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Influenza challenge studies

Hélène Quach, Maxime Rotival, Julien Pothlichet, Yong-Hwee Eddie Loh, Michael Dannemann, Nora Zidane, Guillaume Laval, Etienne Patin, Christine Harmant, Marie Lopez, Matthieu Deschamps, Nadia Naffakh, Darragh Duffy, Anja Coen, Geert Leroux-Roels, Frederic Clément, Anne Boland, Jean-François Deleuze, Janet Kelso, Matthew L Albert, Lluis Quintana-Murci
Humans differ in the outcome that follows exposure to life-threatening pathogens, yet the extent of population differences in immune responses and their genetic and evolutionary determinants remain undefined. Here, we characterized, using RNA sequencing, the transcriptional response of primary monocytes from Africans and Europeans to bacterial and viral stimuli-ligands activating Toll-like receptor pathways (TLR1/2, TLR4, and TLR7/8) and influenza virus-and mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs)...
October 20, 2016: Cell
Alexander N Shikov, Olga N Pozharitskaya, Valery G Makarov
PURPOSE: Aralia elata var. mandshurica (Rupr. & Maxim.) J.Wen syn. A. mandshurica Rupr. & Maxim is evaluated for its medicinal application. The aim of this study is to analyze pharmacological studies on A. elata var. mandshurica published until December 2015. METHODS: The information regarding the chemistry, safety, effectiveness, and pharmacological and clinical effects of A. elata was systematically collected from the scientific literature through library catalogs; online services such as E-library...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
N M Scott, J F Lauzon-Joset, A C Jones, K T Mincham, N M Troy, J Leffler, M Serralha, S L Prescott, S A Robertson, C Pasquali, A Bosco, P G Holt, D H Strickland
Infection-associated inflammatory stress during pregnancy is the most common cause of fetal growth restriction and/or miscarriage. Treatment strategies for protection of at-risk mothers are limited to a narrow range of vaccines, which do not cover the bulk of the common pathogens most frequently encountered. Using mouse models, we demonstrate that oral treatment during pregnancy with a microbial-derived immunomodulator (OM85), currently used clinically for attenuation of infection-associated airway inflammatory symptoms in infants-adults, markedly reduces risk for fetal loss/growth restriction resulting from maternal challenge with bacterial lipopolysaccharide or influenza...
October 19, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Adelaide R Murray, Rosemary M Caron
BACKGROUND: The American College Health Association's, National College Health Assessment (ACHA's NCHA) estimates 46.1% of college students reported being vaccinated in the last year. OBJECTIVE: 1) To understand the college student's knowledge, attitude, and beliefs in regards to influenza vaccination; 2) To establish recommendations in a population where high risk transmission does not consistently translate into high vaccination rates. METHODS: Utilizing the health belief model (HBM), a cross-sectional study of college student perspectives of influenza vaccination was conducted...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Greer Dawson, Robin Gilmour, Sean Tobin, Joanne Travaglia
OBJECTIVE: In New South Wales (NSW), influenza surveillance is informed by a number of discrete data sources, including laboratories, emergency departments, death registrations and community surveillance programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the NSW influenza surveillance system using the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems. Importance of study: Having a strong influenza surveillance system is important for both seasonal and pandemic influenza preparedness...
April 15, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Ioannis Sitaras, Xanthoula Rousou, Ben Peeters, Mart C M de Jong
BACKGROUND: Transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in poultry flocks is associated with huge economic losses, culling of millions of birds, as well as human infections and deaths. In the cases where vaccination against avian influenza is used as a control measure, it has been found to be ineffective in preventing transmission of field strains. Reports suggest that one of the reasons for this is the use of vaccine doses much lower than the ones recommended by the manufacturer, resulting in very low levels of immunity...
October 8, 2016: Vaccine
Thomas Harder, Cornelius Remschmidt, Sebastian Haller, Tim Eckmanns, Ole Wichmann
BACKGROUND: Given limited resources and time constraints, the use of existing systematic reviews (SR) for the development of evidence-based public health recommendations has become increasingly important. Recently, a five-step approach for identifying, analyzing, appraising and using existing SRs based on recent guidance by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) was proposed within the Project on a Framework for Rating Evidence in Public Health (PRECEPT). However, case studies are needed to test whether this approach is useful, what challenges arise and how problems can be solved...
