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Yong Fu, Yue Huang, Jianshe Hu
A novel functional hybrid mesoporous composite material (CMP) based on chitosan and MCM-41-PAA was reported and its application as an excellent adsorbent for Hg(II) ions was also investigated. Innovatively, MCM-41-PAA was prepared by using diatomite and polyacrylic acid (PAA) with integrated polymer-silica hybrid frameworks, and then CMP was fabricated by introducing MCM-41-PAA to chitosan using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The structure and morphology of CMP were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Daniel C Tarquinio, Wei Hou, Jeffrey L Neul, Gamze Kilic Berkmen, Jana Drummond, Elizabeth Aronoff, Jennifer Harris, Jane B Lane, Walter E Kaufmann, Kathleen J Motil, Daniel G Glaze, Steven A Skinner, Alan K Percy
Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in MECP2, is associated with a peculiar breathing disturbance exclusively during wakefulness that is distressing, and can even prompt emergency resuscitation. Through the RTT Natural History Study, we characterized cross sectional and longitudinal characteristics of awake breathing abnormalities in RTT and identified associated clinical features. Participants were recruited from 2006 to 2015, and cumulative lifetime prevalence of breathing dysfunction was determined using the Kaplan-Meier estimator...
April 12, 2018: Brain & Development
Supin Liu, Wenlong Wang, Linlin Yin, Yitang Zhu
Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum level of Apelin-13 and bone mineral density (BMD) as well as other parameters, and determine the influence of Apelin-13 on osteoporosis in patients with Type-2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Seventy-six patients with Type-2 diabetes mellitus were recruited from Department of Endocrinology of our hospital between January 2013 and July2017. The clinical data, including age, gender, height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and disease duration were recorded for all patients...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Ilya V Novikov, Marina A Pigaleva, Sergei S Abramchuk, Vyacheslav S Molchanov, Olga E Philippova, Marat O Gallyamov
Chitosan-based hydrogels with stabilized Ag nanoparticles were synthesized in the aqueous solutions of carbonic acid, i.e. water saturated with CO2 under pressure in hundreds of bars. Such a medium is biocompatible and self-neutralizing at decompression. The influence of various parameters, such as chitosan molecular weight, molar ratio of chitosan to silver, additional stabilization of gels by genipin as a cross-linking agent, on the structure of the chitosan/Ag composites was investigated using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, rheology measurements...
June 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
L Lavalle, A S Thomas, B Beaton, H Ebrahim, M Reed, U Ramaswami, P Elliott, A B Mehta, D A Hughes
BACKGROUND: Fabry disease (FD) results from X-linked inheritance of a mutation in the GLA gene, encoding for alpha galactosidase A, and is characterized by heterogeneous clinical manifestations. Two phenotypes have been described "Classic" and "late onset" which cannot be predicted exclusively by genotype. The latter has been considered an attenuated form of the disease often affecting a single organ system commonly the heart. Recent studies have demonstrated that cardiac outcomes are similar in patients with classic and late onset mutations...
2018: PloS One
Bradley J Main, Amanda Everitt, Anthony J Cornel, Fereydoun Hormozdiari, Gregory C Lanzaro
BACKGROUND: Malaria mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa have declined significantly in recent years as a result of increased insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) usage. A major challenge to further progress is the emergence and spread of insecticide resistance alleles in the Anopheles mosquito vectors, like An. coluzzii. A non-synonymous mutation in the para voltage-gated sodium channel gene reduces pyrethroid-binding affinity, resulting in knockdown resistance (kdr). Metabolic mechanisms of insecticide resistance involving detoxification genes like cytochrome P450 genes, carboxylesterases, and glutathione S-transferases are also important...
