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S H Ahn, D H Seo, S H Kim, M-S Nam, S Hong
Analyses using a nationally representative cohort have revealed that high fatty liver index (FLI) is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) regardless of insulin resistance in men, thereby supporting the deteriorated bone metabolism in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). INTRODUCTION: NAFLD is linked to deteriorated bone health. We investigated the association of FLI, a scoring model for NAFLD, with BMD. METHODS: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys including 4264 Koreans (1908 men and 2356 women)...
October 19, 2017: Osteoporosis International
X Callies, C Véchambre, C Fonteneau, F Herbst, J-M Chenal, S Pensec, L Chazeau, W H Binder, L Bouteiller, C Creton
We investigate the nanostructure, the rheology and the adhesion of soft supramolecular materials elaborated by blending monofunctional and multifunctional poly(isobutene) (PIB) chains. Monofunctional PIB chains (PIBUT) are linear and unentangled polymer chains (Mn ≈ 3 kg mol(-1)) functionalized in the middle by a bis-urea interacting moiety, able to self-associate by four hydrogen bonds. Covalent coupling of monofunctional PIB allows us to synthesize longer chains bearing two or three interacting moieties...
October 20, 2017: Soft Matter
Lorraine A Cafuir, Christine L Kempton
Hemophilia A is a congenital X-linked bleeding disorder caused by coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency. Routine infusion of factor replacement products is the current standard of care; however, the development of alloantibodies against FVIII remains a challenge. The treatment of hemophilia has undergone major advances over the past century to improve safety, effectiveness, manufacturing, and convenience of factor products. Major recent advances in the treatment of hemophilia A include the emergence of extended half-life products, factor VIII orthologs, and gene therapy products...
October 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
Tomy J Gutiérrez, Vera A Alvarez
Plantain flour (Musa ssp., group AAB, sub-group clone Harton)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) blends, containing glycerol as a plasticizer, were prepared by reactive extrusion (REx) in a twin-screw extruder using zirconium octanoate (Zr(Oct)4) as a catalyst, followed by thermo-compression molding for film development. The films were then characterized in terms of their: infrared (FTIR) spectra, water solubility, thermogravimetric (TGA) curves, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms, and X-ray diffraction (XDR) diffractograms, as well as their microstructural, mechanical and antimicrobial properties in order to (1) compare the effects of PCLs with two different molecular weights (Mw) on the characteristics of the plantain flour/PCL blends, and (2) determine whether using Zr(Oct)4 in the production of active composite polymer materials improves their properties...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Takahiro Tsuru, Kazuki Sugimura, Yoshiyuki Nishio
Iron oxide nanoparticles-incorporated carrageenan (CAR)/PHEMA composites of interpenetrating network (IPN) type were successfully prepared by in situ ferrite synthesis in the polymer network. The IPN structure was constructed at CAR/PHEMA compositions of 15/85 and 40/60 (wt/wt) by polymerization and cross-linking of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate as an impregnating solvent of CAR gels. As a result of this IPN construction, the composites were firm and showed a good shape-retentivity in their gelatinous state. SQUID magnetometry and X-ray diffractometry were conducted for evaluation of the magnetic property of the inorganic-hybridized IPN composites...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Rory Wilson, Simone Wahl, Liliane Pfeiffer, Cavin K Ward-Caviness, Sonja Kunze, Anja Kretschmer, Eva Reischl, Annette Peters, Christian Gieger, Melanie Waldenberger
BACKGROUND: The evidence for epigenome-wide associations between smoking and DNA methylation continues to grow through cross-sectional studies. However, few large-scale investigations have explored the associations using observations for individuals at multiple time-points. Here, through the use of the Illumina 450K BeadChip and data collected at two time-points separated by approximately 7 years, we investigate changes in methylation over time associated with quitting smoking or remaining a former smoker, and those associated with continued smoking...
