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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646756/protein-functionalization-of-zno-nanostructure-exhibits-selective-and-enhanced-toxicity-to-breast-cancer-cells-through-oxidative-stress-based-cell-death-mechanism
#1
Sailendra Mahanta, S Prathap, Deependra Kumar Ban, Subhankar Paul
Zinc oxide nanostructure (ZnONS) was chemically synthesized and functionalized (FZnONSBLA) with a small protein bovine α-lactalbumin (BLA) by chemical cross-linking methods. Both nano-structures were characterized using various techniques such as electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, photo-luminescence and X-ray diffraction. Electron microscopy and DLS analysis revealed their (ZnONS and FZnONSBLA) average size of 200nm and 450nm, respectively. When cytotoxicity of both the nanostructures were assessed in breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDAMB231 by MTT assay and PI/Annexin V staining (FACS), FZnONSBLA demonstrated higher cell death than ZnONS primarily due to generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643349/a-qm-mm-study-of-the-catalytic-mechanism-of-sam-methyltransferase-rlmn-from-escherichia-coli
#2
Chenxiao Zhao, Lihua Dong, Yongjun Liu
RlmN is a radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzyme that catalyzes the C2 methylation of adenosine 2503 (A2503) in 23S rRNA and adenosine 37 (A37) in several Escherichia coli transfer RNAs (tRNA). The catalytic reaction of RlmN is distinctly different from that of typical SAM-dependent methyltransferases that employs an SN 2 mechanism, but follows a ping-pong mechanism which involves the intermediate methylation of a conserved cysteine residue. Recently, the x-ray structure of a key intermediate in the RlmN reaction has been reported, allowing us to perform combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations to delineate the reaction details of RlmN at atomic level...
June 23, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613327/vegetable-oil-hybrid-films-cross-linked-at-the-air-water-interface-formation-kinetics-and-physical-characterization
#3
Antigoni Theodoratou, Laurent Bonnet, Philippe Dieudonné, Gladys Massiera, Pascal Etienne, Jean-Jacques Robin, Vincent Lapinte, Joël Chopineau, Julian Oberdisse, Anne Aubert-Pouëssel
Vegetable oil based hybrid films were developed thanks to a novel solvent- and heating-free method at the air-water interface using silylated castor oil cross-linked via a sol-gel reaction. To understand the mechanism of the hybrid film formation, the reaction kinetics was studied in detail by using complementary techniques: rheology, thermogravimetric analysis, and infrared spectroscopy. The mechanical properties of the final films were investigated using nano-indentation, whereas their structure was studied using a combination of wide-angle X-ray scattering, electron diffraction, and atomic force microscopy...
June 14, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611442/competing-factors-link-to-bone-health-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-takes-a-toll
#4
Shirin Kalyan, Millan S Patel, Elaine Kingwell, Hélène C F Côté, Danmei Liu, Jerilynn C Prior
Chronic inflammation predisposes to poor bone health. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) experience androgen excess, ovulatory disturbances, insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity and chronic inflammation. Our objective was to investigate the relationships among bone health parameters, chronic subclinical inflammation and anthropometric measures in premenopausal women with and without PCOS. In 61 premenopausal women, 22 women with PCOS and 39 controls, we assessed bone parameters (total hip bone mineral density [BMD] by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and radius strength-strain index [SSI] by peripheral quantitative computed tomography), inflammation (C-reactive protein/albumin), oxidative stress (leukocyte telomere length, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine); hemoglobin A1c; anthropometric measures (body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, cross-sectional muscle area)...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592658/the-structural-response-of-the-cornea-to-changes-in-stromal-hydration
#5
Sally Hayes, Tomas White, Craig Boote, Christina S Kamma-Lorger, James Bell, Thomas Sorenson, Nick Terrill, Olga Shebanova, Keith M Meek
The primary aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between corneal structure and hydration in humans and pigs. X-ray scattering data were collected from human and porcine corneas equilibrated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to varying levels of hydration, to obtain measurements of collagen fibril diameter, interfibrillar spacing (IFS) and intermolecular spacing. Both species showed a strong positive linear correlation between hydration and IFS(2) and a nonlinear, bi-phasic relationship between hydration and fibril diameter, whereby fibril diameter increased up to approximately physiological hydration, H = 3...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585864/sustained-release-effects-of-berberine-loaded-chitosan-microspheres-on-in-vitro-chondrocyte-culture
#6
Yan Zhou, Shiqing Liu, Jianghua Ming, Yaming Li, Ming Deng, Bin He
The low bioavailability and short biological half-life of berberine chloride (BBR) negatively affect the protective role of this compound against osteoarthritis (OA). The present study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of sustained BBR release system. Novel BBR-loaded chitosan microspheres (BBR-loaded CMs) were successfully synthesized using an ionic cross-linking method for sustained release. The basic characteristics of the prepared microspheres were subsequently evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, encapsulation efficiency (EE), and in vitro release experiments...
