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Disgust sensitivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933022/emotional-empathy-and-facial-mimicry-for-static-and-dynamic-facial-expressions-of-fear-and-disgust
#1
Krystyna Rymarczyk, Łukasz Żurawski, Kamila Jankowiak-Siuda, Iwona Szatkowska
Facial mimicry is the tendency to imitate the emotional facial expressions of others. Increasing evidence suggests that the perception of dynamic displays leads to enhanced facial mimicry, especially for happiness and anger. However, little is known about the impact of dynamic stimuli on facial mimicry for fear and disgust. To investigate this issue, facial EMG responses were recorded in the corrugator supercilii, levator labii, and lateral frontalis muscles, while participants viewed static (photos) and dynamic (videos) facial emotional expressions...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924707/interindividual-differences-in-chemosensory-perception-toward-a-better-understanding-of-perceptual-ratings-during-chemical-exposures
#2
Marlene Pacharra, Stefan Kleinbeck, Michael Schäper, Stephanie A Juran, Kathrin Hey, Meinolf Blaszkewicz, Marie-Louise Lehmann, Klaus Golka, Christoph van Thriel
Perceptions that arise from stimulation of olfactory and trigeminal receptors in the nasal cavity guide the evaluation of chemical environment in humans. Strong interindividual differences in these assessments may be attributed to nonsensory factors such as gender, anxiety, and chemical sensitivity. Knowledge regarding the influence of these factors originates mainly from basic odor research using short-term exposure scenarios. In situations with continuous chemical exposures-common in the working environment-their impact is less clear...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923265/erratum-for-disgusted-by-sexual-abuse-exploring-the-association-between-disgust-sensitivity-and-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-among-mothers-of-sexually-abused-children
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917148/corrigendum-distrust-as-a-disease-avoidance-strategy-individual-differences-in-disgust-sensitivity-regulate-generalized-social-trust
#4
Lene Aarøe, Mathias Osmundsen, Michael Bang Petersen
[This corrects the article on p. 1038 in vol. 7, PMID: 27516744.].
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856343/brain-response-to-masked-and-unmasked-facial-emotions-as-a-function-of-implicit-and-explicit-personality-self-concept-of-extraversion
#5
Thomas Suslow, Harald Kugel, Christian Lindner, Udo Dannlowski, Boris Egloff
Extraversion-introversion is a personality dimension referring to individual differences in social behavior. In the past, neurobiological research on extraversion was almost entirely based upon questionnaires which inform about the explicit self-concept. Today, indirect measures are available that tap into the implicit self-concept of extraversion which is assumed to result from automatic processing functions. In our study, brain activation while viewing facial expression of affiliation relevant (i.e., happiness, and disgust) and irrelevant (i...
November 14, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791090/parasite-stress-and-pathogen-avoidance-relate-to-distinct-dimensions-of-political-ideology-across-30-nations
#6
Joshua M Tybur, Yoel Inbar, Lene Aarøe, Pat Barclay, Fiona Kate Barlow, Mícheál de Barra, D Vaughn Becker, Leah Borovoi, Incheol Choi, Jong An Choi, Nathan S Consedine, Alan Conway, Jane Rebecca Conway, Paul Conway, Vera Cubela Adoric, Dilara Ekin Demirci, Ana María Fernández, Diogo Conque Seco Ferreira, Keiko Ishii, Ivana Jakšić, Tingting Ji, Florian van Leeuwen, David M G Lewis, Norman P Li, Jason C McIntyre, Sumitava Mukherjee, Justin H Park, Boguslaw Pawlowski, Michael Bang Petersen, David Pizarro, Gerasimos Prodromitis, Pavol Prokop, Markus J Rantala, Lisa M Reynolds, Bonifacio Sandin, Bariş Sevi, Delphine De Smet, Narayanan Srinivasan, Shruti Tewari, Cameron Wilson, Jose C Yong, Iris Žeželj
People who are more avoidant of pathogens are more politically conservative, as are nations with greater parasite stress. In the current research, we test two prominent hypotheses that have been proposed as explanations for these relationships. The first, which is an intragroup account, holds that these relationships between pathogens and politics are based on motivations to adhere to local norms, which are sometimes shaped by cultural evolution to have pathogen-neutralizing properties. The second, which is an intergroup account, holds that these same relationships are based on motivations to avoid contact with outgroups, who might pose greater infectious disease threats than ingroup members...
