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Influenza challenge studies

Marika Genzow, Christa Goodell, Troy J Kaiser, Wesley Johnson, Marc Eichmeyer
BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) causes an acute respiratory disease of swine which results in great economic losses in pig production. Major control strategies include the use of killed vaccines (KV) in breeding females to confer passive immunity to their offspring. A bivalent H1N1 and H3N2 NS1-truncated live attenuated IAV-S vaccine has recently become available, which showed promising results in young pigs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an intranasal vaccination of newborn pigs with or without maternally derived antibodies (MDA) on virus shedding (via nasal swabs tested by virus isolation)...
December 13, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Liqing Tu, Pei Zhou, Lutao Li, Xiuzhen Li, Renjun Hu, Kun Jia, Lingshuang Sun, Ziguo Yuan, Shoujun Li
Canine influenza virus (CIV) has the potential risk to spread in different areas and dog types. Thus, there is a growing need to develop an effective vaccine to control CIV disease. Here, we developed three vaccine candidates: 1) a recombinant pVAX1 vector expressing H3N2 CIV hemagglutinin (pVAX1-HA); 2) a live attenuated canine adenovirus type 2 expressing H3N2 CIV hemagglutinin (rCAV2-HA); and 3) an inactivated H3N2 CIV (A/canine/Guangdong/01/2006 (H3N2)). Mice received an initial intramuscular immunization that followed two booster injections at 2 and 4 weeks post-vaccination (wpv)...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
Alexander Yitbarek, J Scott Weese, Tamiru Negash Alkie, John Parkinson, Shayan Sharif
The impact of low pathogenic influenza viruses such as subtype H9N2, which infect the respiratory and the gastrointestinal tracts of chickens, on microbial composition are not known. Twenty day-old specific pathogen free chickens were assigned to two treatment groups, control (Uninfected) and H9N2-infected (challenged via the oral-nasal route). Fecal genomic DNA was extracted, and the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced using the Illumina Miseq® platform. Sequences were curated using Mothur as described in the MiSeq SOP...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Alexandra Nunn, Audrey C Campbell, Monika Naus, Jeffrey C Kwong, David Puddicombe, Susan Quach, Bonnie Henry
OBJECTIVES: In 2012, British Columbia (BC) became the first Canadian province to implement an influenza prevention policy requiring healthcare workers (HCW) to either be vaccinated annually against influenza or wear a mask in patient care areas during the influenza season. This study describes an evaluation of influenza policy implementation processes and identifies supports and challenges related to successful policy implementation at the level of healthcare facilities, during the second policy year (2013/14)...
December 6, 2017: Vaccine
Jayendra Kumar Krishnaswamy, Uthaman Gowthaman, Biyan Zhang, Johan Mattsson, Louis Szeponik, Dong Liu, Renee Wu, Theresa White, Samuele Calabro, Lan Xu, Magalie A Collet, Marina Yurieva, Samuel Alsén, Per Fogelstrand, Anne Walter, William R Heath, Scott N Mueller, Ulf Yrlid, Adam Williams, Stephanie C Eisenbarth
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a subset of CD4+ T cells that promote antibody production during vaccination. Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) efficiently prime Tfh cells; however, conclusions regarding which cDC instructs Tfh cell differentiation have differed between recent studies. We found that these discrepancies might exist because of the unusual sites used for immunization in murine models, which differentially bias which DC subsets access antigen. We used intranasal immunization as a physiologically relevant route of exposure that delivers antigen to all tissue DC subsets...
December 1, 2017: Science Immunology
Feng Huang, Jingliang Chen, Junsong Zhang, Likai Tan, Gui Lu, Yongjie Luo, Ting Pan, Juanran Liang, Qianwen Li, Baohong Luo, Hui Zhang, Gen Lu
Although antiviral drugs are available for the treatment of influenza infection, it is an urgent requirement to develop new antiviral drugs regarding the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. The nucleoprotein (NP) is conserved among all influenza A viruses (IAVs) and has no cellular equivalent. Therefore, NP is an ideal target for the development of new IAV inhibitors. In this study, we identified a novel anti-influenza compound, ZBMD-1, from a library of 20,000 compounds using cell-based influenza A infection assays...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Zeinab Mohamed Ali, Mervat Abd El Monaem Hassan, Hussein Ali Hussein, Basem Mohamed Ahmed, Ahmed Abd El-Ghany El Sanousi
Aim: The objective of the present study was to prepare a trivalent inactivated vaccine of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), H5N1, and H9N2 viruses. Materials and Methods: Three monovalent and a trivalent vaccines were prepared by emulsifying inactivated NDV (LaSota strain), reassortant H5N1, and H9N2 viruses with Montanide ISA 71 oil adjuvant. Parameters used for evaluation of the efficacy of the prepared vaccines in specific pathogen-free chickens were cellular immunity assays (blastogenesis, interferon gamma, interleukin 1 [IL1], and IL6), humoral immunity by hemagglutination inhibition, protection percentage, and shedding...