June 6, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579462/enhancing-the-performance-of-starch-based-wood-adhesive-by-silane-coupling-agent-kh570
#7
Lei Chen, Yajie Wang, Zia-Ud-Din, Peng Fei, Wensi Jin, Hanguo Xiong, Zhenjiong Wang
To investigate the improved performance of silane coupling agents on starch-based wood adhesive, we prepared adhesive samples using γ-Methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane(KH570) as a cross-linking agent.The results found that the addition of KH570 resulted in enhanced shear strength and storage stability. The addition of KH570 also promoted the thermal stability due to increase the number of covalent bonds.Furthermore, the KH570 enhanced the shear-thinning property and weakened the pseudoplastic behavior of the adhesive...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575526/reconstructing-the-suberin-pathway-in-poplar-by-chemical-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-bark-tissues
#8
Meghan K Rains, Nayana Dilini Gardiyehewa de Silva, Isabel Molina
The tree bark periderm confers the first line of protection against pathogen invasion and abiotic stresses. The phellogen (cork cambium) externally produces cork (phellem) cells that are dead at maturity; while metabolically active, these tissues synthesize cell walls, as well as cell wall modifications, namely suberin and waxes. Suberin is a heteropolymer with aliphatic and aromatic domains, composed of acylglycerols, cross-linked polyphenolics and solvent-extractable waxes. Although suberin is essentially ubiquitous in vascular plants, the biochemical functions of many enzymes and the genetic regulation of its synthesis are poorly understood...
June 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570853/polyurethane-foam-membranes-filled-with-humic-acid-chitosan-crosslinked-gels-for-selective-and-simultaneous-removal-of-dyes
#9
Hu-Cheng Yang, Ji-Lai Gong, Guang-Ming Zeng, Peng Zhang, Jian Zhang, Hong-Yu Liu, Shuang-Yan Huan
Polyurethane foam membrane filled with humic acid-chitosan crosslinked gels (HA-CS-PUF) for dye removal was prepared by soaking the foams into humic acid-chitosan (HA-CS) crosslinked gels and hot-pressing them into membranes. Scanning electron microscope, derivative thermogravimetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the HA-CS-PUF membrane. Results showed that the interaction of HA and CS was mainly through ionic cross-linking between carboxyl and protonated amino groups. Three types of dyes, including positively charged methylene blue (MB), neutrally charged rhodamine B (RB) and negatively charged methyl orange (MO), were used to test membranes properties through static adsorption and membrane filtration experiments...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562228/preparation-of-cross-linked-magnetic-chitosan-particles-from-steel-slag-and-shrimp-shells-for-removal-of-heavy-metals
#10
Le Van Thuan, Tran Bao Chau, Tran Thi Kieu Ngan, Tran Xuan Vu, Dinh Duc Nguyen, Minh-Hiep Nguyen, Dang Thi Thanh Thao, Nguyen To Hoai, Le Hoang Sinh
In this study, a new method for preparation of cross-linked magnetic chitosan particles (MCPs) from steel slag and shrimp shells using green tea extract as crosslinking reagent has been presented. The MCPs obtained were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and magnetic properties, and then were used to investigate the adsorption properties of Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions in aqueous solutions. The influence of experimental conditions such as contact time, pH value, adsorbent dose and initial metal concentration, and the possibility of regeneration were studied systematically...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560501/relationship-of-bone-mineral-density-with-valvular-and-annular-calcification-in-community-dwelling-older-people-the-cardiovascular-health-study
#11