October 17, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776255/does-the-measure-matter-on-the-association-between-disgust-proneness-and-ocd-symptoms
#7
Bunmi O Olatunji, Chad Ebesutani, Eun Ha Kim
Although some studies suggest that the association between disgust proneness (DP) and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) is specific to the contamination subtype, others suggest that DP is associated with OCS more broadly. To examine if the discrepant findings may partially reflect differences in self-report measures used, this investigation employed structural equation modeling to examine the association between DP and OCS in three samples that completed different combinations of measures of DP, OCS, and anxiety/negative affect...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761806/mechanisms-for-attentional-modulation-by-threatening-emotions-of-fear-anger-and-disgust
#8
Dandan Zhang, Yunzhe Liu, Lili Wang, Hui Ai, Yuejia Luo
Appropriately attending to threatening environmental stimuli is evolutionarily adaptive and crucial for survival. This study revealed that nonconscious attentional modulation of disgust has different behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) patterns, as compared to fear and anger. To facilitate its evolutionary purpose of avoidance, disgust first diverts rather than attracts attention. Accordingly, the N1 was smaller in a validly than in an invalidly disgust-cued condition. Furthermore, the frontal P3a for disgust, anger, and fear was found to be larger in the valid than in the invalid condition, which was interpreted as an involuntary switching of attention toward threat-related events to mobilize cognitive resources for action or defense...
October 19, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744071/is-disgust-proneness-sensitive-to-treatment-for-ocd-among-youth-examination-of-diagnostic-specificity-and-symptom-correlates
#9
Kelly A Knowles, Megan A Viar-Paxton, Bradley C Riemann, David M Jacobi, Bunmi O Olatunji
Although disgust proneness has been implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), there is a paucity of research examining change in disgust proneness during treatment as well as the correlates of such change, especially in children. This study examined the relationship between changes in disgust proneness and disorder-specific symptoms during residential treatment among youth with OCD, anxiety, and mood disorders. Youth ages 12-18 (n=472) completed pre- and post-outcome measures of OCD, anxiety, and mood symptoms and disgust proneness...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732659/factor-structure-reliability-and-validity-of-the-japanese-version-of-the-disgust-propensity-and-sensitivity-scale-revised
#10
Kazunori Iwasa, Tsunehiko Tanaka, Yuki Yamada
The Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised is one of the most widely used measures of individual differences for the emotion of disgust. It consists of 2 subscales: disgust propensity and disgust sensitivity. This study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the revised Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale. Japanese participants (N = 1067) completed the scale as well as the Padua Inventory, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Positive and Negative Affective Schedule...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732023/health-anxiety-in-a-disease-avoidance-framework-investigation-of-anxiety-disgust-and-disease-perception-in-response-to-sickness-cues
#11
Erik Hedman, Mats Lekander, Bianka Karshikoff, Brjánn Ljótsson, Erland Axelsson, John Axelsson
Severe health anxiety is characterized by a debilitating fear of somatic illness, and avoidance of disease-related stimuli plays a key role in the maintenance of the disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate severe health anxiety within an evolutionary disease-avoidance framework. We hypothesized that, compared to healthy controls, participants with severe health anxiety would perceive others as sicker, more contagious, and less attractive. We also expected individuals with severe health anxiety to be more prone to avoid interaction with persons who appeared sick, as well as to respond with more health-related worry, more disgust, and more anxiety when confronting such individuals...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725686/impaired-socio-emotional-processing-in-a-developmental-music-disorder
#12
César F Lima, Olivia Brancatisano, Amy Fancourt, Daniel Müllensiefen, Sophie K Scott, Jason D Warren, Lauren Stewart
Some individuals show a congenital deficit for music processing despite normal peripheral auditory processing, cognitive functioning, and music exposure. This condition, termed congenital amusia, is typically approached regarding its profile of musical and pitch difficulties. Here, we examine whether amusia also affects socio-emotional processing, probing auditory and visual domains. Thirteen adults with amusia and 11 controls completed two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants judged emotions in emotional speech prosody, nonverbal vocalizations (e...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704647/an-investigation-of-the-emotion-of-disgust-as-an-affective-barrier-to-intention-to-screen-for-colorectal-cancer
#13
M Davis, M Oaten, S Occhipinti, S K Chambers, R J Stevenson
Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening participation remains unacceptably low. This study investigated the emotion of disgust as a potential deterrent to intention to screen for CRC. The study utilised a convenience sample of individuals' 40-70 years of age to complete an online survey. Participants included 30 men and 118 women recruited between December 1, 2013 and March 31, 2014. Data on socio-demographics, health status, screening intentions and emotional barriers to bowel screening were collected via an on-line survey...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685155/detecting-transient-emotional-responses-with-improved-self-report-measures-and-instructions
#14
Cindy Harmon-Jones, Brock Bastian, Eddie Harmon-Jones
Psychological research often yields null results on self-reported emotion as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), even when using manipulations that might intuitively be expected to be emotionally impactful. Three studies reported here support the hypothesis that changes in self-reported negative emotion may be detected more sensitively when discrete emotions are measured rather than by either PANAS NA or a measure created by combining discrete emotions, and when participants were instructed to report how they felt during an emotion-eliciting event versus how they felt afterward...
