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Kin-Ya Tomizaki, Ryuuichi Nanbu, Makoto Kasuga, Takahito Imai
Gold nanocrystals hold promise for use as catalysts and in photonic/plasmonic devices, electronics, sensing/imaging systems, drug delivery systems, and photothermal therapies due to their unique physical, chemical, and biocompatible properties. Various organic templates have been used to control of the size, shape, structure, surface modification and topology of gold nanocrystals. The synthesis of gold nanorods currently requires a cytotoxic surfactant to control morphology. To control the shape of gold nanocrystals, we previously demonstrated the de novo design and synthesis of a b-sheet-forming nonapeptide (RU006: Ac-AIAKAXKIA-NH2, X = L-2-naphthylalanine, Nal)...
December 13, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
Mian Chee Gor, Chrishani Candappa, Thishakya de Silva, Nitin Mantri, Edwin Pang
Breeding strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) with enhanced fruit flavour is one of the top breeding goals of many strawberry-producing countries. Although several genes involved in the biosynthetic pathways of key aroma compounds have been identified, the development and application of molecular markers associated with fruit flavour remain limited. This study aims to identify molecular markers closely linked to genes controlling strawberry aroma. A purpose-built Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA) known as Fragaria Discovery Panel (FDP) was used for marker screening...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Edwin Makhado, Sadanand Pandey, Philiswa N Nomngongo, James Ramontja
In this work, xanthan gum-cl-poly acrylic acid (XG-cl-pAA) hydrogel and xanthan gum-cl-poly acrylic acid/oxidized MWCNTs (XG-cl-pAA/o-MWCNTs) hydrogel nanocomposite was successfully surface modify by microwave assisted copolymerization, in which N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) was used as a cross-linking agent. A copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto xanthan gum (XG) initiated by microwave radiation method. Different weight percentages of oxidized MWCNTs were incorporated into the hydrogel matrix during the grafting reaction...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Yilei Wu, Ji-Min Han, Michael Hong, Matthew D Krzyaniak, Anthea K Blackburn, Isurika R Fernando, Dennis D Cao, Michael R Wasielewski, J Fraser Stoddart
The synthesis of stable organic polyradicals is important for the development of magnetic materials. Herein, we report the synthesis, isolation, and characterization of a series of X-shaped pyromellitimide (PI) oligomers (Xn-R, n = 2-4, R = Hex or Ph) linked together by single C-C bonds between their benzenoid cores. We hypothesize that these oligomers might form high-spin states in their reduced forms because of the nearly orthogonal conformations adopted by their PI units. 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies confirmed the isolation of the dimeric, trimeric, and tetrameric homologues...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Karan Kapoor, Derek J Cashman, Luke Nientimp, Barry D Bruce, Jerome Yves Baudry
The stromal domain (PsaC, D, and E) of photosystem I (PSI) in Cyanobacteria accepts electrons from PsaA and PsaB of photosystem I (PSI). These electrons then reduce transiently bound ferredoxin (Fd) or flavodoxin. Experimental structures exist for all of these protein partners individually, yet to date, no experimental structure of the PSI/Fd complexes is presently available. Molecular models of Fd docked into the stromal domain of the cyanobacterial PSI site are constructed here starting from X-ray and NMR structures of PSI and Fd...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Hiroyuki Kaneko, Kazuhiro Kikuchi, Michiko Nakai, Daiichiro Fuchimoto, Shunichi Suzuki, Shoichiro Sembon, Junko Noguchi, Akira Onishi
Grafting of testicular tissue into immunodeficient mice makes it possible to obtain functional sperm from immature donor animals that cannot be used for reproduction. We have developed a porcine model of human haemophilia A (haemophilia-A pigs) by nuclear transfer cloning from foetal fibroblasts after disruption of the X-linked coagulation factor VIII (F8) gene. Despite having a recessive condition, female F8+/- cloned pigs died of severe bleeding at an early age, as was the case for male F8-/Y cloned pigs, thus making it impossible to obtain progeny...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jike Song, Dadong Guo, Hongsheng Bi
Oxidative stress has an important role in the degradation, oxidation, cross‑linking and aggregation of lens proteins, and can trigger lens epithelial cell apoptosis. To investigate the protective effect of chlorogenic acid (CGA) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‑induced oxidative stress, human lens epithelial cells (hLECs) were exposed to various concentrations of H2O2 in the presence and absence of CGA. Using MTT assay, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and ELISA techniques, cell viability, and protein/mRNA levels of BCL2 apoptosis regulator (Bcl‑2) and BCL2 associated X apoptosis regulator (Bax) were investigated...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Xiaoqiong Qin, Wentao Li, Yang Liu, Meilian Tan, Martin Ganal, Roger T Chetelat
Multiple independent and overlapping pollen rejection pathways contribute to unilateral interspecific incompatibility (UI). In crosses between tomato species, interspecific pollen rejection usually occurs when the female parent is self-incompatible and the male parent self-compatible (the 'SI x SC rule'). Additional, as yet unknown UI mechanisms are independent of self-incompatibility and contribute to UI between SC species or populations. We identified a major QTL on chromosome 10 (ui10.1) which affects pollen-side UI responses in crosses between cultivated tomato, Solanum lycopersicum, and S...
