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cross x linked

Sylvie Y Doerflinger, Julia Tabatabai, Paul Schnitzler, Carlo Farah, Steffen Rameil, Peter Sander, Anna Koromyslova, Grant S Hansman
Human noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. These viruses are usually detected by molecular methods, including reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Human noroviruses are genetically and antigenically diverse, with two main genogroups that are further subdivided into over 40 different genotypes. During the past decade, genogroup 2 genotype 4 (GII.4) has dominated in most countries, but recently, viruses belonging to GII.17 have increased in prevalence in a number of countries...
September 2016: MSphere
Andras Herner, Jasmina Marjanovic, Tracey Lewandowski, Violeta L Marin, Melanie J Patterson, Laura Miesbauer, Damien Ready, Jon Williams, Anil Vasudevan, Qing Lin
Photoaffinity labels are powerful tools for dissecting ligand-protein interactions, and have a broad utility in medicinal chemistry and drug discovery. Traditional photoaffinity labels work through non-specific C-H/X-H bond insertion reactions with the protein of interest by the highly reactive photo-generated intermediate. Herein, we report a new photo-affinity label, 2-aryl-5-carboxytetrazole (ACT) that interacts with the target protein via a unique mechanism in which the photo-generated carboxynitrile imine reacts with a proximal nucleophile near the target active site...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
S Farmer, V V Shanbhogue, S Hansen, C I Stahlberg, H Vestergaard, A P Hermann, H Frederiksen
: In this cross-sectional study of 45 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms, we found no evidence of secondary osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: Patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythaemia vera (PV) are at increased risk of fractures but the underlying mechanisms have not been settled. We conducted a study to assess bone mineral density, microarchitecture, estimated bone strength and global bone turnover in 45 patients with ET or PV. METHODS: Patients were evaluated in a cross-sectional study with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the hip and spine; high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) at the distal radius and distal tibia; and biochemical markers of bone turnover including pro-collagen type 1 N-terminal pro-peptide, osteocalcin, C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase...
October 13, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Nasrul Wathoni, Keiichi Motoyama, Taishi Higashi, Maiko Okajima, Tatsuo Kaneko, Hidetoshi Arima
A wound dressing is one of the essential approaches for preventing further harm to cutaneous wounds as well as promoting wound healing. Therefore, to achieve ideal wound healing, the development of advanced dressing materials is necessary. Recently, we revealed that a novel megamolecular polysaccharide, sacran, has potential properties as a biomaterial in a physically cross-linked hydrogel film (HGF) for wound dressing application. In this study, to enhance the wound-healing properties of sacran hydrogel film (Sac-HGF) further, we fabricated and characterized novel Sac-HGFs containing cyclodextrins (CyDs)...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mingyue Liu, Libing Wang, Renliang Huang, Yanjun Yu, Rongxin Su, Wei Qi, Zhimin He
Bionanomaterials synthesized by bio-inspired templating methods have emerged as a novel class of composite materials with varied applications in catalysis, detection, drug delivery, and biomedicine. In this study, two kinds of cross-linked lysozyme crystals (CLLCs) of different sizes were applied for the in situ growth of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). The resulting composite materials were characterized by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...
October 8, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Michelle Heirbaut, Frederik Lermyte, Esther M Martin, Steven Beelen, Tim Verschueren, Frank Sobott, Sergei V Strelkov, Stephen D Weeks
Small heat shock proteins are ATP-independent molecular chaperones. Their function is to bind partially unfolded proteins under stress conditions. In vivo, members of this chaperone family are known to preferentially assemble together forming large, polydisperse heterooligomers. The exact molecular mechanisms that drive specific heteroassociation are currently unknown. Here we study the oligomers formed between human HSPB1 and HSPB6. Using small-angle X-ray scattering we could characterize two distinct heterooligomeric species present in solution...
October 4, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Tugba Ozdemir, Jose Luis Bila, Fazli Sozmen, Leyla T Yildirim, Engin U Akkaya
Orthogonally linked BODIPY units show exceptional intersystem crossing efficiencies. We now report orthogonal BODIPY trimers with strong absorption in the visible region and high singlet oxygen generation capability. The X-ray diffraction structure confirms that the two peripheral BODIPY units are at a perpendicular angle to the core structure.