Daniele Massera, Shuo Xu, Traci M Bartz, Anna E Bortnick, Joachim H Ix, Michel Chonchol, David S Owens, Eddy Barasch, Julius M Gardin, John S Gottdiener, John R Robbins, David S Siscovick, Jorge R Kizer
Associations between bone mineral density and aortic valvular, aortic annular, and mitral annular calcification were investigated in a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort of 1497 older adults. Although there was no association between continuous bone mineral density and outcomes, a significant association between osteoporosis and aortic valvular calcification in men was found. INTRODUCTION: The process of cardiac calcification bears a resemblance to skeletal bone metabolism and its regulation...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555697/double-network-hydrogels-with-highly-enhanced-toughness-based-on-a-modified-first-network
#12
Jun Liang, Guorong Shan, Pengju Pan
A novel double network (DN) hydrogel with highly enhanced toughness has been prepared using reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT)-modified poly(2-acrylamide-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid) (PAMPS) as the first network, and polyacrylamide (PAM) as the second network. The mechanical properties of the first-network-modified PAMPS/PAM DN hydrogels have been studied and the new DN hydrogel shows remarkably high fracture energy (3.3 MJ m(-3)) in tensile deformation, which is nearly 9 times larger than that of the unmodified PAMPS/PAM DN hydrogel...
June 7, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555397/novel-highly-porous-magnetic-hydrogel-beads-composed-of-chitosan-and-sodium-citrate-an-effective-adsorbent-for-the-removal-of-heavy-metals-from-aqueous-solutions
#13
Shengyan Pu, Hui Ma, Anatoly Zinchenko, Wei Chu
This research focuses on the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using magnetic chitosan hydrogel beads as a potential sorbent. Highly porous magnetic chitosan hydrogel (PMCH) beads were prepared by a combination of in situ co-precipitation and sodium citrate cross-linking. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the high sorption efficiency of metal cations is attributable to the hydroxyl, amino, and carboxyl groups in PMCH beads. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that introducing Fe3O4 nanoparticles increases the thermal stability of the adsorbent...
May 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551315/prevalence-of-exercise-addiction-symptomology-and-disordered-eating-in-australian-students-studying-nutrition-and-dietetics
#14
Tetyana Rocks, Fiona Pelly, Gary Slater, Lisa Anne Martin
BACKGROUND: Previous research has reported the existence of disordered eating in students studying nutrition and dietetics. However, the occurrence of exercise addiction, previously linked to disordered eating, is poorly understood in this group. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of exercise addiction and the association with disordered eating in a sample of students studying nutrition and dietetics...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544388/healing-effect-of-controlled-anti-electromigration-on-conventional-and-high-tc-superconducting-nanowires
#15
Xavier D A Baumans, Joseph Lombardo, Jérémy Brisbois, Gorky Shaw, Vyacheslav S Zharinov, Ge He, Heshan Yu, Jie Yuan, Beiyi Zhu, Kui Jin, Roman B G Kramer, Joris Van de Vondel, Alejandro V Silhanek
The electromigration process has the potential capability to move atoms one by one when properly controlled. It is therefore an appealing tool to tune the cross section of monoatomic compounds with ultimate resolution or, in the case of polyatomic compounds, to change the stoichiometry with the same atomic precision. As demonstrated here, a combination of electromigration and anti-electromigration can be used to reversibly displace atoms with a high degree of control. This enables a fine adjustment of the superconducting properties of Al weak links, whereas in Nb the diffusion of atoms leads to a more irreversible process...
