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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107468/micro-x-ray-computed-tomography-mass-loss-assessment-of-different-uhmwpe-a-hip-joint-simulator-study-on-standard-vs-cross-linked-polyethylene
#1
Saverio Affatato, Filippo Zanini, Simone Carmignato
More than 60.000 hip arthroplasty are performed every year in Italy. Although Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight-Polyethylene remains the most used material as acetabular cup, wear of this material induces over time in vivo a foreign-body response and consequently osteolysis, pain, and the need of implant revision. Furthermore, oxidative wear of the polyethylene provoke several and severe failures. To solve these problems, highly cross-linked polyethylene and Vitamin-E-stabilized polyethylene were introduced in the last years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103889/heterogeneity-of-g6pd-deficiency-prevalence-in-mozambique-a-school-based-cross-sectional-survey-in-three-different-regions
#2
Beatriz Galatas, Lurdes Mabote, Wilson Simone, Gloria Matambisso, Lidia Nhamussua, María Del Mar Mañú-Pereira, Clara Menéndez, Francisco Saute, Eusebio Macete, Quique Bassat, Pedro Alonso, Pedro Aide
BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked hereditary enzymatic abnormality that affects more than 400 million people worldwide. Most deficient individuals do not manifest any symptoms; however, several precipitant agents-such as fava intake, infections, or several drugs-may trigger acute haemolytic anaemia. Countries should be informed of the prevalence of this enzymatic anomaly within their borders, in order to make safe and appropriate national decisions regarding the use of potentially unsafe drugs for G6PD deficient individuals...
January 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101870/fibrillar-collagens
#3
Jordi Bella, David J S Hulmes
Fibrillar collagens (types I, II, III, V, XI, XXIV and XXVII) constitute a sub-group within the collagen family (of which there are 28 types in humans) whose functions are to provide three-dimensional frameworks for tissues and organs. These networks confer mechanical strength as well as signalling and organizing functions through binding to cellular receptors and other components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we describe the structure and assembly of fibrillar collagens, and their procollagen precursors, from the molecular to the tissue level...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099001/conformational-dynamics-in-penicillin-binding-protein-2a-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-allosteric-communication-network-and-enablement-of-catalysis
#4
Kiran V Mahasenan, Rafael Molina, Renee Bouley, Maria T Batuecas, Jed F Fisher, Juan A Hermoso, Mayland Chang, Shahriar Mobashery
The mechanism of the β-lactam antibacterials is the functionally irreversible acylation of the enzymes that catalyze the cross-linking steps in the biosynthesis of their peptidoglycan cell wall. The Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus uses one primary resistance mechanism. An enzyme, called penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a), is brought into this biosynthetic pathway to complete the cross-linking. PBP2a effectively discriminates against the β-lactam antibiotics as potential inhibitors, and in favor of the peptidoglycan substrate...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098850/a-rare-exception-to-haldane-s-rule-are-x-chromosomes-key-to-hybrid-incompatibilities
#5
P A Moran, M G Ritchie, N W Bailey
The prevalence of Haldane's rule suggests that sex chromosomes commonly have a key role in reproductive barriers and speciation. However, the majority of research on Haldane's rule has been conducted in species with conventional sex determination systems (XY and ZW) and exceptions to the rule have been understudied. Here we test the role of X-linked incompatibilities in a rare exception to Haldane's rule for female sterility in field cricket sister species (Teleogryllus oceanicus and T. commodus). Both have an XO sex determination system...
January 18, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094370/probing-sub-nano-level-molecular-packing-and-correlated-positron-annihilation-characteristics-of-ionic-cross-linked-chitosan-membranes-using-positron-annihilation-spectroscopy
#6
Rui Xia, Xingzhong Cao, Meizhen Gao, Peng Zhang, Minfeng Zeng, Baoyi Wang, Long Wei
Chitosan, CS, cross-linked with bivalent palladium has shown enhanced mechanical and thermal properties depending on the transformation of the structure at a microscopic scale. In the present study, CS directly cross-linked by palladium cation membranes (CS-cr-PM) was prepared through a solution-casting method. Mobility of chitosan chains were greatly reduced after crosslinking, making a great reduction in the swelling ratio studied by a water-swelling degree measurement, which led to an improvement in molecular chain rigidity...
