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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124973/divergent-hypersensitivity-responses-following-topical-application-of-the-quaternary-ammonium-compound-didecyldimethylammonium-bromide
#1
Hillary L Shane, Ewa Lukomska, Aleksandr B Stefaniak, Stacey E Anderson
Didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) is a fourth generation dialkyl-quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) that is used in numerous products for its antimicrobial properties. While many QACs have been associated with allergic disease, the toxicity and sensitization of DDAB have not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the irritancy and sensitization potential of DDAB following dermal application in a murine model. DDAB induced significant irritancy (0.0625-2%), evaluated by ear swelling in female BALB/c mice...
December 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105060/cannabinoid-receptor-1-2-double-knockout-mice-develop-epilepsy
#2
Shane Rowley, Xiaofei Sun, Isabel V Lima, Alexandra Tavenier, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Sudhansu K Dey, Steve C Danzer
The endocannabinoid system has gained attention as an important modulator of activity in the central nervous system. Initial studies focused on cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), which is widely expressed in the brain, but recent work also implicates cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) in modulating neuronal activity. Both receptors are capable of reducing neuronal activity, generating interest in cannabinoid receptor agonists as potential anticonvulsants. CB1 (Cnr1) and CB2 (Cnr2) single-knockout mice have been generated, with the former showing heightened seizure sensitivity, but not overt seizures...
November 3, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080858/tailored-first-line-and-second-line-cdk4-targeting-treatment-combinations-in-mouse-models-of-pancreatic-cancer
#3
Angela Chou, Danielle Froio, Adnan M Nagrial, Ashleigh Parkin, Kendelle J Murphy, Venessa T Chin, Dalia Wohl, Angela Steinmann, Rhys Stark, Alison Drury, Stacey N Walters, Claire Vennin, Andrew Burgess, Mark Pinese, Lorraine A Chantrill, Mark J Cowley, Timothy J Molloy, Nicola Waddell, Amber Johns, Sean M Grimmond, David K Chang, Andrew V Biankin, Owen J Sansom, Jennifer P Morton, Shane T Grey, Thomas R Cox, John Turchini, Jaswinder Samra, Stephen J Clarke, Paul Timpson, Anthony J Gill, Marina Pajic
OBJECTIVE: Extensive molecular heterogeneity of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), few effective therapies and high mortality make this disease a prime model for advancing development of tailored therapies. The p16-cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6-retinoblastoma (RB) protein (CDK4) pathway, regulator of cell proliferation, is deregulated in PDA. Our aim was to develop a novel personalised treatment strategy for PDA based on targeting CDK4. DESIGN: Sensitivity to potent CDK4/6 inhibitor PD-0332991 (palbociclib) was correlated to protein and genomic data in 19 primary patient-derived PDA lines to identify biomarkers of response...
October 28, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073051/bird-specimens-track-135-years-of-atmospheric-black-carbon-and-environmental-policy
#4
Shane G DuBay, Carl C Fuldner
Atmospheric black carbon has long been recognized as a public health and environmental concern. More recently, black carbon has been identified as a major, ongoing contributor to anthropogenic climate change, thus making historical emission inventories of black carbon an essential tool for assessing past climate sensitivity and modeling future climate scenarios. Current estimates of black carbon emissions for the early industrial era have high uncertainty, however, because direct environmental sampling is sparse before the mid-1950s...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065175/comparative-analysis-of-activation-induced-marker-aim-assays-for-sensitive-identification-of-antigen-specific-cd4-t-cells
#5
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Samantha Reiss, Amy E Baxter, Kimberly M Cirelli, Jennifer M Dan, Antigoni Morou, Audrey Daigneault, Nathalie Brassard, Guido Silvestri, Jean-Pierre Routy, Colin Havenar-Daughton, Shane Crotty, Daniel E Kaufmann
The identification and study of antigen-specific CD4 T cells, both in peripheral blood and in tissues, is key for a broad range of immunological research, including vaccine responses and infectious diseases. Detection of these cells is hampered by both their rarity and their heterogeneity, in particular with regards to cytokine secretion profiles. These factors prevent the identification of the total pool of antigen-specific CD4 T cells by classical methods. We have developed assays for the highly sensitive detection of such cells by measuring the upregulation of surface activation induced markers (AIM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061171/use-of-a-bioinformatic-assisted-primer-design-strategy-to-establish-a-new-nested-pcr-based-method-for-cryptosporidium
#6
Anson V Koehler, Pasi K Korhonen, Ross S Hall, Neil D Young, Tao Wang, Shane R Haydon, Robin B Gasser
BACKGROUND: The accurate tracking of Cryptosporidium in faecal, water and/or soil samples in water catchment areas is central to developing strategies to manage the potential risk of cryptosporidiosis transmission to humans. Various PCR assays are used for this purpose. Although some assays achieve specific amplification from Cryptosporidium DNA in animal faecal samples, some do not. Indeed, we have observed non-specificity of some oligonucleotide primers in the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (SSU), which has presented an obstacle to the identification and classification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes (taxa) from faecal samples...
