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Rifaximin And hepatic encephalopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518283/branched-chain-amino-acids-for-people-with-hepatic-encephalopathy
#1
REVIEW
Lise Lotte Gluud, Gitte Dam, Iñigo Les, Giulio Marchesini, Mette Borre, Niels Kristian Aagaard, Hendrik Vilstrup
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy is a brain dysfunction with neurological and psychiatric changes associated with liver insufficiency or portal-systemic shunting. The severity ranges from minor symptoms to coma. A Cochrane systematic review including 11 randomised clinical trials on branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) versus control interventions has evaluated if BCAA may benefit people with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of BCAA versus any control intervention for people with hepatic encephalopathy...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501926/an-outbreak-of-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotype-027-in-spain-risk-factors-for-recurrence-and-a-novel-treatment-strategy
#2
E Bouza, L Alcalá, M Marín, M Valerio, E Reigadas, P Muñoz, M González-Del Vecchio, V de Egea
An outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) caused by ribotype 027 (B1/NAP1) began in our hospital in November 2014, and produced 141 episodes in the following months. The aim of this study is to describe this outbreak, assess risk factors for recurrence of CDI-027 and to analyze the implementation of a novel treatment strategy. This is a prospective study of all patients with CDI-027, from November 2014 to November 2015. The epidemiological data were collected daily for each patient. We compared clinical characteristics and treatment between patients with and without recurrence of CDI-027...
May 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500320/oral-administration-of-trace-element-magnesium-significantly-improving-the-cognition-and-locomotion-in-hepatic-encephalopathy-rats
#3
Ying Li, Chang Xue Ji, Li Hong Mei, Jin Wei Qiang, Shuai Ju
The therapeutic effects of iron, zinc and magnesium trace elements, as well as rifaximin were investigated and compared in HE rats. In this study, HE rats were treated with either ferrous sulfate (HE-Fe, 30 mg/kg/day), zinc sulfate (HE-Zn, 30 mg/kg/day), magnesium sulfate (HE-Mg, 50 mg/kg/day) or rifaximin (HE-Rf, 50 mg/kg/day), which was mixed with water and administered orally for 61 days. The Morris water maze (MWM) and open-field tests were used to evaluate cognitive and locomotor function. The blood ammonia levels before and after administration of the glutamine challenge test, manganese concentration and glutamine synthetase (GS) activity were measured...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491179/transhepatic-embolization-of-a-congenital-intrahepatic-portosystemic-shunt-for-the-treatment-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-a-noncirrhotic-patient-using-amplatzer-vascular-plug-device
#4
Rachel Ann Brader, Kyung Rae Kim
A 73-year-old male with no history of liver disease was hospitalized for weakness, confusion, ataxia, and new onset hepatic encephalopathy with hyperammonemia. After management with lactulose and rifaximin, his symptoms persisted, and he underwent transjugular liver biopsy. Biopsy showed normal liver, but a portosystemic shunt was incidentally identified on postbiopsy venogram. The patient underwent occlusion of the shunt with two Amplatzer vascular plugs and four Nester coils. Following embolization, the patient's symptoms resolved completely...
June 2017: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471831/response-to-improvement-of-sleep-architecture-parameters-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-recurrent-hepatic-encephalopathy-with-the-use-of-rifaximin-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-association-with-zolpidem
#5
Ofir N Nevo, Allen D Brinker, Ida-Lina Diak, Cindy M Kortepeter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392702/hepatic-encephalopathy-what-the-multidisciplinary-team-can-do
#6
REVIEW
Andy Liu, Eric R Yoo, Osama Siddique, Ryan B Perumpail, George Cholankeril, Aijaz Ahmed
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complex disease requiring a multidisciplinary approach among specialists, primary care team, family, and caregivers. HE is currently a diagnosis of exclusion, requiring an extensive workup to exclude other possible etiologies, including mental status changes, metabolic, infectious, traumatic, and iatrogenic causes. The categorization of HE encompasses a continuum, varying from the clinically silent minimal HE (MHE), which is only detectable using psychometric tests, to overt HE, which is further divided into four grades of severity...