October 7, 2016: Organic Letters
Z Yang, X Li, N Zhang, Y N Zhang, H W Jiang, J Gao, B K Kuai, Y L Ding, X Q Huang
Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important food crops throughout the world, and provides oil and proteins to humans and livestock. Kernel oil and protein content in maize are two complex quantitative traits. In order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling oil and protein concentration in maize kernels, and to evaluate their genetic effects, QTL analysis was conducted on an F3:4 population derived from a cross between an inbred line with a low oil and protein concentration (Zheng58) and an inbred line with a higher oil and protein concentration (B73)...
September 30, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
D A Souza, M Balestre, A K A Pamplona, M E Leite, J A Dias, J B Santos
We aimed to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with white mold resistance in a segregating population derived from a cross between common bean cultivars Jalo and Small White, in the Southern State of Minas Gerais. Parents were crossed to obtain the F2 generation of 190 plants. From these, F2:3 and F2:4 progenies were obtained for phenotypic evaluation. DNA was extracted from F2 plants and parents for genotyping with SSR primers. For phenotypic assessment by the straw test, we used 190 F2:3 progenies and six lines in a triple-lattice design of 14 x 14 m...
August 26, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Er-Kai Yan, Qin-Qin Lu, Chen-Yan Zhang, Ya-Li Liu, Jin He, Da Chen, Bo Wang, Ren-Bin Zhou, Ping Wu, Da-Chuan Yin
Cross-linked protein crystals (CLPCs) are very useful materials in applications such as biosensors, catalysis, and X-ray crystallography. Hence, preparation of CLPCs is an important research direction. During the preparation of CLPCs, an often encountered problem is that cracks may appear in the crystals, which may finally lead to shattering of the crystals into small pieces and cause problem in practical applications. To avoid cross-link induced cracking, it is necessary to study the cracking phenomenon in the preparation process...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yasuyuki Maki, Kazuya Furusawa, Toshiaki Dobashi, Yasunobu Sugimoto, Katsuzo Wakabayashi
Curdlan, a microbial polysaccharide, forms a multi-layered gel consisting of four layers with different turbidity when its alkaline solution is dialyzed against aqueous solutions containing Ca(2+) (diffusion-set gel). The present study clarified the microstructure of each layer of the diffusion-set Curdlan gel by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small-angle light scattering (SALS). The SAXS data showed that Curdlan chains assume a helical ordered conformation in the gel and that the gel consists of the fibrils formed by the association of Curdlan chains and the aggregates of fibrils...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xiaoyan Tang, Miao Hong, Laura Falivene, Lucia Caporaso, Luigi Cavallo, Eugene Y-X Chen
α-Methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MBL), a naturally occurring and biomass-sourced bifunctional monomer, contains both a highly reactive exocyclic C=C bond and a highly stable five-membered γ-butyrolactone ring. Thus, all previous work led to exclusive vinyl-addition polymerization (VAP) product P(MBL)VAP. Now, this work reverses this conventional chemoselectivity to enable the first ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of MBL, thereby producing exclusively unsaturated polyester P(MBL)ROP with Mn up to 21.0 kg/mol...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Sandra Motas, Virginia Haurigot, Miguel Garcia, Sara Marcó, Albert Ribera, Carles Roca, Xavier Sánchez, Víctor Sánchez, Maria Molas, Joan Bertolin, Luca Maggioni, Xavier León, Jesús Ruberte, Fatima Bosch
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPSII) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease characterized by severe neurologic and somatic disease caused by deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS), an enzyme that catabolizes the glycosaminoglycans heparan and dermatan sulphate. Intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) currently constitutes the only approved therapeutic option for MPSII. However, the inability of recombinant IDS to efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits ERT efficacy in treating neurological symptoms...
June 16, 2016: JCI Insight
Hao Zhang, Lingxia Xie, Jinchuan Deng, Weihua Zhuang, Rifang Luo, Jin Wang, Nan Huang, Yunbing Wang
In this study, the polydopamine (PDA) film was coated on polished 316Lss and then thermally treated at 150 °C (labeled as PDA-Th150), and the stability of coatings was also investigated. Straining test indicated that PDA-Th150 coating performed better in affording sufficient adherence to 316 L SS substrate. Moreover, both PDA and PDA-Th150 coating suffered slight swelling during immersion in deionized water (pH = 6.5). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that during immersion, latent nucleophilic reaction via amines inside PDA coating occurred...