October 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
Andy J Turko, Dietmar Kültz, Douglas Fudge, Roger P Croll, Frank M Smith, Matthew R Stoyek, Patricia A Wright
Terrestrial animals must support their bodies against gravity, while aquatic animals are effectively weightless because of buoyant support from water. Given this evolutionary history of minimal gravitational loading of fishes in water, it has been hypothesized that weight-responsive musculoskeletal systems evolved during the tetrapod invasion of land and are thus absent in fishes. Amphibious fishes, however, experience increased effective weight when out of water - are these fishes responsive to gravitational loading? Contrary to the tetrapod-origin hypothesis, we found that terrestrial acclimation reversibly increased gill arch stiffness (∼60% increase) in the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus when loaded normally by gravity, but not under simulated microgravity...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Wilson X Mai, Laura Gosa, Veerle W Daniels, Lisa Ta, Jonathan E Tsang, Brian Higgins, W Blake Gilmore, Nicholas A Bayley, Mitra Dehghan Harati, Jason T Lee, William H Yong, Harley I Kornblum, Steven J Bensinger, Paul S Mischel, P Nagesh Rao, Peter M Clark, Timothy F Cloughesy, Anthony Letai, David A Nathanson
Cross-talk among oncogenic signaling and metabolic pathways may create opportunities for new therapeutic strategies in cancer. Here we show that although acute inhibition of EGFR-driven glucose metabolism induces only minimal cell death, it lowers the apoptotic threshold in a subset of patient-derived glioblastoma (GBM) cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that after attenuated glucose consumption, Bcl-xL blocks cytoplasmic p53 from triggering intrinsic apoptosis. Consequently, targeting of EGFR-driven glucose metabolism in combination with pharmacological stabilization of p53 with the brain-penetrant small molecule idasanutlin resulted in synthetic lethality in orthotopic glioblastoma xenograft models...
October 9, 2017: Nature Medicine
D Shen, X Zhang, Z Li, H Bai, L Chen
AIM: There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women. Thus, we systematically reviewed the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids by conducting a meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Scopus were searched in December 2016. The standardized mean difference (SMD) or weighted mean difference (WMD) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a fixed-effects model...
October 16, 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
Xinlong Wang, Yuheng Liang, Siyang Fei, Haibing He, Yu Zhang, Tian Yin, Xing Tang
Gemcitabine-loaded core-shell nanoparticles (CSNPs), comprised of a cross-linked HSA-core and PLGA-shell, were prepared through a modified double emulsification method, and the processing parameters were systematically investigated. The optimized CSNPs had a particle size of 241 ± 36.2 nm and an encapsulation efficiency of 41.52%. The core-shell structure was characterized by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The amorphous nature of the encapsulated drug was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)...
October 10, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
Ulisses M F de Oliveira, Leonardo J B Lima de Matos, Maria Cristiane M de Souza, Bruna B Pinheiro, José C S Dos Santos, Luciana R B Gonçalves
Lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (RML) was immobilized onto chitosan support in the presence of some surfactants added at low levels using two different strategies. In the first approach, the enzyme was immobilized in the presence of surfactants on chitosan supports previously functionalized with glutaraldehyde. In the second one, after prior enzyme adsorption on chitosan beads in the presence of surfactants, the complex chitosan beads-enzyme was then cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. The effects of surfactant concentrations on the activities of free and immobilized RML were evaluated...
October 10, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Ran Tao, Chengzhang Wang, Changwei Zhang, WenJun Li, Hao Zhou, Hongxia Chen, Jianzhong Ye
The structure and bioactivity of Ginkgo biloba leaves polyprenol (GBP) are similar to that of dolichol which widely exists in human and mammalian organs. GBP possesses potential pharmacological activities against cancer. This study involved oil-in-water type nanoemulsion (NE) loading GBP was prepared by dissolving polyprenol in nanoemulsion of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP)/TiO2 solution, Triton X-100, and 1-octanol by inversed-phase emulsification (EIP) and ultrasonic emulsification (UE) method. Folic acid (FA)-coupled chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (NPs), GBP-FA-CS-NPs and GBP-TiO2-FA-CS-NPs, were fabricated by ionic cross-linking of positively charged FA-CS conjugates and negatively charged nanoemulsion with TPP/TiO2...