May 19, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542539/a-leishmania-secretion-system-for-the-expression-of-major-ampullate-spidroin-mimics
#16
Todd A Lyda, Elizabeth L Wagner, Andre X Bourg, Congyue Peng, Golnaz Najaf Tomaraei, Delphine Dean, Marian S Kennedy, William R Marcotte
Spider major ampullate silk fibers have been shown to display a unique combination of relatively high fracture strength and toughness compared to other fibers and show potential for tissue engineering scaffolds. While it is not possible to mass produce native spider silks, the potential ability to produce fibers from recombinant spider silk fibers could allow for an increased innovation rate within tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this pilot study, we improved upon a prior fabrication route by both changing the expression host and additives to the fiber pulling precursor solution to improve the performance of fibers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534525/covalently-linked-dengue-virus-envelope-glycoprotein-dimers-reduce-exposure-of-the-immunodominant-fusion-loop-epitope
#17
Alexander Rouvinski, Wanwisa Dejnirattisai, Pablo Guardado-Calvo, Marie-Christine Vaney, Arvind Sharma, Stéphane Duquerroy, Piyada Supasa, Wiyada Wongwiwat, Ahmed Haouz, Giovanna Barba-Spaeth, Juthathip Mongkolsapaya, Félix A Rey, Gavin R Screaton
A problem in the search for an efficient vaccine against dengue virus is the immunodominance of the fusion loop epitope (FLE), a segment of the envelope protein E that is buried at the interface of the E dimers coating mature viral particles. Anti-FLE antibodies are broadly cross-reactive but poorly neutralizing, displaying a strong infection enhancing potential. FLE exposure takes place via dynamic 'breathing' of E dimers at the virion surface. In contrast, antibodies targeting the E dimer epitope (EDE), readily exposed at the E dimer interface over the region of the conserved fusion loop, are very potent and broadly neutralizing...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534314/rapid-molecular-sexing-of-three-spined-sticklebacks-gasterosteus-aculeatus-l-based-on-large-y-chromosomal-insertions
#18
Theo C M Bakker, Thomas Giger, Joachim G Frommen, Carlo R Largiadèr
There is a need for rapid and reliable molecular sexing of three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, the supermodel species for evolutionary biology. A DNA region at the 5' end of the sex-linked microsatellite Gac4202 was sequenced for the X chromosome of six females and the Y chromosome of five males from three populations. The Y chromosome contained two large insertions, which did not recombine with the phenotype of sex in a cross of 322 individuals. Genetic variation (SNPs and indels) within the insertions was smaller than on flanking DNA sequences...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533092/thiol-reactive-drug-substrates-of-human-p-glycoprotein-label-the-same-sites-to-activate-atpase-activity-in-membranes-or-dodecyl-maltoside-detergent-micelles
#19
Tip W Loo, David M Clarke
P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) is an ABC drug pump that is clinically important because it is involved in multidrug resistance. Many studies have used purified P-gp in detergent (n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside; DM) micelles to map the locations of the drug-binding sites. A potential problem is that DM could be a substrate and affect binding of drugs to P-gp. To test whether DM was a substrate of P-gp, we used an assay involving drug-rescue of the immature 150 kDa misprocessed P-gp mutant (L1260A) to show that DM is not substrate...
May 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530192/preparation-structural-characterisation-and-release-study-of-novel-hybrid-microspheres-entrapping-nanoselenium-produced-by-green-synthesis
#20
Simona Cavalu, Jόszef Prokisch, Vasile Laslo, Simona Vicas
The main goal of this study was to synthesise and characterise different formulations based on alginate and alginate/chitosan microspheres containing nanoselenium (nano-Se) for controlled delivery applications. Nanosize elemental selenium was produced by using probiotic yogurt bacteria (Lactobacillus casei) in a fermentation procedure. The structural and morphological characterisation of the microspheres was performed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis...
June 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
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