2017: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177545/retrospective-cross-sectional-pilot-study-of-rifaximin-dosing-for-the-prevention-of-recurrent-hepatic-encephalopathy
#7
REVIEW
Kelsey C Lyon, Eric Likar, Jay L Martello, Michael Regier
Standard treatment for hepatic encephalopathy (HE) includes medications that reduce ammonia and bacterial translocation in the gut. Rifaximin can be used off-label for the reduction of overt HE. The study purpose was to determine efficacy of traditional rifaximin dosing (400 mg three times daily) compared to newer dosing (550 mg twice daily) via readmission rates for the prevention of recurrent HE. This was a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional pilot study conducted in a tertiary medical center...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059938/the-effects-of-probiotics-and-symbiotics-on-risk-factors-for-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-systematic-review
#8
Daniela Viramontes Hörner, Amanda Avery, Ruth Stow
Alterations in the levels of intestinal microbiota, endotoxemia, and inflammation are novel areas of interest in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Probiotics and symbiotics are a promising treatment option for HE due to possible beneficial effects in modulating gut microflora and might be better tolerated and more cost-effective than the traditional treatment with lactulose, rifaximin or L-ornithine-L-aspartate. A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library was conducted for randomized controlled clinical trials in adult patients with cirrhosis, evaluating the effect of probiotics and symbiotics in changes on intestinal microflora, reduction of endotoxemia, inflammation, and ammonia, reversal of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), prevention of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE), and improvement of quality of life...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051800/%C3%A2-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-cirrhosis-how-long-to-treat
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Omesh Goyal, Sandeep S Sidhu, Harsh Kishore
INTRODUCTION: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) can reverse after short-term treatment. However, relapse rate of MHE after stopping treatment has not been studied so far. We aimed to evaluate long-term (9 months) efficacy of a short-term (3 months) treatment of MHE with lactulose/rifaximin, for maintenance of remission from MHE. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective study, consecutive patients with cirrhosis and MHE were treated with lactulose/rifaximin for 3 months...
January 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977438/improvement-of-sleep-architecture-parameters-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-recurrent-hepatic-encephalopathy-with-the-use-of-rifaximin
#10
Marie Bruyneel, Thomas Sersté, Walter Libert, Sandra van den Broecke, Lieveke Ameye, Bernard Dachy, Jean-Pierre Mulkay, Christophe Moreno, Thierry Gustot
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sleep disorders are frequently reported in patients with cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This study assessed the effect of rifaximin on sleep architecture parameters in patients with recurrent HE. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This sequential, prospective, and exploratory study involved all patients with cirrhosis and recurrent HE admitted between June 2014 and September 2015. HE was assessed according to the West-Haven Classification. Patients underwent 24-h polysomnography (PSG) and 7-day actigraphy...
March 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27971326/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-rifaximin-%C3%A3-administration-for-the-reduction-of-the-overt-hepatic-encephalopathy-episodes-in-recurrence-in-france
#11
A Kabeshova, R Launois
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27971313/the-impact-of-rifaximin-a-on-non-elective-hospital-admission-and-attendance-costs-in-uk-patients-with-hepatic-encephalopathy
#12
M Hudson, J T Whitehouse, P Di Maggio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721918/implication-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-in-complications-of-cirrhosis
#13
REVIEW
Mamatha Bhat, Bianca M Arendt, Venkat Bhat, Eberhard L Renner, Atul Humar, Johane P Allard
The intestinal microbiome (IM) is altered in patients with cirrhosis, and emerging literature suggests that this impacts on the development of complications. The PubMed database was searched from January 2000 to May 2015 for studies and review articles on the composition, pathophysiologic effects and therapeutic modulation of the IM in cirrhosis. The following combination of relevant text words and MeSH terms were used, namely intestinal microbiome, microbiota, or dysbiosis, and cirrhosis, encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, variceal bleeding, hepatopulmonary syndrome, portopulmonary hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711069/rifaximin-microbiota-biology-and-hepatic-encephalopathy
#14
EDITORIAL
Cedric Peleman, Michael Camilleri
Rifaximin is beneficial in the treatment of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Kang et al. (Clin Transl Gastroenterol 7: e187; doi:10.1038/ctg.2016.44) investigated the effects of rifaximin in a mouse model of MHE-associated microbiota without concomitant liver disease. In addition to some impact on the composition of microbiota, rifaximin altered bacterial functions, ameliorated local and systemic inflammation, and reduced enterocyte glutaminase activity. We discuss these effects as well as the interpretation of the permeability studies, given the potential interaction of dysbiosis with dysfunctional intestinal barrier, leading to systemic inflammation and increased uptake of bacterial metabolites that contribute to MHE in the presence of hepatic dysfunction...
