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Influenza challenge studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456197/clinical-usefulness-and-accuracy-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-the-detection-of-bacterial-meningitis-agents-in-pediatric-cerebrospinal-fluid
#1
M Nour, A Alaidarous
Bacterial meningitis poses enormous healthcare challenges due to a high mortality, morbidity and sequelae. Neisseria (N.) meningitidis, Haemophilus (H.) influenzae, Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae and S. agalactiae remain among the most prevalent infectious agents that cause bacterial meningitis in children. The objective of this study was the simultaneous detection of these pathogens in suspected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) and compare PCR results with standard diagnostics currently used in clinical practice...
February 15, 2018: Current Research in Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454517/intradermal-immunization-with-inactivated-swine-influenza-virus-and-adjuvant-polydi-sodium-carboxylatoethylphenoxy-phosphazene-pcep-induced-humoral-and-cell-mediated-immunity-and-reduced-lung-viral-titres-in-pigs
#2
Royford Magiri, Ken Lai, Alyssa Chaffey, Yan Zhou, Hyun-Mi Pyo, Volker Gerdts, Heather L Wilson, George Mutwiri
Swine influenza virus is endemic worldwide and it is responsible for significant economic losses to the swine industry. A vaccine that stimulates a rapid and long-lasting protective immune response to prevent this infection is highly sought. Poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)-phosphazene (PCEP) has demonstrated adjuvant activity when formulated as part of multiple vaccines in mice and pigs. In this study we examined the magnitude and type of immune response induced in pigs vaccinated via the intramuscular or intradermal routes with inactivated swine influenza virus (SIV) H1N1 vaccine formulated with PCEP...
February 14, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451040/pulmonary-delivery-of-influenza-vaccine-formulations-in-cotton-rats-site-of-deposition-plays-a-minor-role-in-the-protective-efficacy-against-clinical-isolate-of-h1n1pdm-virus
#3
Yoshita Bhide, Jasmine Tomar, Wei Dong, Jacqueline de Vries-Idema, Henderik W Frijlink, Anke Huckriede, Wouter L J Hinrichs
Administration of influenza vaccines to the lungs could be an attractive alternative to conventional parenteral administration. In this study, we investigated the deposition site of pulmonary delivered liquid and powder influenza vaccine formulations and its relation to their immunogenicity and protective efficacy. In vivo deposition studies in cotton rats revealed that, the powder formulation was mainly deposited in the trachea ( ∼ 65%) whereas the liquid was homogenously distributed throughout the lungs ( ∼ 96%)...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449842/pan-influenza-a-protection-by-prime-boost-vaccination-with-cold-adapted-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-in-a-mouse-model
#4
Yo Han Jang, Joo Young Kim, Young Ho Byun, Ahyun Son, Jeong-Yoon Lee, Yoon Jae Lee, Jun Chang, Baik Lin Seong
Influenza virus infections continually pose a major public health threat with seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics worldwide. While currently licensed influenza vaccines provide only strain-specific protection, antigenic drift and shift occasionally render the viruses resistant to the host immune responses, which highlight the need for a vaccine that provides broad protection against multiple subtypes. In this study, we suggest a vaccination strategy using cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccines (CAIVs) to provide a broad, potent, and safe cross-protection covering antigenically distinct hemagglutinin (HA) groups 1 and 2 influenza viruses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447623/community-health-workers-on-a-college-campus-effects-on-influenza-vaccination
#5
Jack J Huang, Maria Francesconi, Madeline H Cooper, Allyson Covello, Michelle Guo, Soheyla D Gharib
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of a campus community health worker program (HealthPALs) on student influenza vaccination. PARTICIPANTS: Undergraduate students at a northeastern US university (enrollment 6650), influenza seasons 2011-2012 through 2015-2016. METHODS: Study design: Difference-in-differences analysis of student vaccination at campus dormitory influenza clinics during intervention vs. baseline. INTERVENTION: In the first intervention year, HealthPALs conducted in-person peer outreach at several campus dormitory flu clinics...