October 11, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Ronan N Rouxel, Emilie Mérour, Stéphane Biacchesi, Michel Brémont
Novirhabdoviruses like Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) and Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV) are fish-infecting Rhabdoviruses belonging to the Mononegavirales order. By reverse genetics, we previously showed that a recombinant VHSV expressing the West Nile Virus (WNV) E glycoprotein could serve as a vaccine platform against WNV. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the potential of the Novirhabdovirus platform as a vaccine against influenza virus. Recombinant Novirhabdoviruses, rVHSV-HA and rIHNV-HA, expressing at the viral surface the hemagglutinin HA ectodomain were generated and used to immunized mice...
2016: PloS One
Ying Sun, Chenghuai Yang, Junping Li, Ling Li, Minghui Cao, Qihong Li, Huijiao Li
H9 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) remain a significant burden in the poultry industry and are considered to be one of the most likely causes of any new influenza pandemic in humans. As ducks play an important role in the maintenance of H9 viruses in nature, successful control of the spread of H9 AIVs in ducks will have significant beneficial effects on public health. Duck enteritis virus (DEV) may be a promising candidate viral vector for aquatic poultry vaccination. In this study, we constructed a recombinant DEV, rDEV-∆UL2-HA, inserting the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from duck-origin H9N2 AIV into the UL2 gene by homologous recombination...
October 5, 2016: Archives of Virology
Ashley Sobel Leonard, Micah T McClain, Gavin J D Smith, David Wentworth, Rebecca A Halpin, Xudong Lin, Amy Ransier, Timothy B Stockwell, Suman Das, Anthony S Gilbert, Robert Lambkin-Williams, Geoffrey S Ginsburg, Christopher W Woods, Katia Koelle
: Knowledge of influenza evolution at the point of transmission and at the intra-host level remains limited, particularly for human hosts. Here, we analyze a unique viral dataset of next-generation sequencing (NGS) samples generated from a human influenza challenge study wherein 17 healthy subjects were inoculated with egg-passaged virus. Nasal wash samples collected from 7 of these subjects were successfully deep sequenced. From these, we characterized changes in the subjects' viral populations during infection and identified differences between the virus in these samples and the viral stock used to inoculate the subjects...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Xiaolei Lan, Hua Gao, Fei Wang, Jie Feng, Jiwei Bai, Peng Zhao, Lei Cao, Songbai Gui, Lei Gong, Yazhuo Zhang
Pituitary adenomas exhibit a wide range of behaviors. The prediction of invasion or malignant behavior in pituitary adenomas remains challenging. The objective of the present study was to identify the genetic abnormalities associated with invasion in sporadic pituitary adenomas. In the present study, the exomes of six invasive pituitary adenomas (IPA) and six non-invasive pituitary adenomas (nIPA) were sequenced by whole-exome sequencing. Variants were confirmed by dideoxynucleotide sequencing, and candidate driver genes were assessed in an additional 28 pituitary adenomas...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Donald W Lee, Hung-Lun Hsu, Kaitlyn B Bacon, Susan Daniel
With the development of single-particle tracking (SPT) microscopy and host membrane mimics called supported lipid bilayers (SLBs), stochastic virus-membrane binding interactions can be studied in depth while maintaining control over host receptor type and concentration. However, several experimental design challenges and quantitative image analysis limitations prevent the widespread use of this approach. One main challenge of SPT studies is the low signal-to-noise ratio of SPT videos, which is sometimes inevitable due to small particle sizes, low quantum yield of fluorescent dyes, and photobleaching...
2016: PloS One
Aric A Prather, Denise Janicki-Deverts, Nancy E Adler, Martica Hall, Sheldon Cohen
BACKGROUND: Sleep is a predictor of infectious illness that may depend on one's socioeconomic status (SES). PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the moderating effects of objective and subjective SES on sleep-clinical cold risk link and test whether nasal inflammation serves as a plausible biological pathway. METHODS: This study combined data (n = 732) from three viral challenge studies. Measures of self-reported sleep and objective and subjective measures of SES were obtained...
September 27, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
R Moss, A Zarebski, P Dawson, J M McCAW
Accurate forecasting of seasonal influenza epidemics is of great concern to healthcare providers in temperate climates, since these epidemics vary substantially in their size, timing and duration from year to year, making it a challenge to deliver timely and proportionate responses. Previous studies have shown that Bayesian estimation techniques can accurately predict when an influenza epidemic will peak many weeks in advance, and we have previously tailored these methods for metropolitan Melbourne (Australia) and Google Flu Trends data...
