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Influenza challenge studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033942/mucosal-administration-of-cycle-di-nucleotide-adjuvanted-virosomes-efficiently-induces-protection-against-influenza-h5n1-in-mice
#1
Thomas Ebensen, Jennifer Debarry, Gabriel K Pedersen, Paulina Blazejewska, Sebastian Weissmann, Kai Schulze, Kenneth C McCullough, Rebecca J Cox, Carlos A Guzmán
The need for more effective influenza vaccines is highlighted by the emergence of novel influenza strains, which can lead to new pandemics. There is a growing population of susceptible subjects at risk for severe complications of influenza, such as the elderly who are only in part protected by current licensed seasonal vaccines. One strategy for improving seasonal and pandemic vaccines takes advantage of adjuvants to boost and modulate evoked immune responses. In this study, we examined the capacity of the recently described adjuvant cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) to serve as an adjuvant for improved mucosal influenza vaccines, and induce effective protection against influenza H5N1...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029975/distressed-setting-and-profound-challenges-pandemic-influenza-preparedness-plans-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region
#2
Mamunur R Malik, Zaeem Ul Haq, Quaid Saeed, Ruth Riley, Wasiq M Khan
BACKGROUND: Influenza pandemics are unpredictable and can have severe health and economic implications. Preparedness for pandemic influenza as advised by the World Health Organization (WHO) is key in minimizing the potential impacts. Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP) Framework is a global public-private initiative to strengthen the preparedness. A total of 43 countries receive funds through Partnership Contribution (PC) component of PIP Framework to enhance preparedness; seven of these fall in the WHO's Eastern Mediterranean Region...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028432/coadministration-of-recombinant-adenovirus-expressing-gm-csf-with-inactivated-h5n1-avian-influenza-vaccine-increased-the-immune-responses-and-protective-efficacy-against-a-wild-bird-source-of-h5n1-challenge
#3
Xiangwei Wang, Xinglong Wang, Yanqing Jia, Chongyang Wang, Qiuxia Tang, Qingsong Han, Sa Xiao, Zengqi Yang
Wild birds play a key role in the spread of avian influenza virus (AIV). There is a continual urgent requirement for AIV vaccines to address the ongoing genetic changes of AIV. In the current study, we trialed a novel AIV vaccine against the wild bird source of H5N1 type AIV with recombinant adenovirus expressing granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as an adjuvant. A total of 150-day-old commercial chicks, with AIV-maternal-derived antibody, were divided into 6 groups. The primary vaccination was performed at day 14 followed by a subsequent boosting and intramuscular challenge on day 28 and 42, respectively...
October 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023541/improved-influenza-viral-vector-based-brucella-abortus-vaccine-induces-robust-b-and-t-cell-responses-and-protection-against-brucella-melitensis-infection-in-pregnant-sheep-and-goats
#4
Aigerim Mailybayeva, Bolat Yespembetov, Sholpan Ryskeldinova, Nadezhda Zinina, Abylai Sansyzbay, Gourapura J Renukaradhya, Nikolai Petrovsky, Kaissar Tabynov
We previously developed a potent candidate vaccine against bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus using the influenza viral vector expressing Brucella Omp16 and L7/L12 proteins (Flu-BA). Our success in the Flu-BA vaccine trial in cattle and results of a pilot study in non-pregnant small ruminants prompted us in the current study to test its efficacy against B. melitensis infection in pregnant sheep and goats. In this study, we improved the Flu-BA vaccine formulation and immunization method to achieve maximum efficacy and safety...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018431/depression-of-vaccinal-immunity-to-marek-s-disease-by-infection-with-chicken-infectious-anemia-virus
#5
Yankun Zhang, Ning Cui, Ni Han, Jiayan Wu, Zhizhong Cui, Shuai Su
Marek's disease (MD) has been occurring with increasing frequency in chickens in recent years. To our knowledge, however, there has been no report of the very virulent plus (vv+) MD virus (MDV) field isolate in China. Studies have shown that dual infection with immunosuppressive viruses such as chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) occurs frequently in chickens developing MD. In this study, we performed a designed set of in vivo experiments, which comprised five different groups of chickens, including the group of CVI988/Rispens-vaccinated chickens, the groups of CVI988/Rispens-vaccinated chickens infected with MDV or CIAV or both viruses (MDV and CIAV), and the group of MDV-challenged chickens...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016219/emerging-zoonotic-influenza-a-virus-detection-in-myanmar-surveillance-practices-and-findings
#6
Ye Tun Win, Emma Gardner, David Hadrill, Cho Cho Su Mon, Maung Maung Kyin, Min Thein Maw, Filip Claes, Sophie von Dobschuetz, Wantanee Kalpravidh, Kachen Wongsathapornchai, Hla Hla Mon, Win Win Myint, Wai Zin Thein, Pont Pont Mon
We describe 2-season, risk-based, virological surveillance for zoonotic avian influenza in Myanmar and report the first detection of influenza A subtypes H5N6 and H9N2 in Myanmar. The study focused mainly on the live bird markets in border townships, where illegal poultry importation from China usually takes place. The objective was to enhance early warning for low pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) incursion. The study followed the guidelines of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations for influenza A(H7N9) surveillance in uninfected countries...