October 23, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042316/concurrent-repeated-exposure-to-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-and-cocaine-produce-locomotor-sensitization-with-minimal-effects-on-brain-monoamines
#7
REVIEW
Robert J Kohler, Shane A Perrine, Lisa E Baker
Synthetic cathinones, known as "bath salts" on the illicit drug market, pose a significant public health concern. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), one of several popular constituents of illicit bath salts, produces similar pharmacological actions to cocaine, albeit with greater potency and efficacy. The present study sought to characterize behavioral and neurochemical effects of repeated exposure to MDPV alone and in combination with cocaine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one the following four treatments, administered once daily for seven days: 1 mg/kg MDPV, 5 mg/kg cocaine, 1 mg/kg MDPV +5 mg/kg cocaine, or saline...
October 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978733/head-movements-quadruple-the-range-of-speeds-encoded-by-the-insect-motion-vision-system-in-hawkmoths
#8
Shane P Windsor, Graham K Taylor
Flying insects use compensatory head movements to stabilize gaze. Like other optokinetic responses, these movements can reduce image displacement, motion and misalignment, and simplify the optic flow field. Because gaze is imperfectly stabilized in insects, we hypothesized that compensatory head movements serve to extend the range of velocities of self-motion that the visual system encodes. We tested this by measuring head movements in hawkmoths Hyles lineata responding to full-field visual stimuli of differing oscillation amplitudes, oscillation frequencies and spatial frequencies...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975539/exposure-to-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-increases-the-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-affected-offspring
#9
Eileen A Curran, Gerard W O'Keeffe, Ann Marie Looney, Gerard Moloney, Shane V Hegarty, Deirdre M Murray, Ali S Khashan, Louise C Kenny
There is growing awareness that prenatal adversity may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we examined the association between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and ASD risk at 7 years of age using the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), a representative cohort of 13,192 children born in the UK from 2000 to 2001. We also sought to examine cytokine expression in the serum of women with pre-eclampsia, which is the most common HDP, and whether exposure of foetal neurons to this serum could change patterns of neuronal growth...
October 3, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821664/differential-desensitization-observed-at-multiple-effectors-of-somatic-%C3%AE-opioid-receptors-underlies-sustained-agonist-mediated-inhibition-of-proopiomelanocortin-neuron-activity
#10
Philip D Fox, Shane T Hentges
Activation of somatic μ-opioid receptors (MORs) in hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons leads to the activation of G-protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium (GIRK) channels and hyperpolarization, but in response to continued signaling MORs undergo acute desensitization resulting in robust reduction in the peak GIRK current after minutes of agonist exposure. We hypothesized that the attenuation of the GIRK current would lead to a recovery of neuronal excitability whereby desensitization of the receptor would lead to a new steady state of POMC neuron activity reflecting the sustained GIRK current observed after the initial decline from peak with continued agonist exposure...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820248/modulating-wettability-of-layered-materials-by-controlling-ligand-polar-headgroup-dynamics
#11
Terry A Villarreal, Shane R Russell, Jae Jin Bang, Justin K Patterson, Shelley A Claridge
Integrating functionalized 2D materials into multilayer device architectures increasingly requires understanding the behavior of noncovalently adsorbed ligands during solution processing. Here, we demonstrate that the headgroup dynamics of polymerized monolayers of functional alkanes can be controlled to modify surface wetting and environmental interactions. We find that headgroup dynamics are sensitive to the position of the polymerizable diyne group; thus, the polymerization process, typically used to stabilize the noncovalent monolayer, can also be used to selectively destabilize chain-chain interactions near the headgroups, making the headgroups more solvent-accessible and increasing surface hydrophilicity...