January 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094105/sonographic-alteration-of-substantia-nigra-is-related-to-parkinsonism-predominant-course-of-x-linked-dystonia-parkinsonism
#7
Uwe Walter, Raymond Rosales, Alessandro Rocco, Ana Westenberger, Aloysius Domingo, Criscely L Go, Norbert Brüggemann, Christine Klein, Lillian V Lee, Dirk Dressler
INTRODUCTION: X-linked recessive dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP, DYT3) is highly prevalent in the Philippines and manifests with varying phenotype. We sought to evaluate the significance of transcranial brain sonography as a biomarker for parkinsonism-predominant phenotype. METHODS: 90 Filipino participants were enrolled into a cross-sectional study: 39 patients with XDP, 21 asymptomatic first-degree relatives of XDP patients, and 30 healthy control subjects. Echogenicity of the substantia nigra and the lenticular nuclei was digitally quantified...
January 10, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088718/highly-efficient-inactivation-of-bacteria-found-in-drinking-water-using-chitosan-bentonite-composites-modelling-and-breakthrough-curve-analysis
#8
Sarah C Motshekga, Suprakas Sinha Ray
Disinfection of bacterially-contaminated drinking water requires a robust and effective technique and can be achieved by using an appropriate disinfectant material. The advanced use of nanomaterials is observed as an alternative and effective way for the disinfection process and water treatment as a whole. Hence, the inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) using chitosan-Bentonite (Cts-Bent) composites was studied in a fixed bed column. Cts-Bent composites were synthesized using in situ cross-linking method using Bent-supported silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles...
January 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087486/enhanced-articular-cartilage-by-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-enzymatically-mediated-transiently-rgds-functionalized-collagen-mimetic-hydrogels
#9
Paresh A Parmar, Jean-Philippe St-Pierre, Lesley W Chow, Christopher D Spicer, Violet Stoichevska, Yong Y Peng, Jerome A Werkmeister, John A M Ramshaw, Molly M Stevens
: Recapitulation of the articular cartilage microenvironment for regenerative medicine applications faces significant challenges due to the complex and dynamic biochemical and biomechanical nature of native tissue. Towards the goal of biomaterial designs that enable the temporal presentation of bioactive sequences, recombinant bacterial collagens such as Streptococcal collagen-like 2 (Scl2) proteins can be employed to incorporate multiple specific bioactive and biodegradable peptide motifs into a single construct...
January 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086264/structural-insights-into-the-redox-sensing-mechanism-of-marr-type-regulator-abfr
#10
Guijie Liu, Xing Liu, Hongjiao Xu, Xichun Liu, Hu Zhou, Zhen Huang, Jianhua Gan, Hao Chen, Lefu Lan, Cai-Guang Yang
As a master redox-sensing MarR-family transcriptional regulator, AbfR participates in oxidative stress responses and virulence regulations in Staphylococcus epidermidis. Here, we present structural insights into the DNA-binding mechanism of AbfR in different oxidation states by determining the X-ray crystal structures of a reduced-AbfR/DNA complex, an overoxidized (Cys13-SO2H and Cys13-SO3H) AbfR/DNA, and 2-disulfide cross-linked AbfR dimer. Together with biochemical analyses, our results suggest that the redox regulation of AbfR-sensing displays two novel features: i) the reversible disulfide modification, but not the irreversible overoxidation, significantly abolishes the DNA-binding ability of the AbfR repressor; ii) either 1-disulfide cross-linked or 2-disulfide cross-linked AbfR dimer is biologically significant...
