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Disgust sensitivity

Bunmi O Olatunji, Chad Ebesutani, Eun Ha Kim
Although some studies suggest that the association between disgust proneness (DP) and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) is specific to the contamination subtype, others suggest that DP is associated with OCS more broadly. To examine if the discrepant findings may partially reflect differences in self-report measures used, this investigation employed structural equation modeling to examine the association between DP and OCS in three samples that completed different combinations of measures of DP, OCS, and anxiety/negative affect...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Dandan Zhang, Yunzhe Liu, Lili Wang, Hui Ai, Yuejia Luo
Appropriately attending to threatening environmental stimuli is evolutionarily adaptive and crucial for survival. This study revealed that nonconscious attentional modulation of disgust has different behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) patterns, as compared to fear and anger. To facilitate its evolutionary purpose of avoidance, disgust first diverts rather than attracts attention. Accordingly, the N1 was smaller in a validly than in an invalidly disgust-cued condition. Furthermore, the frontal P3a for disgust, anger, and fear was found to be larger in the valid than in the invalid condition, which was interpreted as an involuntary switching of attention toward threat-related events to mobilize cognitive resources for action or defense...
October 19, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Kelly A Knowles, Megan A Viar-Paxton, Bradley C Riemann, David M Jacobi, Bunmi O Olatunji
Although disgust proneness has been implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), there is a paucity of research examining change in disgust proneness during treatment as well as the correlates of such change, especially in children. This study examined the relationship between changes in disgust proneness and disorder-specific symptoms during residential treatment among youth with OCD, anxiety, and mood disorders. Youth ages 12-18 (n=472) completed pre- and post-outcome measures of OCD, anxiety, and mood symptoms and disgust proneness...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Kazunori Iwasa, Tsunehiko Tanaka, Yuki Yamada
The Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised is one of the most widely used measures of individual differences for the emotion of disgust. It consists of 2 subscales: disgust propensity and disgust sensitivity. This study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the revised Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale. Japanese participants (N = 1067) completed the scale as well as the Padua Inventory, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Positive and Negative Affective Schedule...
2016: PloS One
Erik Hedman, Mats Lekander, Bianka Karshikoff, Brjánn Ljótsson, Erland Axelsson, John Axelsson
Severe health anxiety is characterized by a debilitating fear of somatic illness, and avoidance of disease-related stimuli plays a key role in the maintenance of the disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate severe health anxiety within an evolutionary disease-avoidance framework. We hypothesized that, compared to healthy controls, participants with severe health anxiety would perceive others as sicker, more contagious, and less attractive. We also expected individuals with severe health anxiety to be more prone to avoid interaction with persons who appeared sick, as well as to respond with more health-related worry, more disgust, and more anxiety when confronting such individuals...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
César F Lima, Olivia Brancatisano, Amy Fancourt, Daniel Müllensiefen, Sophie K Scott, Jason D Warren, Lauren Stewart
Some individuals show a congenital deficit for music processing despite normal peripheral auditory processing, cognitive functioning, and music exposure. This condition, termed congenital amusia, is typically approached regarding its profile of musical and pitch difficulties. Here, we examine whether amusia also affects socio-emotional processing, probing auditory and visual domains. Thirteen adults with amusia and 11 controls completed two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants judged emotions in emotional speech prosody, nonverbal vocalizations (e...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
M Davis, M Oaten, S Occhipinti, S K Chambers, R J Stevenson
Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening participation remains unacceptably low. This study investigated the emotion of disgust as a potential deterrent to intention to screen for CRC. The study utilised a convenience sample of individuals' 40-70 years of age to complete an online survey. Participants included 30 men and 118 women recruited between December 1, 2013 and March 31, 2014. Data on socio-demographics, health status, screening intentions and emotional barriers to bowel screening were collected via an on-line survey...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
Cindy Harmon-Jones, Brock Bastian, Eddie Harmon-Jones
Psychological research often yields null results on self-reported emotion as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), even when using manipulations that might intuitively be expected to be emotionally impactful. Three studies reported here support the hypothesis that changes in self-reported negative emotion may be detected more sensitively when discrete emotions are measured rather than by either PANAS NA or a measure created by combining discrete emotions, and when participants were instructed to report how they felt during an emotion-eliciting event versus how they felt afterward...
October 2016: Emotion
Cordelia A Running, John E Hayes
Saliva is becoming an increasingly useful research material across multiple fields of inquiry, including biomedical, dental, psychological, nutritional, and food choice research. However, both the flow rate and protein composition of stimulated saliva differ as a function of the collection method. We hypothesized that the context in which a stimulus is presented to participants may alter salivation via top down cognitive effects and/or behavioral changes (i.e., spitting efficiency). We presented participants with one stimulus (commercially available green tea) in two distinct contexts, once where the tea was described as a food item ("tea") and once where it was described as a disgusting non-food item ("rabbit hair extract")...
September 20, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Shu Imaizumi, Manami Furuno, Haruo Hibino, Shinichi Koyama
Trypophobia refers to disgust for a cluster of objects, and is considered an extension of disgust for dangerous objects. Furthermore, trypophobic images possess certain spatial properties that can induce perceptually unpleasant states (i.e., visual discomfort). We examined whether trypophobia is associated with disgust sensitivity, empathic traits, and visual discomfort. Japanese adults (n = 126) completed four scales: the Trypophobia Questionnaire, which measures trypophobia proneness; the Disgust Scale-Revised, which measures disgust sensitivity; the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, which measures empathic traits; and the Visual Discomfort Scale, which measures proneness to visual discomfort...