April 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Cesar L Nino, Geovanny F Perez, Natalia Isaza, Maria J Gutierrez, Jose L Gomez, Gustavo Nino
Human respiratory conditions are largely influenced by the individual's sex resulting in overall higher risk for males. Sex-based respiratory differences are present at birth suggesting a strong genetic component. Our objective was to characterize early life sex-based genomic signatures determined by variable X-chromosome methylation in the airways. We compared male versus female genome-wide DNA methylation in nasal airway samples from newborns and infants aged 1-6 months (N = 12). We analyzed methylation signals across CpG sites mapped to each X-linked gene using an unsupervised classifier (principal components) followed by an internal evaluation and an exhaustive cross-validation...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jared Schommer, Gurdeep Marwarha, Trevor Schommer, Travis Flick, Jonah Lund, Othman Ghribi
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of the α-synuclein (α-syn) protein is a hallmark of a group of brain disorders collectively known as synucleinopathies. The mechanisms responsible for α-syn accumulation are not well understood. Several studies suggest a link between synucleinopathies and the cholesterol metabolite 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC). 27-OHC is the major cholesterol metabolite in the blood that crosses the blood brain barrier, and its levels can increase following hypercholesterolemia, aging, and oxidative stress, which are all factors for increased synucleinopathy risk...
April 3, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Masahiro Takeyama, Keiji Nogami, Kana Sasai, Shoko Furukawa, Midori Shima
The link between factor (F)VIII and FX is essential for optimum activity of the tenase complex. The interactive site(s) in FVIII for FX remains to be completely clarified, however. We investigated the FVIII A2 domain-FX association that was speculated from inhibitory mechanism(s) by an anti-A2 autoantibody. SDS-PAGE demonstrated that the purified inhibitor IgG recognizing residues 373-562 blocked FXa cleavage at Arg372 in FVIII, and surface-plasmon resonance (SPR)-based assays showed that intact A2 subunit directly bound to FX ( K d ; 63 nM)...
April 3, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Mona Y Elnaggar, E S Fathy, Medhat M Hassan
Composites of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with 2% calcium carbonate, 2% diethyl phthalate, 2% paraffin wax and 2% lead sulfate and different contents of antimony trioxide (Sb2 O3 ) prepared by melting and irradiated with gamma-ray have been considered. Assessment of the mechanical and thermal properties of the unirradiated and irradiated FPVC were completed utilizing elasticity (TS), Elongation at break (Eb) and TGA measurements. TS and thermal stability of FPVC displayed advanced improvement after addition of additives and this approach highlighted the efficiency of those ingredients on PVC...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Technology
Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz, Magdalena Chełchowska, Katarzyna Szamotulska, Grażyna Rowicka, Witold Klemarczyk, Małgorzata Strucińska, Joanna Gajewska
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) reflect bone status but not the dynamics of bone turnover. Biochemical markers, which show global skeletal activity, were validated for the assessment of bone formation and resorption processes. Adipokines also play a significant role in the regulation of bone metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To assess body composition, bone mineral density, bone turnover markers and adipokine levels in relation to vegetarian and omnivorous diets...
March 23, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Hiroyuki Sonoda, Hideto Morimoto, Eiji Yoden, Yuri Koshimura, Masafumi Kinoshita, Galina Golovina, Haruna Takagi, Ryuji Yamamoto, Kohtaro Minami, Akira Mizoguchi, Katsuhiko Tachibana, Tohru Hirato, Kenichi Takahashi
Mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS II) is an X-linked recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) gene. Since IDS catalyzes the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), deficiency in this enzyme leads to accumulation of GAGs in most cells in all tissues and organs, resulting in severe somatic and neurological disorders. Although enzyme replacement therapy with human IDS (hIDS) has been used for the treatment of MPS II, this therapy is not effective for defects in the CNS mainly because the enzyme cannot cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Ingemar André
Determining high-resolution structures of proteins with helical symmetry can be challenging due to limitations in experimental data. In such instances, structure-based protein simulations driven by experimental data can provide a valuable approach for building models of helical assemblies. This chapter describes how the Rosetta macromolecular package can be used to model homomeric protein assemblies with helical symmetry in a range of modeling scenarios including energy refinement, symmetrical docking, comparative modeling, and de novo structure prediction...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Elisabeth Lambert, Sarah Phillips, Ainura Tursunalieva, Nina Eikelis, Carolina Sari, John Dixon, Nora Straznicky, Mariee Grima, Markus Schlaich, Gavin Lambert
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Sympathetic nervous system activation in obesity is associated with impaired cardiovascular and metabolic function. Animal studies have shown a direct link between sympathetic nervous activation and bone health but little is known about this link in humans. This study examined whether sympathetic activation may impact bone health in overweight adults. METHODS: This cross sectional study included 96 overweight or obese middle-aged adults (51 males, mean body mass index: 32...