January 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079788/the-prevalence-of-factor-viii-and-ix-inhibitors-among-saudi-patients-with-hemophilia-results-from-the-saudi-national-hemophilia-screening-program
#11
Tarek Owaidah, Abdulkareem Al Momen, Hazzaa Alzahrani, Abdulrahman Almusa, Fawaz Alkasim, Ahmed Tarawah, Randa Al Nouno, Fatima Al Batniji, Fahad Alothman, Ali Alomari, Saud Abu-Herbish, Mahmoud Abu-Riash, Khawar Siddiqui, Mansor Ahmed, S Y Mohamed, Mahasen Saleh
Hemophilia A and B are X-linked diseases that predominantly affect male patients. Patients can develop coagulation factor inhibitors, which exponentially increases the treatment cost. However, the prevalence of factor VIII and IX inhibitors in Saudi Arabia is unclear.This study aimed to determine the Saudi prevalence of factor VIII and IX inhibitors.This 4-year, 7-center, cross-sectional study evaluated the Saudi prevalences of hemophilia A and B. We collected the patients' clinical data, evaluated their disease, and tested for factor inhibitors...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075068/binding-and-processing-of-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics-by-the-transpeptidase-ldtmt2-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#12
Eva Maria Steiner, Gunter Schneider, Robert Schnell
β-lactam antibiotics represent a novel direction in the chemotherapy of tuberculosis that brings the peptidoglycan layer of the complex mycobacterial cell wall in focus as therapeutic target. Peptidoglycan stability in Mycobacterium tuberculosis especially during infection relies on the non-conventional peptide cross-links formed by L,D-transpeptidases. These enzymes are known to be inhibited by β-lactams, primarily carbapenems, leading to a stable covalent modification at the enzyme active site. A panel of sixteen β-lactams antibiotics was characterized by inhibition kinetics, mass spectrometry and x-ray crystallography to identify efficient compounds and study their action on the essential transpeptidase LdtMt2 ...
January 11, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068310/visualizing-the-secondary-and-tertiary-architectural-domains-of-lncrna-repa
#13
Fei Liu, Srinivas Somarowthu, Anna Marie Pyle
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important for gene expression, but little is known about their structures. RepA is a 1.6-kb mouse lncRNA comprising the same sequence as the 5' region of Xist, including A and F repeats. It has been proposed to facilitate the initiation and spread of X-chromosome inactivation, although its exact role is poorly understood. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism of RepA and Xist, we determined a complete phylogenetically validated secondary-structural map of RepA through SHAPE and DMS chemical probing of a homogeneously folded RNA in vitro...
January 9, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065858/role-of-transglutaminase-2-in-pac1-receptor-mediated-protection-against-hypoxia-induced-cell-death-and-neurite-outgrowth-in-differentiating-n2a-neuroblastoma-cells
#14
Alanood S Algarni, Alan J Hargreaves, John M Dickenson
The PAC1 receptor and tissue transglutaminase (TG2) play important roles in neurite outgrowth and modulation of neuronal cell survival. In this study, we investigated the regulation of TG2 activity by the PAC1 receptor in retinoic acid-induced differentiating N2a neuroblastoma cells. TG2 transamidase activity was determined using an amine incorporation and a peptide cross linking assay. In situ TG2 activity was assessed by visualising the incorporation of biotin-X-cadaverine using confocal microscopy. TG2 phosphorylation was monitored via immunoprecipitation and Western blotting...