2016: SpringerPlus
Haffiezhah A Azlan, Paul G Overton, Jane Simpson, Philip A Powell
OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that disgust responses, known to negatively affect psychological wellbeing, may differ in people with cancer. We performed the first quantitative investigation of three discrete types of disgust trait - disgust propensity, sensitivity and self-directed disgust - in people diagnosed with a broad range of cancers (versus cancer-free controls), and explored their associations with psychological wellbeing. DESIGN: In a cross-sectional survey design, 107 participants with heterogeneous cancer diagnoses, recruited from cancer charities and support groups, were matched with cancer-free controls by age and gender...
October 4, 2016: Psychology & Health
Carmelo M Vicario, Robert D Rafal, Sara Borgomaneri, Riccardo Paracampo, Ada Kritikos, Alessio Avenanti
The tongue holds a unique role in gustatory disgust. However, it is unclear whether the tongue representation in the motor cortex (tM1) is affected by the sight of distaste-related stimuli. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we recorded tongue motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) as an index of tM1 cortico-hypoglossal excitability. MEPs were recorded while participants viewed pictures associated with gustatory disgust and revulsion (i.e., rotten foods and faces expressing distaste), non oral-related disgusting stimuli (i...
September 10, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Allison J Ouimet, Nancy Bahl, Adam S Radomsky
Research has demonstrated large differences in the degree to which direct and indirect measures predict each other and variables including behavioural approach and attentional bias. We investigated whether individual differences in the co-variance of "implicit" and "explicit" spider fear exist, and whether this covariation exerts an effect on spider fear-related outcomes. One hundred and thirty-two undergraduate students completed direct and indirect measures of spider fear/avoidance, self-report questionnaires of psychopathology, an attentional bias task, and a proxy Behavioural Approach Task...
August 23, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Lene Aarøe, Mathias Osmundsen, Michael Bang Petersen
Throughout human evolutionary history, cooperative contact with others has been fundamental for human survival. At the same time, social contact has been a source of threats. In this article, we focus on one particular viable threat, communicable disease, and investigate how motivations to avoid pathogens influence people's propensity to interact and cooperate with others, as measured by individual differences in generalized social trust. While extant studies on pathogen avoidance have argued that such motivations should prompt people to avoid interactions with outgroups specifically, we argue that these motivations should prompt people to avoid others more broadly...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Cindy Harmon-Jones, Brock Bastian, Eddie Harmon-Jones
Several discrete emotions have broad theoretical and empirical importance, as shown by converging evidence from diverse areas of psychology, including facial displays, developmental behaviors, and neuroscience. However, the measurement of these states has not progressed along with theory, such that when researchers measure subjectively experienced emotions, they commonly rely on scales assessing broad dimensions of affect (positivity and negativity), rather than discrete emotions. The current manuscript presents four studies that validate a new instrument, the Discrete Emotions Questionnaire (DEQ), that is sensitive to eight distinct state emotions: anger, disgust, fear, anxiety, sadness, happiness, relaxation, and desire...
2016: PloS One
Christoph A Becker, Tobias Flaisch, Britta Renner, Harald T Schupp
The elicitation of disgust by the view of spoiled and rotten foods is considered as an adaptation preventing the ingestion of harmful microorganisms and pathogens. To provide an effective behavioral defense, inedible food items need to be detected automatically, i.e., in the absence of explicit processing goals, early in the processing stream, and triggering an alarm response, i.e., increased attentional capture. To examine these hypotheses, a set of stimulus material consisting of images of perishable foods (i...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Manuel G Calvo, Pedro Avero, Andrés Fernández-Martín, Guillermo Recio
We investigated the minimum expressive intensity that is required to recognize (above chance) static and dynamic facial expressions of happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, fear, and surprise. To this end, we varied the degree of intensity of emotional expressions unfolding from a neutral face, by means of graphics morphing software. The resulting face stimuli (photographs and short videos) were presented in an expression categorization task for 1 s each, and measures of sensitivity or discrimination (A') were collected to establish thresholds...
June 30, 2016: Emotion
Ariel Malka, Danny Osborne, Christopher J Soto, Lara M Greaves, Chris G Sibley, Yphtach Lelkes
Moral foundations theory (MFT) posits that binding moral foundations (purity, authority, and ingroup loyalty) are rooted in the need for groups to promote order and cohesion, and that they therefore underlie political conservatism. We present evidence that binding foundations (and the related construct of disgust sensitivity) are associated with lower levels of ideological polarization on political issues outside the domain of moral traditionalism. Consistent support for this hypothesis was obtained from three large American Internet-based samples and one large national sample of New Zealanders (combined N = 7,874)...
September 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Rebecca Bondü, Philipp Richter
Several personality dispositions with common features capturing sensitivities to negative social cues have recently been introduced into psychological research. To date, however, little is known about their interrelations, their conjoint effects on behavior, or their interplay with other risk factors. We asked N = 349 adults from Germany to rate their justice, rejection, moral disgust, and provocation sensitivity, hostile attribution bias, trait anger, and forms and functions of aggression. The sensitivity measures were mostly positively correlated; particularly those with an egoistic focus, such as victim justice, rejection, and provocation sensitivity, hostile attributions and trait anger as well as those with an altruistic focus, such as observer justice, perpetrator justice, and moral disgust sensitivity...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Anastasia Pampouchidou, Eleni Kazantzaki, Ioannis Karatzanis, Kostas Marias, Manolis Tsiknakis, Fabrice Meriaudeau, Fan Yang, Panagiotis Simos
Perceiving and identifying emotions on facial expressions is one of the basic abilities that compose emotional intelligence, and is crucial for normal social functions. It is well documented that facial expression conveys information about felt emotion, and that expressive behavior can activate or regulate the emotion required by a given situation. Instruments measuring emotion perception based on facial expression have been found in literature either as stand-alone scales or as part of other tests. The proposed tool expands existing instruments to combine online availability while affording assessment of emotion recognition on a continuum of intensity...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
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