October 10, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993601/potency-of-an-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-prepared-from-a-duck-hokkaido-162-2013-h2n1-against-a-challenge-with-a-swine-missouri-2124514-2006-h2n3-in-mice
#7
Mizuho Suzuki, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Takahiro Hiono, Keita Matsuno, Yoshihiro Sakoda
H2N2 influenza virus caused a pandemic starting in 1957 but has not been detected in humans since 1968. Thus, most people are immunologically naive to viruses of the H2 subtype. In contrast, H2 influenza viruses are continually isolated from wild birds, and H2N3 viruses were isolated from pigs in 2006. H2 influenza viruses could cause a pandemic if re-introduced into humans. In the present study, a vaccine against H2 influenza was prepared as an effective control measure against a future human pandemic. A/duck/Hokkaido/162/2013 (H2N1), which showed broad antigenic cross-reactivity, was selected from the candidate H2 influenza viruses recently isolated from wild birds in Asian countries...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983731/viral-metagenomics-of-six-bat-species-in-close-contact-with-humans-in-southern-china
#8
Xue-Yan Zheng, Min Qiu, Wei-Jie Guan, Jin-Ming Li, Shao-Wei Chen, Ming-Ji Cheng, Shu-Ting Huo, Zhong Chen, Yi Wu, Li-Na Jiang, Qing Chen
Accumulating studies have shown that bats could harbor various important pathogenic viruses that could be transmitted to humans and other animals. Extensive metagenomic studies of different organs/tissues from bats have revealed a large number of novel or divergent viruses. To elucidate viral diversity and epidemiological and phylogenetic characteristics, six pooled fecal samples from bats were generated (based on bat species and geographic regions characteristic for virome analysis). These contained 500 fecal samples from six bat species, collected in four geographic regions...
October 5, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978709/elicitation-of-protective-antibodies-against-a-broad-panel-of-h1n1-viruses-in-ferrets-pre-immune-to-historical-h1n1-influenza-viruses
#9
Donald M Carter, Christopher A Darby, Scott K Johnson, Michael A Carlock, Greg A Kirchenbaum, Joshua DiNapoli, Harold Kleanthous, Ted M Ross
Most pre-clinical animal studies test influenza vaccines in immunologically naïve animal models, even though the results of vaccination may not accurately reflect the effectiveness of vaccine candidates in humans that have pre-existing immunity to influenza. In this study, novel, broadly-reactive influenza vaccine candidates were assessed in pre-immune ferrets. These animals were infected with different H1N1 isolates before being vaccinated or infected with another influenza virus. Previously, our group has described the design and characterization of computationally optimized broadly reactive HA antigens (COBRA) for H1N1 isolates...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967521/adjuvanting-an-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-with-conjugated-r848-improves-the-level-of-antibody-present-at-6months-in-a-nonhuman-primate-neonate-model
#10
Beth C Holbrook, Ralph B D'Agostino, S Tyler Aycock, Matthew J Jorgensen, Mallinath B Hadimani, S Bruce King, Martha A Alexander-Miller
Generation of a potent antibody response that can be sustained over time is highly challenging in young infants. Our previous studies using a nursery-reared nonhuman primate model identified R848 conjugated to inactivated influenza virus as a highly immunogenic vaccine for neonates. Here we determined the effectiveness of this vaccine in mother-reared infants as well as its ability to promote improved responses at 6months compared to vaccination in the absence of R848. In agreement with our nursery study, R848 conjugated to influenza virus induced a higher antibody response in neonates compared to the non-adjuvanted vaccine...