December 5, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Rita Khanna, Muhammad Ikram-Ul-Haq, Aditya Rawal, Ravindra Rajarao, Veena Sahajwalla, Romina Cayumil, Partha S Mukherjee
The exploration, understanding and potential applications of 'Carbyne', the one-dimensional sp allotrope of carbon, have been severely limited due to its extreme reactivity and a tendency for highly exothermic cross-linking. Due to ill-defined materials, limited characterization and a lack of compelling definitive evidence, even the existence of linear carbons has been questioned. We report a first-ever investigation on the formation of carbyne-like materials during low temperature pyrolysis of biobased lignin, a natural bioresource...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Eva-Christina Ahlgren, Mostafa Fekry, Mathias Wiemann, Christopher A Söderberg, Katja Bernfur, Olex Gakh, Morten Rasmussen, Peter Højrup, Cecilia Emanuelsson, Grazia Isaya, Salam Al-Karadaghi
Patients suffering from the progressive neurodegenerative disease Friedreich's ataxia have reduced expression levels of the protein frataxin. Three major isoforms of human frataxin have been identified, FXN42-210, FXN56-210 and FXN81-210, of which FXN81-210 is considered to be the mature form. Both long forms, FXN42-210 and FXN56-210, have been shown to spontaneously form oligomeric particles stabilized by the extended N-terminal sequence. The short variant FXN81-210, on other hand, has only been observed in the monomeric state...
2017: PloS One
X Lin, Y Jiang, L Zhang, Y Cai
Spodoptera litura is a widespread polyphagous insect pest that can develop resistance and cross-resistance to insecticides, making it difficult to control. Insecticide exposure has previously been linked with induction of specific olfactory-related proteins, including some chemosensory proteins (CSPs) and odorant-binding proteins (OPBs), which may disrupt detection of environmental factors and reduce fitness. However, functional evidence supporting insecticide and OBPs/CSPs mediation remains unknown. Here we fed male S...
December 4, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Yongbo Ding, Jianquan Kan
Chemically modified starch (RS4) nanoparticles were synthesized through homogenization and water-in-oil mini-emulsion cross-linking. Homogenization was optimized with regard to z-average diameter by using a three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design. Homogenization pressure (X1), oil/water ratio (X2), and surfactant (X3) were selected as independent variables, whereas z-average diameter was considered as a dependent variable. The following optimum preparation conditions were obtained to achieve the minimum average size of these nanoparticles: 50 MPa homogenization pressure, 10:1 oil/water ratio, and 2 g surfactant amount, when the predicted z-average diameter was 303...
December 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
C M Disney, K Madi, A J Bodey, P D Lee, J A Hoyland, M J Sherratt
Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is linked to low back pain. Microstructural changes during degeneration have previously been imaged using 2D sectioning techniques and 3D methods which are limited to small specimens and prone to inducing artefacts from sample preparation. This study explores micro computed X-ray tomography (microCT) methods with the aim of resolving IVD 3D microstructure whilst minimising sample preparation artefacts. Low X-ray absorption contrast in non-mineralised tissue can be enhanced using staining and phase contrast techniques...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ehsan Mohamadian Amiri, Fariba Balouch, Faezeh Atri
Objectives: Bonding of fiber posts to intracanal dentin is challenging in the clinical setting. This study aimed to compare the effect of self-adhesive and separate etch adhesive dual cure resin cements on the bond strength of fiber post to dentin at different parts of the root. Materials and Methods: This in-vitro experimental study was conducted on 20 single-rooted premolars. The teeth were decoronated at 1mm coronal to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), and the roots underwent root canal treatment...