September 27, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
S J Rachman
The construct of the psychological immune system is described and analysed. The direct and indirect cognitive influences on the system are discussed, and the implications of adding a cognitive construal to the influential model of a behavioural immune system are considered. The psychological immune system has two main properties: defensive and healing. It encompasses a good amount of health-related phenomena that is outside the scope of the behavioural model or the biological immune system. Evidence pertaining to the psychological immune system includes meta-analyses of the associations between psychological variables such as positive affect/wellbeing and diseases and mortality, and associations between wellbeing and positive health...
December 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Peter Pushko, Xiangjie Sun, Irina Tretyakova, Rachmat Hidajat, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Jessica A Belser, Taronna R Maines, Terrence M Tumpey
Avian-origin influenza represents a global public health concern. In 2013, the H10N8 virus caused documented human infections for the first time. Currently, there is no approved vaccine against H10 influenza. Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a promising vaccine approach. In this study, we evaluated H10 VLPs containing hemagglutinin from H10N8 virus as an experimental vaccine in a ferret challenge model. In addition, we evaluated quadri-subtype VLPs co-localizing H5, H7, H9 and H10 subtypes...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
H Laetitia Hattingh, T Fei Sim, R Parsons, P Czarniak, A Vickery, S Ayadurai
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the uptake of Western Australian (WA) pharmacist vaccination services, the profiles of consumers being vaccinated and the facilitators and challenges experienced by pharmacy staff in the preparation, implementation and delivery of services. DESIGN: Mixed-methods methodology with both quantitative and qualitative data through surveys, pharmacy computer records and immuniser pharmacist interviews. SETTING: Community pharmacies in WA that provided pharmacist vaccination services between March and October 2015...
2016: BMJ Open
Tara M Strutt, Karl Kai McKinstry, Yi Kuang, Caroline M Finn, Ji Hae Hwang, Kunal Dhume, Stewart Sell, Susan L Swain
Memory T cells can often respond against pathogens that have evaded neutralizing Abs and are thus key to vaccine-induced protection, yet the signals needed to optimize their responses are unclear. In this study, we identify a dramatic and selective requirement for IL-6 to achieve optimal memory CD4 T cell recall following heterosubtypic influenza A virus (IAV) challenge of mice primed previously with wild-type or attenuated IAV strains. Through analysis of endogenous T cell responses and adoptive transfer of IAV-specific memory T cell populations, we find that without IL-6, CD4(+), but not CD8(+), secondary effector populations expand less and have blunted function and antiviral impact...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
A S Gambaryan, E Y Boravleva, N F Lomakina, E A Kropotkina, I V Gordeychuk, I A Chvala, V V Drygin, H-D Klenk, M N Matrosovich
Development of an effective, broadly-active and safe vaccine for protection of poultry from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) remains an important practical goal. In this study we used a low pathogenic wild aquatic bird virus isolate А/duck/Moscow/4182/2010 (H5N3) (dk/4182) as a live candidate vaccine. We compared this virus with four live 1:7 reassortant anti-H5N1 candidate vaccine viruses with modified hemagglutinin from either A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) or A/Kurgan/3/05 (H5N1) and the rest of the genes from either H2N2 cold-adapted master strain A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (rVN-Len and rKu-Len) or H6N2 virus A/gull/Moscow/3100/2006 (rVN-gull and rKu-gull)...
2016: Acta Virologica
H A Hussein, B M Ahmed, S M Aly, A H El-Deeb, A A El-Sanousi, M A Rohaim, A A Arafa, M R Gadalla
In this study, a recombinant DNA plasmid was constructed, encoding for HA1 of a selected Egyptian H5N1 virus (isolated during the 2012 outbreaks). In the immunization and challenge experiments, SPF chickens received 1 or 2 doses of H5-DNA plasmid prime, and boosted with the inactivated H5N2 vaccine. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers, protection levels, and the magnitude of virus shedding were compared to that of the chickens that received either DNA plasmid or inactivated H5N2 vaccine alone. H5N1 virus A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012 (H5N1) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) clade 2...
2016: Acta Virologica
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