October 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966029/measuring-the-impact-of-air-pollution-on-respiratory-infection-risk-in-china
#11
Sanyi Tang, Qinling Yan, Wei Shi, Xia Wang, Xiaodan Sun, Pengbo Yu, Jianhong Wu, Yanni Xiao
China is now experiencing major public health challenges caused by air pollution. Few studies have quantified the dynamics of air pollution and its impact on the risk of respiratory infection. We conducted an integrated data analysis to quantify the association among air quality index (AQI), meteorological variables and respiratory infection risk in Shaanxi province of China in the period of November 15th, 2010 to November 14th, 2016. Our analysis illustrated a statistically significantly positive correlation between the number of influenza-like illness (ILI) cases and AQI, and the respiratory infection risk has increased progressively with increased AQI with a time lag of 0-3 days...
September 28, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958701/influenza-vaccine-mediated-protection-in-older-adults-impact-of-influenza-infection-cytomegalovirus-serostatus-and-vaccine-dosage
#12
Shahzma Merani, George A Kuchel, Alison Kleppinger, Janet E McElhaney
Age-related changes in T-cell function are associated with a loss of influenza vaccine efficacy in older adults. Both antibody and cell-mediated immunity plays a prominent role in protecting older adults, particularly against the serious complications of influenza. High dose (HD) influenza vaccines induce higher antibody titers in older adults compared to standard dose (SD) vaccines, yet its impact on T-cell memory is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the antibody and T-cell responses in older adults randomized to receive HD or SD influenza vaccine as well as determine whether cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus affects the response to vaccination, and identify differences in the response to vaccination in those older adults who subsequently have an influenza infection...
September 25, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956760/genesis-and-spread-of-newly-emerged-highly-pathogenic-h7n9-avian-viruses-in-mainland-china
#13
Lei Yang, Wenfei Zhu, Xiyan Li, Minmei Chen, Jie Wu, Pengbo Yu, Shunxiang Qi, Yiwei Huang, Weixian Shi, Jie Dong, Xiang Zhao, Weijuan Huang, Zi Li, Xiaoxu Zeng, Hong Bo, Tao Chen, Wenbing Chen, Jia Liu, Ye Zhang, Zhenli Liang, Wei Shi, Yuelong Shu, Dayan Wang
The novel low pathogenic H7N9 avian influenza A viruses (LPAI H7N9) have caused a threat to public health for their high mortality and morbidity since their emergence in 2013. Recently, highly pathogenic variants of these H7N9 viruses (HPAI H7N9) have emerged and caused human infections and poultry outbreaks in Mainland China. However, it is still unclear how the HPAI H7N9 virus was generated and how it evolved and spread in China. Here, we show that the ancestor virus of the HPAI H7N9 viruses originated in the Yangtze Delta Region and spread southward to the Pearl Delta Region, possibly through live poultry trades...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952435/virus-host-interactions-new-insights-and-advancements-in-drug-development-against-viral-pathogens
#14
Minakshi Prasad, Koushlesh Ranjan, Basanti Brar, Ikbal Shah, Upendra Lalmbe, J Manimegalai, Bhavya Vashisht, Madhusudan Gaury, Pawan Kumar, Sandip Kumar Khurana, Gaya Prasad, Jagveer Rawat, Vikas Yadav, Sunil Kumar, Rekha Rao
Viruses are the most devastating pathogens of almost all life forms including humans and animals. Viruses can replicate very fast and may affect any metabolic and physiological function of the host cell. Therefore, it has been a challenge to develop a universal and common treatment against viral pathogens, in contrast to bacterial pathogens. Virus-host interaction is a complex phenomenon and often is virus- and host cell-specific. Exciting new insights into the molecular pathogenesis and host-virus interactions have been gained over the past few decades...
September 24, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951981/prospective-evaluation-of-a-high-multiplexing-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-array-for-the-rapid-identification-and-characterization-of-bacteria-causative-of-nosocomial-pneumonia-from-clinical-specimens-a-proof-of-concept-study
#15
S Roisin, T-D Huang, R de Mendonça, C Nonhoff, P Bogaerts, M Hites, B Delaere, S Hamels, F de Longueville, Y Glupczynski, O Denis
The purpose of this study was evaluation of the VAPChip assay based on the "Rapid-Array-PCR-technology" which targets 13 respiratory pathogens and 24 β-lactam resistance genes directly on respiratory clinical specimens. The first step included analysis of 45 respiratory specimens in order to calibrate and determine the threshold for target genes. The second prospective step involved 85 respiratory samples from patients suspected of nosocomial pneumonia collected in two academic hospitals over an 8-month period...