May 2017: Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences
S Dash, P Chen, P Boolchand
Glass transition width W of pure Se narrows from 7.1(3) °C to 1.5(2) °C and the non-reversing enthalpy of relaxation (ΔHnr) at Tg increases from 0.23(5) cal/g to 0.90(5) cal/g upon room temperature aging for 4 months in the dark as examined in modulated differential scanning colorimetry (MDSC) at low scan rates. In Raman scattering, such aging leads the A1 mode of Sen-chains (near 250 cm(-1)) to narrow by 26% and its scattering strength to decrease as the strength of modes of correlated chains (near 235 cm(-1)) and of Se8 rings (near 264 cm(-1)) systematically grows...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Tsvetoslav Georgiev, Mariana Ivanova, Aleksandar Kopchev, Tsvetelina Velikova, Asen Miloshov, Ekaterina Kurteva, Kalina Yuzeir, Marin Penkov, Plamena Kabakchieva, Rasho Rashkov, Rumen Stoilov
Biochemical markers reflecting joint remodeling in osteoarthritis (OA) are a promising diagnostic tool. The aim of this study was to investigate serum levels of candidate biomarkers in subjects with and without knee OA and assess their correlation with clinical parameters and knee structural damage. 56 patients with primary knee OA and 31 healthy controls participated in this study. Patients were separated into two groups: isolated knee OA and generalized OA. Clinical parameters were obtained by validated self-reported questionnaires and a visual analogue scale...
November 21, 2017: Rheumatology International
Fahad Naeem, Samiullah Khan, Aamir Jalil, Nazar Muhammad Ranjha, Amina Riaz, Malik Salman Haider, Shoaib Sarwar, Fareha Saher, Samrin Afzal
Introduction: The current work was aimed to design and synthesize novel crosslinked pH-sensitive gelatin/pectin (Ge/Pec) hydrogels using different polymeric ratios and to explore the effect of polymers and degree of crosslinking on dynamic, equilibrium swelling and in vitro release behavior of the model drug (Mannitol). Methods: The Ge/Pec based hydrogels were prepared using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. Various structural parameters that affect their release behavior were determined, including swelling study, porosity, sol-gel analysis, average molecular weight between crosslinks (Mc), volume fraction of polymer (V2,s), solvent interaction parameter (χ) and diffusion coefficient...
2017: BioImpacts: BI
Lim Sze Lim, Noor Afizah Rosli, Ishak Ahmad, Azwan Mat Lazim, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd Amin
pH-sensitive poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) was prepared. Acrylic acid (AA) was subjected to chemical cross-linking using the cross-linking agent MBA (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide) with CNC entrapped in the PAA matrix. The quantity of CNC was varied between 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt %. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data showed an increase in crystallinity with the addition of CNC, while rheology tests demonstrated a significant increase in the storage modulus of the hydrogel with an increase in CNC content...
November 20, 2017: Nanomaterials
Gabby B Joseph, Charles E McCulloch, Michael C Nevitt, Jan Neumann, Alexandra S Gersing, Martin Kretzschmar, Benedikt J Schwaiger, John A Lynch, Ursula Heilmeier, Nancy E Lane, Thomas M Link
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA), a multifactorial disease causing joint degeneration, often leads to severe disability. The rising rates of disability highlight the need for implementing preventative measures at early stages of the disease, which would especially benefit subjects at high risk for OA development. PURPOSE: To develop a risk prediction tool for moderate-severe OA (TOARP) over 8 years based on subject characteristics, knee radiographs, and MRI data at baseline using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI)...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Inmaculada Aranaz, Ines Paños, Carlos Peniche, Ángeles Heras, Niuris Acosta
Venlafaxine controlled drug delivery systems using different matrixes have been tested to reduce undesirable side effects in the treatment of depression. The legal status of chitosan (Cs) in Pharmacy has dramatically improved after its acceptance as excipient in several Pharmacopeias and, therefore, there is great interest in pharmaceutical formulations based on this polymer. In this paper, chitosan microcapsules cross-linked with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) for oral delivery of venlafaxine were formulated using the spray drying technique...
November 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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