October 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660032/expectation-and-expectoration-information-manipulation-alters-spitting-volume-a-common-proxy-for-salivary-flow
#15
Cordelia A Running, John E Hayes
Saliva is becoming an increasingly useful research material across multiple fields of inquiry, including biomedical, dental, psychological, nutritional, and food choice research. However, both the flow rate and protein composition of stimulated saliva differ as a function of the collection method. We hypothesized that the context in which a stimulus is presented to participants may alter salivation via top down cognitive effects and/or behavioral changes (i.e., spitting efficiency). We presented participants with one stimulus (commercially available green tea) in two distinct contexts, once where the tea was described as a food item ("tea") and once where it was described as a disgusting non-food item ("rabbit hair extract")...
September 20, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652025/trypophobia-is-predicted-by-disgust-sensitivity-empathic-traits-and-visual-discomfort
#16
Shu Imaizumi, Manami Furuno, Haruo Hibino, Shinichi Koyama
Trypophobia refers to disgust for a cluster of objects, and is considered an extension of disgust for dangerous objects. Furthermore, trypophobic images possess certain spatial properties that can induce perceptually unpleasant states (i.e., visual discomfort). We examined whether trypophobia is associated with disgust sensitivity, empathic traits, and visual discomfort. Japanese adults (n = 126) completed four scales: the Trypophobia Questionnaire, which measures trypophobia proneness; the Disgust Scale-Revised, which measures disgust sensitivity; the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, which measures empathic traits; and the Visual Discomfort Scale, which measures proneness to visual discomfort...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615058/differential-disgust-responding-in-people-with-cancer-and-implications-for-psychological-wellbeing
#17
Haffiezhah A Azlan, Paul G Overton, Jane Simpson, Philip A Powell
OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that disgust responses, known to negatively affect psychological wellbeing, may differ in people with cancer. We performed the first quantitative investigation of three discrete types of disgust trait - disgust propensity, sensitivity and self-directed disgust - in people diagnosed with a broad range of cancers (versus cancer-free controls), and explored their associations with psychological wellbeing. DESIGN: In a cross-sectional survey design, 107 participants with heterogeneous cancer diagnoses, recruited from cancer charities and support groups, were matched with cancer-free controls by age and gender...
October 4, 2016: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614770/pictures-of-disgusting-foods-and-disgusted-facial-expressions-suppress-the-tongue-motor-cortex
#18
Carmelo M Vicario, Robert D Rafal, Sara Borgomaneri, Riccardo Paracampo, Ada Kritikos, Alessio Avenanti
The tongue holds a unique role in gustatory disgust. However, it is unclear whether the tongue representation in the motor cortex (tM1) is affected by the sight of distaste-related stimuli. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we recorded tongue motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) as an index of tM1 cortico-hypoglossal excitability. MEPs were recorded while participants viewed pictures associated with gustatory disgust and revulsion (i.e., rotten foods and faces expressing distaste), non oral-related disgusting stimuli (i...
September 10, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552192/thinking-high-but-feeling-low-an-exploratory-cluster-analysis-investigating-how-implicit-and-explicit-spider-fear-co-vary
#19
Allison J Ouimet, Nancy Bahl, Adam S Radomsky
Research has demonstrated large differences in the degree to which direct and indirect measures predict each other and variables including behavioural approach and attentional bias. We investigated whether individual differences in the co-variance of "implicit" and "explicit" spider fear exist, and whether this covariation exerts an effect on spider fear-related outcomes. One hundred and thirty-two undergraduate students completed direct and indirect measures of spider fear/avoidance, self-report questionnaires of psychopathology, an attentional bias task, and a proxy Behavioural Approach Task...
August 23, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516744/distrust-as-a-disease-avoidance-strategy-individual-differences-in-disgust-sensitivity-regulate-generalized-social-trust
#20
Lene Aarøe, Mathias Osmundsen, Michael Bang Petersen
Throughout human evolutionary history, cooperative contact with others has been fundamental for human survival. At the same time, social contact has been a source of threats. In this article, we focus on one particular viable threat, communicable disease, and investigate how motivations to avoid pathogens influence people's propensity to interact and cooperate with others, as measured by individual differences in generalized social trust. While extant studies on pathogen avoidance have argued that such motivations should prompt people to avoid interactions with outgroups specifically, we argue that these motivations should prompt people to avoid others more broadly...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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