October 2017: Veterinary World
Meret E Ricklin, Sylvie Python, Nathalie J Vielle, Daniel Brechbühl, Beatrice Zumkehr, Horst Posthaus, Gert Zimmer, Nicolas Ruggli, Artur Summerfield
Studies in the mouse model indicate that the nucleoprotein of influenza A virus represents an interesting vaccine antigen being well conserved across subtypes of influenza virus but still able to induce protective immune responses. Here we show that immunizations of pigs with vesicular stomatitis virus- and classical swine fever virus-derived replicon (VRP) particles expressing the nucleoprotein (NP) of H1N1 A/swine/Belzig/2/01 induced potent antibody and T-cell responses against influenza A virus. In contrast to a conventional whole inactivated virus vaccine, the VRP vaccines induced both NP-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells responses, including interferon-γ and tumor-necrosis-factor dual-secreting cell...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Charles L Balzli, Kateri Bertran, Dong-Hun Lee, Lindsay Killmaster, Nikki Pritchard, Perry Linz, Teshome Mebatsion, David E Swayne
The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in North American poultry during 2014 and 2015 demonstrated the devastating effects of the disease and highlighted the need for effective emergency vaccine prevention and control strategies targeted at currently circulating strains. This study evaluated the efficacy of experimental recombinant turkey herpesvirus vector vaccines with three different inserts targeting the hemagglutinin gene of an isolate from the recent North American influenza outbreak...
November 24, 2017: Vaccine
Robert D Junkins, Matthew D Gallovic, Brandon M Johnson, Michael A Collier, Rebekah Watkins-Schulz, Ning Cheng, Clément N David, Charles E McGee, Gregory D Sempowski, Ivo Shterev, Karen McKinnon, Eric M Bachelder, Kristy M Ainslie, Jenny P-Y Ting
Most FDA-approved adjuvants for infectious agents boost humoral but not cellular immunity, and have poorly-understood mechanisms. Stimulator of interferon genes (STING, also known as MITA, MPYS, or ERIS) is an exciting adjuvant target due to its role in cyclic dinucleotide (CDN)-driven anti-viral immunity; however, a major hindrance is STING's cytosolic localization which requires intracellular delivery of its agonists. As a result, STING agonists administered in a soluble form have elicited suboptimal immune responses...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Hongquan Wan, Li Qi, Jin Gao, Laura K Couzens, Lianlian Jiang, Yamei Gao, Zong-Mei Sheng, Sharon Fong, Megan Hahn, Surender Khurana, Jeffery K Taubenberger, Maryna C Eichelberger
The fifth wave of A(H7N9) virus infection in China from 2016 to 2017 caused great concern due to the large number of individuals infected, the isolation of drug-resistant viruses and emergence of highly pathogenic strains. Antibodies against neuraminidase (NA) provide added benefit to hemagglutinin-specific immunity and may be an important contributor to the effectiveness of A(H7N9) vaccines. We generated a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to identify antigenic domains on NA of the novel A(H7N9) virus and compared their functional properties...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
E R Job, M Schotsaert, L I Ibañez, A Smet, T Ysenbaert, K Roose, M Dai, C A M de Haan, H Kleanthous, T U Vogel, X Saelens
There is increasing evidence to suggest that antibodies directed towards influenza A virus (IAV) neuraminidase (NA) are an important correlate of protection against influenza in humans. Moreover, the potential of NA-specific antibodies to provide broader protection than conventional hemagglutinin (HA) antibodies has been recognized. Herein, we describe the isolation of two monoclonal antibodies, N1-7D3 and N1-C4, directed towards the N1 NA. N1-7D3 binds to a conserved linear epitope in the membrane distal, carboxy-terminal part of the NA and reacted with the NA of seasonal H1N1 isolates ranging from 1977 till 2007 the 2009 H1N1pdm virus as well as A/Vietnam/1194/04 (H5N1)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
Sandra Gerges, Elizabeth Peter, Susan K Bowles, Shelley Diamond, Lucie Marisa Bucci, Anne Resnick, Anna Taddio
OBJECTIVES: In 2012, Ontario pharmacists were granted immunization privileges to administer influenza vaccines to the public. This study explored the experiences and practices of pharmacist vaccinators and the impact of vaccination pain on their practice. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 pharmacists in the Greater Toronto Area. Transcribed interview data were coded and analyzed via thematic analysis. KEY FINDINGS: Data analysis revealed 4 main themes: 1) expanded scope of practice as an enhancement and challenge to relationships; 2) professional satisfaction and workload demands; 3) knowledge and attitudes regarding pain and fear; 4) practices regarding pain and fear management...