September 27, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947234/recombinant-hemagglutinin-proteins-formulated-in-a-novel-pelc-cpg-adjuvant-for-h7n9-subunit-vaccine-development
#16
Ting-Hsuan Chen, Ying-Yu Liu, Jia-Tsrong Jan, Ming-Hsi Huang, Maureen Spearman, Michael Butler, Suh-Chin Wu
Humans infected with H7N9 avian influenza viruses can result in severe pneumonia and acute respiratory syndrome with an approximately 40% mortality rate, and there is an urgent need to develop an effective vaccine to reduce its pandemic potential. In this study, we used a novel PELC/CpG adjuvant for recombinant H7HA (rH7HA) subunit vaccine development. After immunizing BALB/c mice intramuscularly, rH7HA proteins formulated in this adjuvant instead of an alum adjuvant elicited higher IgG, hemagglutination-inhibition, and virus neutralizing antibodies in sera; induced higher numbers of H7HA-specific IFN-γ-secreting T cells and antibody secreting cells in spleen; and provided improved protection against live virus challenges...
September 22, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936773/intranasal-delivery-of-duox2-dna-using-cationic-polymer-can-prevent-acute-influenza-a-viral-infection-in-vivo-lung
#17
Bong Jik Kim, Sung Woo Cho, Yung Jin Jeon, Sujin An, Ara Jo, Jae Hyun Lim, Dong-Young Kim, Tae-Bin Won, Doo Hee Han, Chae-Seo Rhee, Hyun Jik Kim
We studied the contribution of Duox2 in mucosal host defense against influenza A virus (IAV) infection in in vivo lung. We found that Duox2 was required for the induction of type I and III interferon (IFN)s and transient Duox2 overexpression using cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) leads to suppression of IAV infection in in vivo lung. Twenty mice (C57BL/6J) were anesthetized and challenged by intranasal administration of 213 pfu/30 μl of IAV (WS/33/H1N1), and IAV-infected mice were euthanized at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 days post infection (dpi)...
September 21, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934453/an-adjuvanted-a-h5n1-subvirion-vaccine-elicits-virus-specific-antibody-response-and-improves-protection-against-lethal-influenza-viral-challenge-in-mouse-model-of-protein-energy-malnutrition
#18
Enitra N Jones, Samuel Amoah, Weiping Cao, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Shivaprakash Gangappa
Background: Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) increases susceptibility to infectious diseases, including influenza infection, but no studies have addressed the potential influences of PEM on the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of avian influenza A(H5N1) vaccine. Methods: We investigated the role of PEM on vaccine-mediated protection after a lethal challenge with recombinant A(H5N1) virus using isocaloric diets providing either adequate protein (AP; 18% protein) or very low protein (VLP; 2% protein) in an established murine model of influenza vaccination...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931922/efficacy-of-recombinant-measles-virus-expressing-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-hpaiv-antigen-against-hpaiv-infection-in-monkeys
#19
Tomoko Fujiyuki, Ryo Horie, Misako Yoneda, Takeshi Kuraishi, Fumihiko Yasui, Hyun-Jeong Kwon, Keisuke Munekata, Fusako Ikeda, Miho Hoshi, Yuri Kiso, Mio Omi, Hiroki Sato, Hiroshi Kida, Shosaku Hattori, Michinori Kohara, Chieko Kai
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a serious threat not only to domestic fowls but also to humans. Vaccines inducing long-lasting immunity against HPAIV are required. In the present study, we generated recombinant measles virus (MV) expressing the hemagglutinin protein of HPAIV without the multibasic site necessary for its pathogenicity in chickens using the backbone of an MV vaccine strain (rMV-Ed-H5HA) or a wild-type MV-derived mutant (rMV-HL-Vko-H5HA). We examined protective efficacy of the candidate vaccines in the monkey infection model by the challenge with a HPAIV (H5N1)...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931689/vaccination-with-recombinant-parainfluenza-virus-5-expressing-neuraminidase-protects-against-homologous-and-heterologous-influenza-virus-challenge
#20
Alaina J Mooney, Jon D Gabbard, Zhuo Li, Daniel A Dlugolenski, Scott K Johnson, Ralph A Tripp, Biao He, S Mark Tompkins
Seasonal human influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality annually, and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) along with other emerging influenzas continue to pose pandemic threats. Vaccination is considered the most effective measure for controlling influenza; however, current strategies rely on a precise vaccine match with currently circulating virus strains for efficacy, requiring constant surveillance and regular development of matched vaccines. Current vaccines focus on eliciting specific antibody responses against the hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein; however, the diversity of HAs across species and antigenic drift of circulating strains enables evasion of virus-inhibiting antibody responses, resulting in vaccine failure...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
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