January 5, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065750/physicochemical-properties-and-biological-activities-of-novel-blend-films-using-oxidized-pectin-chitosan
#15
Asma Chetouani, Nadège Follain, Stéphane Marais, Christophe Rihouey, Meriem Elkolli, Mahmoud Bounekhel, Djafer Benachour, Didier Le Cerf
Pectin has been widely used in a variety of biomedical applications. In this study, it was modified with sodium periodate as an oxidant and characterized by physicochemical methods Periodate oxidation increased the contents of dialdehyde units and carboxyl groups in pectin, and a decrease in pectin viscosity was measured. The oxidization reaction led to a significant decrease in all values of molecular weight and size (Mn, Mw, [η] and Rh) as determined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), which allowed the selection of the oxidized pectin to be added to chitosan...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057549/novel-amphiphilic-chitosan-nanocarriers-for-sustained-oral-delivery-of-hydrophobic-drugs
#16
Marjan Motiei, Soheila Kashanian
Chitosan (CS) has been investigated for its ability to be modified hydrophobically and self-assembled into nanocarriers. They can encapsulate drugs and protect them in a promising approach. However, loss of carrier stability against biological environments induces low bioavailability of encapsulated drugs after oral administration. The objective of this work was to develop and characterize a novel self-assembled nanocarrier using cross-linker under acidic condition to enhance oral absorption of a hydrophobic model drug such as Letrozole (LTZ)...
January 3, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050143/socioeconomic-status-and-lifestyle-behaviours-in-cancer-survivors-smoking-and-physical-activity
#17
H Naik, X Qiu, M C Brown, L Eng, D Pringle, M Mahler, H Hon, K Tiessen, H Thai, V Ho, C Gonos, R Charow, V Pat, M Irwin, L Herzog, A Ho, W Xu, J M Jones, D Howell, G Liu
PURPOSE: Smoking cessation and increased physical activity (pa) have been linked to better outcomes in cancer survivors. We assessed whether socioeconomic factors influence changes in those behaviours after a cancer diagnosis. METHODS: As part of a cross-sectional study, a diverse group of cancer survivors at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre (Toronto, ON), completed a questionnaire about past and current lifestyle behaviours and perceptions about the importance of those behaviours with respect to their health...
December 2016: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040613/synthesis-and-characterization-of-magnetic-chitosan-microspheres-as-low-density-and-low-biotoxicity-adsorbents-for-lake-restoration
#18
A Funes, J de Vicente, I de Vicente
We propose a novel magnetic adsorbent for optimal Phosphorus (P) removal from the upper sediment layers. For this aim, magnetic chitosan microparticles were prepared using a reverse-phase suspension cross-linking technique. The resulting particles and suspensions were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, magnetometry, thermogravimetric analysis, electrophoretic mobility and turbidity measurements. The hybrids are multicore particles consisting of well dispersed magnetite nanoparticles (approx...
December 21, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036287/n-glycosylation-converts-non-glycoproteins-into-mannose-receptor-ligands-and-reveals-antigen-specific-t-cell-responses-in-vivo
#19
Christoph Kreer, Janina M Kuepper, Matthias Zehner, Thomas Quast, Waldemar Kolanus, Beatrix Schumak, Sven Burgdorf
N-glycosylation is generally accepted to enhance the immunogenicity of antigens because of two main reasons. First, the attachment of glycans enables recognition by endocytic receptors like the mannose receptor (MR) and hence increased uptake by dendritic cells (DCs). Second, foreign glycans are postulated to be immunostimulatory and their recognition could induce DC activation. However, a direct comparison between the immunogenicity of N-glycosylated vs. de-glycosylated proteins in vivo and a direct effect of N-glycosylated antigens on the intrinsic capacity of DCs to activate T cells have not been assessed so far...
December 28, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031481/xenopus-piwi-proteins-interact-with-a-broad-proportion-of-the-oocyte-transcriptome
#20
James A Toombs, Yuliya A Sytnikova, Gung-Wei Chirn, Ignatius Ang, Nelson C Lau, Michael D Blower
Piwi proteins utilize small RNAs (piRNAs) to recognize and repress target transcripts such as transposable elements (TE). However, the extensive diversity in piRNA sequences also suggests that Piwi/piRNA complexes interact with many transcripts beyond TEs. To examine the extent of Piwi interaction with target RNAs, we used Ribonucleoprotein-Immunoprecipitation (RIP) and Cross-linking and Immunoprecipitation (CLIP) to identify thousands of transcripts that associate with the Piwi proteins XIWI and XILI (Piwi-protein-Associated Transcripts, PATs) from early stage oocytes of X...
December 28, 2016: RNA
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