October 2016: Regenerative Biomaterials
Vijay Ramani, Darren A Cusanovich, Ronald J Hause, Wenxiu Ma, Ruolan Qiu, Xinxian Deng, C Anthony Blau, Christine M Disteche, William S Noble, Jay Shendure, Zhijun Duan
With the advent of massively parallel sequencing, considerable work has gone into adapting chromosome conformation capture (3C) techniques to study chromosomal architecture at a genome-wide scale. We recently demonstrated that the inactive murine X chromosome adopts a bipartite structure using a novel 3C protocol, termed in situ DNase Hi-C. Like traditional Hi-C protocols, in situ DNase Hi-C requires that chromatin be chemically cross-linked, digested, end-repaired, and proximity-ligated with a biotinylated bridge adaptor...
November 2016: Nature Protocols
T Brooke McClendon, Rana Mainpal, Francis Raj Gandhi Amrit, Michael W Krause, Arjumand Ghazi, Judith L Yanowitz
The germ line efficiently combats numerous genotoxic insults to ensure the high fidelity propagation of unaltered genomic information across generations. Yet, germ cells in most metazoans also intentionally create double-strand breaks (DSBs) to promote DNA exchange between parental chromosomes, a process known as crossing over. Homologous recombination is employed in the repair of both genotoxic lesions and programmed DSBs and many of the core DNA repair proteins function in both processes. In addition, DNA repair efficiency and crossover distribution are both influenced by local and global differences in chromatin structure, yet the interplay between chromatin structure, genome integrity, and meiotic fidelity is still poorly understand...
October 5, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Robert M Griffin, Holger Schielzeth, Urban Friberg
Theory makes several predictions concerning differences in genetic variation between the X chromosome and the autosomes due to male X hemizygosity. The X chromosome should i) typically show relatively less standing genetic variation than the autosomes, ii) exhibit more variation in males compared to females because of dosage compensation, and iii) potentially be enriched with sex-specific genetic variation. Here we address each of these predictions for lifespan and aging in Drosophila melanogaster To achieve unbiased estimates of X and autosomal additive genetic variance we use 80 chromosome substitution lines; 40 for the X chromosome and 40 combining the two major autosomes, which we assay for sex-specific and cross-sex genetic (co)variation...
September 27, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Xiang Chen, Chunyu Wang, Kun Zhang, Ying Xie, Xiao Ji, Hui Huang, Xijie Yu
Growing evidence argues for a relationship between lipid and bone metabolisms with inconsistent conclusions. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has been recognized as a suitable candidate for possible link between lipid metabolism and bone metabolism. This study was designed to investigate the effects of hyperlipidemia on bone metabolism using diet-induced and genetic-induced hyperlipidemia animal models and to explore whether S1P is involved. Wild-type mice and low-density lipoprotein receptor gene deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice at age of 8weeks were placed on either control diet or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12weeks...
September 23, 2016: Bone
Ibrahim Toprak, Volkan Yaylali, Cem Yildirim
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of pediatric corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) on corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), maximum keratometry (Kmax), and other Scheimpflug imaging system parameters during 2 years of follow-up. METHODS: The records of 29 eyes of 29 pediatric patients who underwent unilateral CXL treatment for progressive keratoconus were reviewed. Changes in CDVA, Kmax, anterior chamber depth, anterior chamber volume, anterior chamber angle, pupil-center pachymetry, apical pachymetry, thinnest pachymetry, corneal volume, and topographic indices (index of surface variance [ISV], index of vertical asymmetry [IVA], index of height asymmetry [IHA], keratoconus index [KI], center keratoconus index [CKI], index of height decentration [IHD], and minimum radius of curvature [Rmin]) were analyzed among baseline and 1 and 2 years after the CXL treatment...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
S K Bajpai, Navin Chand, Seema Tiwari, Shweta Soni
In this study, dextran (Dex) has been cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (Ech) to yield cross-linked hydrogels. These gels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The water absorption behavior of gels was studied in simulating gastric fluid (SGF) and simulating intestinal fluid (SIF) at 37°C. The data was interpreted by various kinetic models. The swelling was found to be totally diffusion controlled...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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