November 15, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
José Tomás Prieto, Jorge H Jara, Juan Pablo Alvis, Luis R Furlan, Christian Travis Murray, Judith Garcia, Pierre-Jean Benghozi, Susan Cornelia Kaydos-Daniels
BACKGROUND: In many Latin American countries, official influenza reports are neither timely nor complete, and surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) remains thin in consistency and precision. Public participation with mobile technology may offer new ways of identifying nonmedically attended cases and reduce reporting delays, but no published studies to date have assessed the viability of ILI surveillance with mobile tools in Latin America. We implemented and assessed an ILI-tailored mobile health (mHealth) participatory reporting system...
November 14, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Michelle Wille, Hong Yin, Åke Lundkvist, Juan Xu, Shaman Muradrasoli, Josef D Järhult
Surveillance of wild birds is critical in monitoring for highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (AIVs). However, a successful surveillance regime requires proper treatment of samples in the field - rapid placement of samples in -80°C and subsequent maintenance of cold-chain. Given the logistical difficulties of this, many avian taxa and/or geographic locations are not sampled, or, when sampled may result in false negatives due to poor sample treatment in the field. Here, we assessed the utility of RNAlater(®) as a stabilization agent for AIV sampling...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
Jacintha Gb van Dijk, Josanne H Verhagen, Michelle Wille, Jonas Waldenström
Low pathogenic influenza A virus (LPIAV) prevalence and subtype distribution differs between and across bird taxa. A crucial factor in the epidemiology of these viruses and virus subtypes is the ability to transmit between and within different host taxa and individuals. Successful viral transmission depends on availability of susceptible hosts and exposure of host to virus. Exposure to viruses and susceptibility to virus infection and/or disease are shaped by both host and virus traits. In this review we have identified key host and virus traits that can affect LPIAV transmission, both in terms of exposure and susceptibility...
November 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
Feng Wen, Lei Li, Nan Zhao, Meng-Jung Chiang, Hang Xie, Jim Cooley, Richard Webby, Peng George Wang, Xiu-Feng Wan
Vaccination is the primary strategy for influenza prevention and control. Yet egg-based vaccines, the predominant production platform, have several disadvantages including the emergence of viral antigenic variants that can be induced during egg passage. These limitations have prompted development of cell-based vaccines which themselves are not without issue. Most importantly, vaccine seed viruses often do not grow efficiently in mammalian cell lines. Here we aimed to identify novel high-yield signatures for influenza viruses in continuous Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Vero cells...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
Laurence Bernard, Alain Biron, Geneviève Lavigne, Julie Frechette, Agnès Bernard, Jonathan Mitchell, Mélanie Lavoie-Tremblay
AIMS: The objectives of the study were to: (1) examine the relationships between three different qualitative perceptions of safety culture and the Canadian Patient Safety Climate Survey factors; (2) determine whether these perceptions are associated with different hand hygiene practices. BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections and safety cultures are a worldwide issue. During the A/H1N1 Influenza pandemic, Europe and North America did not have the same responses...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Pui-Fong Jee, Vunjia Tiong, Meng-Hooi Shu, Jing-Jing Khoo, Won Fen Wong, Raha Abdul Rahim, Sazaly AbuBakar, Li-Yen Chang
Mucosal immunization of influenza vaccine is potentially an effective approach for the prevention and control of influenza. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the ability of oral immunization with a non-recombinant Lactococcus lactis displaying HA1/L/AcmA recombinant protein, LL-HA1/L/AcmA, to induce mucosal immune responses and to accord protection against influenza virus infection in mice. The LL-HA1/L/AcmA was orally administered into mice and the immune response was evaluated. Mice immunized with LL-HA1/L/AcmA developed detectable specific sIgA in faecal extract, small intestine wash, BAL fluid and nasal fluid...
2017: PloS One
Selvaraj Pavulraj, Nitin Virmani, Bidhan Chandra Bera, Alok Joshi, Taruna Anand, Meenakshi Virmani, Rajendra Singh, Raj Kumar Singh, Bhupendra Nath Tripathi
Equine influenza viruses (EIVs) are responsible for acute contagious respiratory infection in equines and the disease remains a major threat for equine population throughout the world despite vaccination strategies in place. The present study was aimed to assess the suitability of BALB/c mice as a potential small animal model for preliminary screening of EI vaccine candidates. For this, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an inactivated EIV (H3N8) vaccine in BALB/c mouse model after challenge with homologous H3N8 virus (Clade 2 virus, Florida sublineage) through serology, clinical signs, gross and histopathology lesions with grading, immunohistochemistry and virus quantification...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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