February 15, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447284/influenza-interaction-with-cocirculating-pathogens-and-its-impact-on-surveillance-pathogenesis-and-epidemic-profile-a-key-role-for-mathematical-modelling
#6
REVIEW
Lulla Opatowski, Marc Baguelin, Rosalind M Eggo
Evidence is mounting that influenza virus interacts with other pathogens colonising or infecting the human respiratory tract. Taking into account interactions with other pathogens may be critical to determining the real influenza burden and the full impact of public health policies targeting influenza. This is particularly true for mathematical modelling studies, which have become critical in public health decision-making. Yet models usually focus on influenza virus acquisition and infection alone, thereby making broad oversimplifications of pathogen ecology...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445377/mouse-models-of-influenza-infection-with-circulating-strains-to-test-seasonal-vaccine-efficacy
#7
Helen T Groves, Jacqueline U McDonald, Pinky Langat, Ekaterina Kinnear, Paul Kellam, John McCauley, Joanna Ellis, Catherine Thompson, Ruth Elderfield, Lauren Parker, Wendy Barclay, John S Tregoning
Influenza virus infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The surface antigens of influenza virus change over time blunting both naturally acquired and vaccine induced adaptive immune protection. Viral antigenic drift is a major contributing factor to both the spread and disease burden of influenza. The aim of this study was to develop better infection models using clinically relevant, influenza strains to test vaccine induced protection. CB6F1 mice were infected with a range of influenza viruses and disease, inflammation, cell influx, and viral load were characterized after infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445364/non-specific-effect-of-vaccines-immediate-protection-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-by-a-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine
#8
Young J Lee, Jeong Y Lee, Yo H Jang, Sang-Uk Seo, Jun Chang, Baik L Seong
The non-specific effects (NSEs) of vaccines have been discussed for their potential long-term beneficial effects beyond direct protection against a specific pathogen. Cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccine (CAIV) induces local innate immune responses that provide a broad range of antiviral immunity. Herein, we examined whether X-31ca, a donor virus for CAIVs, provides non-specific cross-protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The degree of RSV replication was significantly reduced when X-31ca was administered before RSV infection without any RSV-specific antibody responses...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427414/simultaneous-targeting-of-multiple-hemagglutinins-to-apcs-for-induction-of-broad-immunity-against-influenza
#9
Ane Marie Anderson, Marta Baranowska-Hustad, Ranveig Braathen, Gunnveig Grodeland, Bjarne Bogen
There is a need for vaccines that can confer broad immunity against highly diverse pathogens, such as influenza. The efficacy of conventional influenza vaccines is dependent on accurate matching of vaccines to circulating strains, but slow and limited production capacities increase the probability of vaccine mismatches. In contrast, DNA vaccination allows for rapid production of vaccines encoding novel influenza Ags. The efficacy of DNA vaccination is greatly improved if the DNA-encoded vaccine proteins target APCs...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425079/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-different-seasonal-influenza-vaccines-in-the-elderly-italian-population
#10
Stefano Capri, Marco Barbieri, Chiara de Waure, Sara Boccalini, Donatella Panatto
ABSRACT In the perspective of reaching at least 75% influenza vaccination coverage in the elderly and substantial budget constraints, Italian decision makers are facing important challenges in determining an optimal immunization strategy for this growing and particularly vulnerable population. Four different influenza vaccines are currently available for Italian older adults aged 65 years or above, namely trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIVs), MF59-adjuvanted TIV (MF59-TIV), intradermal TIV (ID-TIV) and quadrivalent inactivated vaccines (QIVs)...
February 9, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400997/intradermal-delivery-of-a-fractional-dose-of-influenza-h7n9-split-vaccine-elicits-protective-immunity-in-mice-and-rats
#11
Shanshan Zhou, Tianyu Ren, Hongjing Gu, Cheng Wang, Min Li, Zhongpeng Zhao, Li Xing, Liangyan Zhang, Yi Sun, Penghui Yang, Xiliang Wang
Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing the spread of the influenza virus. However, the traditional intramuscular (IM) immunization causes fear, pain, and cross infection. In contrast, needle-free (NF) immunization is quick and easy for medical personnel and painless and safe for patients. In this study, we assessed the safety and protective efficacy of NF intradermal (ID) immunization with the influenza H7N9 split vaccine (AnhuiH7N9/PR8). A preliminary safety evaluation showed that ID immunization with 15 μg of the H7N9 influenza vaccine was not toxic in rats...
February 5, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398273/the-choice-of-linker-for-conjugating-r848-to-inactivated-influenza-virus-determines-the-stimulatory-capacity-for-innate-immune-cells
#12
Marlena M Westcott, Elene A Clemens, Beth C Holbrook, S Bruce King, Martha A Alexander-Miller
Inactivated influenza vaccines are not approved for use in infants less than 6 months of age due to poor immunogenicity in that population. While the live attenuated influenza vaccine has the potential to be more immunogenic, it is not an option for infants and other vulnerable populations, including the elderly and immunocompromised individuals due to safety concerns. In an effort to improve the immunogenicity of the inactivated vaccine for use in vulnerable populations, we have used an approach of chemically crosslinking the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonist R848 directly to virus particles...
February 2, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391053/oral-immunization-with-a-novel-attenuated-salmonella-typhimurium-encoding-influenza-ha-m2e-and-na-antigens-protects-chickens-against-h7n9-infection
#13
Je Hyoung Kim, Irshad Ahmed Hajam, John Hwa Lee
Attenuated Salmonella strains constitute a promising technology for the development of efficient protein-based influenza vaccines. H7N9, a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus, is a major public health concern and currently there are no effective vaccines against this subtype. Herein, we constructed a novel attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium strain for the delivery and expression of H7N9 hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) or the conserved extracellular domain of the matrix protein 2 (M2e). We demonstrated that the constructed Salmonella strains exhibited efficient HA, NA and M2e expressions, respectively, and the constructs were safe and immunogenic in chickens...
February 1, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387135/vaccines-for-the-elderly-current-use-and-future-challenges
#14
REVIEW
Birgit Weinberger
Age-related changes of the immune system contribute to increased incidence and severity of infections in the elderly. Vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent infections and vaccination recommendations in most countries include specific guidelines for the elderly. Vaccination against influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae is usually recommended for persons with underlying diseases and for the elderly with heterogeneous age limits between ≥ 50 years and ≥ 65 years. Some countries also recommend vaccination against herpes zoster...
