotional expressions in adults, it is unclear how this skill emerges and develops over time. Specifically, it is unclear whether infants mimic discrete emotion-related facial actions, whether their facial displays are moderated by contextual cues and whether infants' emotional mimicry is constrained by developmental changes in the ability to discriminate emotions. We therefore investigate these questions using Baby-FACS to code infants' facial displays and eye-movement tracking to examine infants' looking times at facial expressions...
August 4, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758786/developmental-changes-in-infants-categorization-of-anger-and-disgust-facial-expressions
#10
Ashley L Ruba, Kristin M Johnson, Lasana T Harris, Makeba Parramore Wilbourn
For decades, scholars have examined how children first recognize emotional facial expressions. This research has found that infants younger than 10 months can discriminate negative, within-valence facial expressions in looking time tasks, and children older than 24 months struggle to categorize these expressions in labeling and free-sort tasks. Specifically, these older children, and even adults, consistently misidentify disgust expressions as anger. Although some scholars have hypothesized that young infants would also be unable to categorize anger and disgust expressions, this question has not been empirically tested...
October 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708027/do-valenced-odors-and-trait-body-odor-disgust-affect-evaluation-of-emotion-in-dynamic-faces
#11
Elmeri Syrjänen, Marco Tullio Liuzza, Håkan Fischer, Jonas K Olofsson
Disgust is a core emotion evolved to detect and avoid the ingestion of poisonous food as well as the contact with pathogens and other harmful agents. Previous research has shown that multisensory presentation of olfactory and visual information may strengthen the processing of disgust-relevant information. However, it is not known whether these findings extend to dynamic facial stimuli that changes from neutral to emotionally expressive, or if individual differences in trait body odor disgust may influence the processing of disgust-related information...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681640/disgusting-clusters-trypophobia-as-an-overgeneralised-disease-avoidance-response
#12
Tom R Kupfer, An T D Le
Individuals with trypophobia have an aversion towards clusters of roughly circular shapes, such as those on a sponge or the bubbles on a cup of coffee. It is unclear why the condition exists, given the harmless nature of typical eliciting stimuli. We suggest that aversion to clusters is an evolutionarily prepared response towards a class of stimuli that resemble cues to the presence of parasites and infectious disease. Trypophobia may be an exaggerated and overgeneralised version of this normally adaptive response...
July 6, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635077/self-disgust-within-eating-disordered-groups-associations-with-anxiety-disgust-sensitivity-and-sensory-processing
#13
Katie Bell, Helen Coulthard, Diane Wildbur
This study aimed to assess the relationship between self-disgust and sensory processing within eating psychopathology. Five hundred and ninety-one women with a self-reported diagnosis of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or who had no previous history of an eating disorder completed a battery of online questionnaires measuring disgust, emotion and sensory variables. Those with an eating disorder reported significantly higher rates of self-disgust than those with no history of disordered eating. In groups of women with self-reported bulimia, self-disgust was associated with sensation avoidance and sensation seeking...