March 29, 2018: Bone
Huiqin Li, Jingtao Hu, Xin Zhou, Xin Li, Xiaojing Wang
In order to reduce the cost of commercial visible-light photocatalyst, a self-assembly strategy was deployed in producing a Ti-coupled N-embedded chicken feather biochar based catalyst (TINCs). The TINCs were manufactured by blending Ti-contained cross-link agent with hydrolyzed N-embedded chicken feather. These synthesis materials were well characterized with X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, Scanning electron microscopy, Transmission electron microscope, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Surface area analysis and UV-vis absorption spectra...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Shangshu Wang, Jianfeng Zhang, Chenyu Li, Ligang Chen
A novel molecularly imprinted polymer which could selectively recognize the tetracyclines in milk powder was synthesized using a metal-organic framework as a support material, tetracycline as template molecule, 3-aminophenylboronic acid as functional monomer and cross-linking agent. The novel molecularly imprinted polymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis and N2 adsorption/desorption measurements. The adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics, adsorption thermodynamics and selective adsorption experiments of the novel molecularly imprinted polymer to tetracycline were also studied...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Giuseppe Pezzotti, Wenliang Zhu, Nobuhiko Sugano, Elia Marin, Kengo Yamamoto, Naomichi Nishiike, Tsubasa Hori, Alfredo Rondinella, Bryan J McEntire, Ryan Bock, B Sonny Bal
Experimental evidence demonstrates that a loss of stoichiometry at the surface of oxide bioceramic femoral heads enhances the oxidation rate of polyethylene acetabular liners in artificial hip joints. Contradicting the common notion that ceramics are bioinert, three independent experiments confirmed substantial chemical interactions between the ceramic femoral heads and their polyethylene counterparts. The experiments reported herein included hydrothermal tests, frictional tests, and hip-simulator experiments...
March 17, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Christopher M Goins, Thanuja D Sudasinghe, Xiaofan Liu, Yanping Wang, George A O'Doherty, Donald R Ronning
Tetrahydrolipstatin (THL) is a covalent inhibitor of many serine esterases. In mycobacteria, THL has been found to covalently react with 261 lipid esterases upon treatment of Mycobacterium bovis cell lysate. However, the covalent adduct is considered unstable in some cases due to the hydrolysis of the enzyme-linked THL adduct resulting in catalytic turnover. In this study, a library of THL stereo-derivatives was tested against three essential Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipid esterases of interest for drug development to assess how the stereochemistry of THL affects respective enzyme inhibition and allows for cross-enzyme inhibition...
March 30, 2018: Biochemistry
Yao Wang, Ruiyang Ma, Ruobai Xiao, Lin Hao, Qiuhua Wu, Chun Wang, Zhi Wang
A porous material (polytriphenylamine; PTPA) was synthesized by using triphenylamine as the monomer and dimethoxymethane as the cross-linker. PTPA was characterized by Fourier infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction measurements, scanning electron microscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The PTPA has a spherical-shape morphology and relatively high specific surface area. It is shown to be a viable adsorbent for solid phase extraction of 3-chlorophenol, 2,3-dichlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4...
January 10, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Saira Naz, Imrana Masroor, Shaista Afzal, Waseem Mirza, Sehrish Butt, Zafar Sajjad, Anwar Ahmad
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of “X- ray examination of surgically resected specimen‘‘ in assessing complete local excision (CLE). Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cross sectional study, data were collected for all female breast cancer cases who underwent breast-conserving surgery after needle localization of mammographically visible disease. Males, patients with mammographically invisible disease and cases with benign or inconclusive histopathology, those undergoing modified radical mastectomy and individuals with dense breast parenchyma were excluded...
March 27, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
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