2018: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381710/comparison-of-the-efficacy-of-a-commercial-inactivated-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm09-virus-ph1n1-vaccine-and-two-experimental-m2e-based-vaccines-against-ph1n1-challenge-in-the-growing-pig-model
#15
Tanja Opriessnig, Phillip C Gauger, Priscilla F Gerber, Alessandra M M G Castro, Huigang Shen, Lita Murphy, Paul Digard, Patrick G Halbur, Ming Xia, Xi Jiang, Ming Tan
Swine influenza A viruses (IAV-S) found in North American pigs are diverse and the lack of cross-protection among heterologous strains is a concern. The objective of this study was to compare a commercial inactivated A/H1N1/pdm09 (pH1N1) vaccine and two novel subunit vaccines, using IAV M2 ectodomain (M2e) epitopes as antigens, in a growing pig model. Thirty-nine 2-week-old IAV negative pigs were randomly assigned to five groups and rooms. At 3 weeks of age and again at 5 weeks of age, pigs were vaccinated intranasally with an experimental subunit particle vaccine (NvParticle/M2e) or a subunit complex-based vaccine (NvComplex/M2e) or intramuscularly with a commercial inactivated vaccine (Inact/pH1N1)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373086/influenza-virus-dealing-with-a-drifting-and-shifting-pathogen
#16
Hyunsuh Kim, Robert G Webster, Richard J Webby
Numerous modern technological and scientific advances have changed the vaccine industry. However, nearly 70 years of influenza vaccine usage have passed without substantial changes in the underlying principles of the vaccine. The challenge of vaccinating against influenza lies in the constantly changing nature of the virus itself. Influenza viruses undergo antigenic evolution through antigenic drift and shift in their surface glycoproteins. This has forced frequent updates of vaccine antigens to ensure that the somewhat narrowly focused vaccine-induced immune responses defend against circulating strains...
January 26, 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362240/evaluation-of-preexisting-anti-hemagglutinin-stalk-antibody-as-a-correlate-of-protection-in-a-healthy-volunteer-challenge-with-influenza-a-h1n1pdm-virus
#17
Jae-Keun Park, Alison Han, Lindsay Czajkowski, Susan Reed, Rani Athota, Tyler Bristol, Luz Angela Rosas, Adriana Cervantes-Medina, Jeffery K Taubenberger, Matthew J Memoli
Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein is currently the primary target of licensed influenza vaccines. Recently, broadly reactive antibodies that target the stalk region of the HA have become a major focus of current novel vaccine development. These antibodies have been observed in humans after natural infection with influenza A virus, but the data are limited. Using samples and data from the uniquely controlled setting of an influenza A/H1N1 virus human challenge study of healthy volunteers, we performed a secondary analysis that for the first time explores the role of anti-HA stalk antibody as a human correlate of protection...
January 23, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361238/digital-image-analyses-on-whole-lung-slides-in-mouse-models-of-acute-pneumonia
#18
Kristina Dietert, Geraldine Nouailles, Birgitt Gutbier, Katrin Reppe, Sarah Berger, Xiaohui Jiang, Anja E Schauer, Andreas C Hocke, Susanne Herold, Hortense Slevogt, Martin Witzenrath, Norbert Suttorp, Achim D Gruber
Descriptive histopathology of mouse models of pneumonia is essential in assessing the outcome of infections, molecular manipulations or therapies in the context of whole lungs. Quantitative comparisons between experimental groups, however, have been limited to laborious stereology or ill-defined scoring systems that depend on the subjectivity of a more or less experienced observer. Here, we introduce self-learning digital image analyses that allow to transform optical information from whole mouse lung sections into statistically testable data...
January 23, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356318/standardisation-of-inactivated-influenza-vaccines-learning-from-history
#19
John M Wood, Jerry P Weir
The single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. The world-wide adoption of this assay for vaccine standardisation was facilitated through collaborative studies that demonstrated a high level of reproducibility and its applicability to the different types of influenza vaccine being produced at that time. Clinical evidence indicated the relevance of SRID as a potency assay. Unique features of the SRID assay are likely responsible for its longevity even as newer technologies for vaccine characterization have been developed and refined...
January 21, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343428/development-and-pre-clinical-evaluation-in-the-swine-model-of-a-mucosal-vaccine-tablet-for-human-influenza-viruses-a-proof-of-concept-study
#20
V Busignies, G Simon, G Mollereau, O Bourry, V Mazel, M Rosa-Calatrava, P Tchoreloff
Liquid vaccine formulations present some disadvantages such as stability problems, cold chain requirement or administration by trained personnel. Vaccine formulated as tablets would present a wide range of progress such as an increase stability that would facilitate the administration, the distribution and the storage of vaccine formulations. This work investigates the possibility to develop a mucosal tablet vaccine for human influenza viruses. The tablets were tested in vitro for biological efficacy and stability and in vivo in swine as a model for influenza A virus immunity...
January 14, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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