September 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633464/hyposmia-and-disgust-gender-specific-effects
#14
Rottraut Ille, Axel Wolf, Peter Valentin Tomazic, Anne Schienle
Reduced olfactory function is associated with altered trait disgust in men. This study sought to determine whether hyposmic women show similar changes in disgust responsiveness. We compared patients with hyposmia (25 men, 23 women) and 50 normosmic individuals (25 men, 25 women) with regard to their tendency to experience disgust across different disgust domains (disgust proneness), their self-disgust and their tendency to perceive their own disgust feelings as difficult to control and embarrassing (disgust sensitivity)...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633463/the-body-odor-disgust-scale-bods-development-and-validation-of-a-novel-olfactory-disgust-assessment
#15
Marco Tullio Liuzza, Torun Lindholm, Caitlin Hawley, Marie Gustafsson Sendén, Ingrid Ekström, Mats J Olsson, Maria Larsson, Jonas K Olofsson
Disgust plays a crucial role in the avoidance of pathogen threats. In many species, body odors provide important information related to health and disease, and body odors are potent elicitors of disgust in humans. With this background, valid assessments of body odor disgust sensitivity are warranted. In the present article, we report the development and psychometric validation of the Body Odor Disgust Scale (BODS), a measure suited to assess individual differences in disgust reaction to a variety of body odors...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596932/are-there-sensitive-periods-for-food-acceptance-in-infancy
#16
REVIEW
Gillian Harris, Sarah Mason
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A sensitive period in development is one in which it is easier for learning to take place; the behaviour can however still be learned at a later stage, but with more difficulty. This is in contrast to a critical period, a time at which a behaviour must be learned, and if this window of opportunity is missed, then the behaviour can never be acquired. Both might determine food acceptance in childhood. RECENT FINDINGS: There is evidence to support the idea of a sensitive period for the introduction of tastes, a critical period for the introduction of textures and for the development of oral motor function, and a possible critical period for the introduction of new foods but only in children where there is an innate disposition to develop early and extreme disgust responses...
2017: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553252/validating-the-italian-version-of-the-disgust-and-propensity-scale-revised
#17
Riccardo M Martoni, Paola M V Rancoita, Clelia Di Serio, Chiara Brombin
The aim of this work is to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised (DPSS-R, 16 items) in two samples taken from the general population. In the first study, 285 participants completed the DPSS-R questionnaire through a web-based survey. Exploratory factor analysis for ordinal Likert-type data supported the existence of four underlying factors, reflecting self-focused disgust, disgust propensity, somatic anxiety and disgust sensitivity...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515933/evaluation-of-a-multiprofessional-nonsurgical-obesity-treatment-program-which-parameters-indicated-life-style-changes-and-weight-loss
#18
Pjanic, Roland Müller, Markus Laimer, Niels Hagenbuch, Kurt Laederach, Zeno Stanga
BACKGROUND: According to the current evidence, behavior modifications are an effective part of a non-surgical multiprofessional obesity treatment program (MOTP). The purpose of the present study was to report changes in weight as well in psychological variables during a one year MOTP. We aimed to identify the associations of emotional state and patients' emotion regulation skills with weight change. METHODS: Prospective interventional study. Data of participants attending the one year obesity treatment in either a group or individual structured MOTP were analyzed...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506923/core-social-and-moral-disgust-are-bounded-a-review-on-behavioral-and-neural-bases-of-repugnance-in-clinical-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Carmelo M Vicario, Robert D Rafal, Davide Martino, Alessio Avenanti
Disgust is a multifaceted experience that might affect several aspects of life. Here, we reviewed research on neurological and psychiatric disorders that are characterized by abnormal disgust processing to test the hypothesis of a shared neurocognitive architecture in the representation of three disgust domains: i) personal experience of 'core disgust'; ii) social disgust, i.e., sensitivity to others' expressions of disgust; iii) moral disgust, i.e., sensitivity to ethical violations. Our review provides some support to the shared neurocognitive hypothesis and suggests that the insula might be the "hub" structure linking the three domains of disgust sensitivity, while other brain regions may subserve specific facets of the multidimensional experience...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486665/body-odor-trait-disgust-sensitivity-predicts-perception-of-sweat-biosamples
#20
Marco Tullio Liuzza, Jonas K Olofsson, Agnieszka Sabiniewicz, Agnieszka Sorokowska
Body odors are potent triggers of disgust and regulate social behaviors in many species. The role of olfaction in disgust-associated behaviors has received scant attention in the research literature, in part because olfactory disgust assessments have required laboratory testing with odors. We have devised the "Body Odor Disgust Scale" (BODS) to facilitate research on olfactory disgust. In this study, we evaluated whether individual differences in BODS scores would be associated with the perception of disgust for sweat samples in a laboratory setting...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
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