August 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794430/metallic-ferromagnetic-films-with-magnetic-damping-under-1-4%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-10-3
#12
Aidan J Lee, Jack T Brangham, Yang Cheng, Shane P White, William T Ruane, Bryan D Esser, David W McComb, P Chris Hammel, Fengyuan Yang
Low-damping magnetic materials have been widely used in microwave and spintronic applications because of their low energy loss and high sensitivity. While the Gilbert damping constant can reach 10(-4) to 10(-5) in some insulating ferromagnets, metallic ferromagnets generally have larger damping due to magnon scattering by conduction electrons. Meanwhile, low-damping metallic ferromagnets are desired for charge-based spintronic devices. Here, we report the growth of Co25Fe75 epitaxial films with excellent crystalline quality evident by the clear Laue oscillations and exceptionally narrow rocking curve in the X-ray diffraction scans as well as from scanning transmission electron microscopy...
August 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753942/quercetin-and-green-tea-extract-supplementation-downregulates-genes-related-to-tissue-inflammatory-responses-to-a-12-week-high-fat-diet-in-mice
#13
Lynn Cialdella-Kam, Sujoy Ghosh, Mary Pat Meaney, Amy M Knab, R Andrew Shanely, David C Nieman
Quercetin (Q) and green tea extract (E) are reported to counter insulin resistance and inflammation and favorably alter fat metabolism. We investigated whether a mixture of E + Q (EQ) could synergistically influence metabolic and inflammation endpoints in a high-fat diet (HFD) fed to mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (n = 40) were put on HFD (fat = 60%kcal) for 12 weeks and randomly assigned to Q (25 mg/kg of body weight (BW)/day), E (3 mg of epigallocatechin gallate/kg BW/day), EQ, or control groups for four weeks. At 16 weeks, insulin sensitivity was measured via the glucose tolerance test (GTT), followed by area-under-the-curve (AUC) estimations...
July 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750215/binge-pattern-cocaine-administration-causes-long-lasting-behavioral-hyperarousal-but-does-not-enhance-vulnerability-to-single-prolonged-stress-in-rats
#14
Michael J Lisieski, Shane A Perrine
Cocaine use disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occur. This could be due to vulnerability to post-traumatic symptoms conferred by previous exposure to cocaine. Therefore, we combined chronic binge-pattern cocaine with a model of psychological trauma (single prolonged stress) to determine whether the behavioral effects of psychological trauma are enhanced in cocaine-sensitized individuals. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats received 14 days of cocaine (15mg/kg/injection) or saline in a binge pattern (3 injections per day, 1h apart)...