October 6, 2016: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645714/comment-on-treatment-of-acute-hepatic-encephalopathy-comparing-the-effects-of-adding-rifaximin-to-lactulose-on-patient-outcomes
#15
EDITORIAL
Sarah E Petite
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571468/-hepatic-encephalopathy
#16
Davide Festi, Giovanni Marasco, Federico Ravaioli, Antonio Colecchia
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common complication of liver cirrhosis and it can manifest with a broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities of varying severity, acuity and time course with important clinical implications. According to recent guidelines, HE has been classified into different types, depending on the severity of hepatic dysfunction, the presence of porto-systemic shunts and the number of previous episodes or persistent manifestations. From a clinical point of view, HE can be recognized as unimpaired, covert (that deals with minimal and grade 1 according to the grading of mental state), and overt (that is categorized from grade 2 to grade 4)...
July 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560928/rifaximin-exerts-beneficial-effects-independent-of-its-ability-to-alter-microbiota-composition
#17
Dae J Kang, Genta Kakiyama, Naga S Betrapally, Jeremy Herzog, Hiroshi Nittono, Phillip B Hylemon, Huiping Zhou, Ian Carroll, Jing Yang, Patrick M Gillevet, Chunhua Jiao, Hajime Takei, William M Pandak, Takashi Iida, Douglas M Heuman, Sili Fan, Oliver Fiehn, Takao Kurosawa, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, R B Sartor, Jasmohan S Bajaj
OBJECTIVES: Rifaximin has clinical benefits in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) but the mechanism of action is unclear. The antibiotic-dependent and -independent effects of rifaximin need to be elucidated in the setting of MHE-associated microbiota. To assess the action of rifaximin on intestinal barrier, inflammatory milieu and ammonia generation independent of microbiota using rifaximin. METHODS: Four germ-free (GF) mice groups were used (1) GF, (2) GF+rifaximin, (3) Humanized with stools from an MHE patient, and (4) Humanized+rifaximin...
August 25, 2016: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547007/use-of-rifaximin-in-gastrointestinal-and-liver-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Rani H Shayto, Rachel Abou Mrad, Ala I Sharara
Rifaximin is a broad spectrum oral antibiotic with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. It is poorly absorbed and thus has a highly favorable safety profile. Rifaximin has been shown to be effective in the treatment of traveler's diarrhea, functional bloating and irritable bowel syndrome, small bowel bacterial overgrowth and in the prevention of recurrent overt hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, there is emerging evidence for a possible beneficial effect of rifaximin in the treatment of uncomplicated diverticular disease and in the prevention of recurrent diverticulitis...
August 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507251/rifaximin-for-the-prevention-of-readmissions-for-patients-with-hepatic-encephalopathy-the-price-is-right
#19
EDITORIAL
Elliot B Tapper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457247/epilepsy-as-a-risk-factor-for-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-a-cohort-study
#20
Peter Jepsen, Jakob Christensen, Karin Weissenborn, Hugh Watson, Hendrik Vilstrup
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is associated with an increased mortality among cirrhosis patients, but the reasons are unknown. We aimed to determine whether epilepsy is a risk factor for developing hepatic encephalopathy (HE), which is a strong predictor of mortality. METHODS: We used data from three randomized 1-year trials of satavaptan in cirrhosis patients with ascites. With Cox regression, we compared the hazard rates of HE grade 1-4 between those cirrhosis patients who did or did not have epilepsy...
July 26, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
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