October 9, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
Kunkun Zhu, Jiangjiang Duan, Jinhua Guo, Shuangquan Wu, Ang Lu, Lina Zhang
Chitosan has biocompatibility and biodegradability, however the practical use of the bulk chitosan materials is hampered by its poor strength, which can not satisfy the mechanical property requirement of organs. Thus, the construction of highly strong chitosan-based materials has attracted much attention. Herein, the high strength nanofibrous hydrogels and films (CS-E) were fabricated from the chitosan solution in LiOH/KOH/urea aqueous system via a mild regenerating process. Under the mild condition (ethanol at low temperature) without the severe fluctuation in the system, the alkaline-urea shell around the chitosan chains was destroyed, and the naked chitosan molecules had sufficient time for the orderly arrangement in parallel manner to form relatively perfect nanofibers...
October 9, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Erik Nilsson, Yang Cao, Bengt Lindholm, Ayane Ohyama, Juan Jesus Carrero, Abdul Rashid Qureshi, Peter Stenvinkel
Background: High pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) levels are linked to atherosclerosis and associate with increased mortality in prevalent dialysis patients. We investigated associations of PAPP-A, measured at dialysis initiation, with cardiovascular disease (CVD), CVD risk factors and mortality in incident dialysis patients, and explored if body composition and inflammation modulated these associations. Methods: Baseline plasma PAPP-A levels, inflammation biomarkers and body composition, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, were measured in 286 incident dialysis patients...
July 24, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Soheir Abo Elella, Mahaa Tawfik, Naglaa Barseem, Wafaa Moustafa
BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked disorder which causes neonatal jaundice in most cases, and under certain conditions, can cause a spectrum of hemolytic manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To determine the local prevalence of G6PD deficiency in newborns. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: University hospital. METHODS: Infants born during 2015 were prospectively screened for G6PD deficiency...
September 2017: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Kesavan Mookkandi Palsamy, Ayyanaar Srinivasan, Lenin Nayagam, Sankarganesh Murugesan, Dhaveethu Raja Jeyaraj, Rajesh Jegathalaprathaban
Facile one-pot synthesis has been demonstrated for new biocompatible and dual responsive magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blended natural polymer chitosan (CS) based hydrogel beads (mCS-PVA) as a controlled natural anticancer alkaloid Luotonin A (LuA) delivery system. The prepared magnetic hydrogel beads were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement, Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM)...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Bobo Dang, Haifan Wu, Vikram Khipple Mulligan, Marco Mravic, Yibing Wu, Thomas Lemmin, Alexander Ford, Daniel-Adriano Silva, David Baker, William F DeGrado
The folding of natural proteins typically relies on hydrophobic packing, metal binding, or disulfide bond formation in the protein core. Alternatively, a 3D structure can be defined by incorporating a multivalent cross-linking agent, and this approach has been successfully developed for the selection of bicyclic peptides from large random-sequence libraries. By contrast, there is no general method for the de novo computational design of multicross-linked proteins with predictable and well-defined folds, including ones not found in nature...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mahdi Hashemi, Zahra Nazari, Nooshin Noshirvani
A novel chitosan molecularly imprinted polymers (CHI/MIPs) coated on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for selective solid phase extraction (SPE) of histamine (His) was synthesized by cross-linking of CHI with (3-Glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) in the presence of His as the template molecule, and GPTMS/MNPS. Synthesized sorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and via adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms. The application of this sorbent was investigated in preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of His by charge transfer complexation...
December 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Sharif Kaamyabi, Abed Badrian, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh
BACKGROUND: Application of magnetic nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has attracted great attention in the cancer therapy, interests in the pH and thermo-sensitive polymers have been increased exponentially in biomedicine. OBJECTIVE: (N-isopropylacrylamide)-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymer was coated on the surface of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles and utilized as a pH and temperature responsive nanocarrier for encapsulation and delivery of doxorubicin, as an anti-cancer drug...
2017: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
Parveen Kumar, Lubna Wasim, Madhu Chopra, Aruna Chhikara
Treatment regimens for cancer patients using single chemotherapeutic agents often lead to undesirable toxicity, drug resistance, reduced uptake etc. Combination of two or more drugs is therefore becoming an imperative strategy to overcome these limitations. A step forward can be taken through delivery of the drugs used in combination via nanoparticles. Co-administration of chemotherapeutic drugs encapsulated in nanoparticles has been shown to result in synergistic effects and enhanced therapeutic efficacy. In present study, we explored the combination treatment of histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat (VOR) and topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide (ETOP)...
September 25, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
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