July 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747531/remarkable-size-spectra-stability-in-a-marine-system-undergoing-massive-invasion
#15
Yehezkel Buba, Itai van Rijn, Shane A Blowes, Oren Sonin, Dor Edelist, John P DeLong, Jonathan Belmaker
The Mediterranean Sea is an invasion hotspot, with non-indigenous species suspected to be a major driver behind community changes. We used size spectra, a reliable index of food web structure, to examine how the influx of Red Sea fishes into the Mediterranean Sea has impacted the indigenous species community. This is the first attempt to use changes in the size spectra to reveal the effect of biological invasions. We used data from trawl catches along Israel's shoreline spanning 20 years to estimate changes in the community size spectra of both indigenous and non-indigenous species...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726405/fluorescence-enhancement-of-unconstrained-gfp-chromophore-analogues-based-on-the-push-pull-substituent-effect
#16
Meng-Shiue Tsai, Chun-Lin Ou, Chi-Jui Tsai, Yen-Chin Huang, Yuan-Chung Cheng, Shih-Sheng Sun, Jye-Shane Yang
Unlike the high fluorescence quantum yield of the naturally occurring green fluorescence protein (GFP, Φf ∼ 0.8), the GFP chromophore, a benzylidenedimethylimidazolinone (BDI) dye, is nearly nonfluorescent (Φf < 0.001) in common solutions at room temperature. While many efforts have been devoted into the BDI chromophore engineering for fluorescence recovery, limited success has been achieved for structurally unconstrained GFP chromophore analogues (uGFPc). Herein we report a rational design of uGFPc toward an unprecedentedly high fluorescence quantum efficiency of 0...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724491/comparison-of-antemortem-and-environmental-samples-for-zebrafish-health-monitoring-and-quarantine
#17
Marcus J Crim, Christian Lawrence, Robert S Livingston, Andrei Rakitin, Shane J Hurley, Lela K Riley
Molecular diagnostic assays offer both exquisite sensitivity and the ability to test a wide variety of sample types. Various types of environmental sample, such as detritus and concentrated water, might provide a useful adjunct to sentinels in routine zebrafish health monitoring. Similarly, antemortem sampling would be advantageous for expediting zebrafish quarantine, without euthanasia of valuable fish. We evaluated the detection of Mycobacterium chelonae, M. fortuitum, M. peregrinum, Pseudocapillaria tomentosa, and Pseudoloma neurophilia in zebrafish, detritus, pooled feces, and filter membranes after filtration of 1000-, 500-, and 150-mL water samples by real-time PCR analysis...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701701/systematic-discovery-of-genetic-modulation-by-jumonji-histone-demethylases-in-drosophila
#18
Nevine A Shalaby, Raheel Sayed, Qiao Zhang, Shane Scoggin, Susan Eliazer, Adrian Rothenfluh, Michael Buszczak
Jumonji (JmjC) domain proteins influence gene expression and chromatin organization by way of histone demethylation, which provides a means to regulate the activity of genes across the genome. JmjC proteins have been associated with many human diseases including various cancers, developmental and neurological disorders, however, the shared biology and possible common contribution to organismal development and tissue homeostasis of all JmjC proteins remains unclear. Here, we systematically tested the function of all 13 Drosophila JmjC genes...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692867/sulfate-transport-kinetics-and-toxicity-are-modulated-by-sodium-in-aquatic-insects
#19
Shane Scheibener, Justin M Conley, David Buchwalter
The salinization of freshwater ecosystems is emerging as a major ecological issue. Several anthropogenic causes of salinization (e.g. surface coal mining, hydro-fracking, road de-icing, irrigation of arid lands, etc.) are associated with biodiversity losses in freshwater ecosystems. Because insects tend to dominate freshwater ecology, it is important that we develop a better understanding of how and why different species respond to salinity matrices dominated by different major ions. This study builds upon previous work demonstrating that major ion toxicity to the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer was apparently due to the ionic composition of water rather than specific conductance...
September 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660473/assessing-the-value-of-biosimilars-a-review-of-the-role-of-budget-impact-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Steven Simoens, Ira Jacobs, Robert Popovian, Leah Isakov, Lesley G Shane
Biosimilar drugs are highly similar to an originator (reference) biologic, with no clinically meaningful differences in terms of safety or efficacy. As biosimilars offer the potential for lower acquisition costs versus the originator biologic, evaluating the economic implications of the introduction of biosimilars is of interest. Budget impact analysis (BIA) is a commonly used methodology. This review of published BIAs of biosimilar fusion proteins and/or monoclonal antibodies identified 12 unique publications (three full papers and nine congress posters)...
October 2017: PharmacoEconomics
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