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Near infrared spectroscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931245/brain-activation-in-frontotemporal-and-alzheimer-s-dementia-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#1
Florian G Metzger, Betti Schopp, Florian B Haeussinger, Katja Dehnen, Matthis Synofzik, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia is an increasingly studied disease, the underlying functional impairments on a neurobiological level of which have not been fully understood. Patients with the behavioral-subtype frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are particularly challenging for clinical measurements such as functional imaging due to their behavioral symptoms. Here, an alternative imaging method, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), is introduced to measure task-related cortical brain activation based on blood oxygenation...
December 8, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928515/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#2
Maheen F Siddiqui, Clare Elwell, Mark H Johnson
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are classified as neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by diminished social communication and interaction. Recently, evidence has accrued that a significant proportion of individuals with autism have concomitant diseases such as mitochondrial disease and abnormalities of energy generation. This has therefore led to the hypothesis that autism may be linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. We review such studies reporting decreased activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes and reduced gene expression of mitochondrial genes, in particular genes of respiratory chain complexes, in individuals with autism...
September 27, 2016: Autism-open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927937/brain-activation-in-high-functioning-older-adults-and-falls-prospective-cohort-study
#3
Joe Verghese, Cuiling Wang, Emmeline Ayers, Meltem Izzetoglu, Roee Holtzer
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether brain activity over the prefrontal cortex measured in real time during walking predicts falls in high-functioning older adults. METHOD: We examined166 older persons (mean age 75 years, 51% women) enrolled in a prospective aging study. High-functioning status defined as the absence of dementia or disability with normal gait diagnosed by study clinicians. The magnitude of task-related changes in oxygenated hemoglobin levels over the prefrontal cortex was measured with functional near-infrared spectroscopy during motor (walking at normal pace) and cognitive (reciting alternate letters of the alphabet) single tasks and a dual-task condition (walking while reciting alternate letters of the alphabet)...
December 7, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924521/effects-of-different-surfactant-administrations-on-cerebral-autoregulation-in-preterm-infants-with-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#4
Xu-Fang Li, Ting-Ting Cheng, Rui-Lian Guan, Hong Liang, Wei-Neng Lu, Jing-Hua Zhang, Mei-Yi Liu, Xin Yu, Jun Liang, Li Sun, Lian Zhang
To treat respiratory distress syndrome, surfactant is currently delivered via less invasive surfactant administration (LISA) or INtubation SURfactant Extubation (INSURE). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the two delivery methods of surfactant on cerebral autoregulation. Near infrared spectroscopy monitoring was carried out to detect cerebral oxygen saturation (ScO2), and the mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was simultaneously recorded. Of 44 preterm infants included, the surfactant was administrated to 22 via LISA and 22 via INSURE...
December 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922887/regional-cerebral-abnormalities-measured-by-frequency-domain-near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-pediatric-patients-during-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#5
Fenghua Tian, Christopher Jenks, Donald Potter, Darryl Miles, Lakshmi Raman
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a form of advanced cardio-respiratory support provided to critically ill patients with severe respiratory and/or cardiovascular failure. While children undergoing ECMO therapy have significant risk for neurological morbidity, currently there is a lack of reliable bedside tool to detect the neurologic events for patients on ECMO. This study assessed the feasibility of frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for detection of intracranial complications during ECMO therapy...
December 2, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922805/near-infrared-spectroscopy-analysis-of-coronary-chronic-total-occlusions
#6
Georgios E Christakopoulos, Judit Karacsonyi, Barbara Anna Danek, Aris Karatasakis, Aya Alame, Pratik Kalsaria, Atif Mohammed, Michele Roesle, Bavana V Rangan, Subhash Banerjee, Emmanouil S Brilakis
OBJECTIVE: To examine the presence and localization of lipid-core plaque (LCP) in coronary vessels with chronic total occlusions (CTOs) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). METHODS: NIRS imaging was performed after guidewire crossing of the occlusion in 15 patients with CTOs. LCP was defined as ≥2 adjacent 2 mm yellow blocks on the block chemogram. We also measured the maximum lipid-core burden index (LCBI) in a 4 mm length of artery (maxLCBI4mm). Large LCP was defined as maxLCBI4mm ≥500...
December 2016: Journal of Invasive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921339/perceptual-narrowing-towards-adult-faces-is-a-cross-cultural-phenomenon-in-infancy-a-behavioral-and-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study-with-japanese-infants
#7
Megumi Kobayashi, Viola Macchi Cassia, So Kanazawa, Masami K Yamaguchi, Ryusuke Kakigi
Recent data showed that, in Caucasian infants, perceptual narrowing occurs for own-race adult faces between 3 and 9 months of age, possibly as a consequence of the extensive amount of social and perceptual experience accumulated with caregivers and/or other adult individuals of the same race of the caregiver. The neural correlates of this developmental process remain unexplored, and it is currently unknown whether perceptual tuning towards adult faces can be extended to other cultures. To this end, in the current study we tested the ability of 3- and 9-month-old Japanese infants to discriminate among adult and infant Asian faces in a visual familiarization task (Experiment 1), and compared 9-month-olds' cerebral hemodynamic responses to adult and infant faces as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) (Experiment 2)...
December 5, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920899/diagnosing-clean-margins-through-raman-spectroscopy-in-human-and-animal-mammary-tumour-surgery-a-short-review
#8
REVIEW
I A Birtoiu, C Rizea, D Togoe, R M Munteanu, C Micsa, M I Rusu, M Tautan, L Braic, L O Scoicaru, A Parau, N D Becherescu-Barbu, M V Udrea, A Tonetto, R Notonier, C E A Grigorescu
Breast cancer frequency in human and other mammal female populations has worryingly increased lately. The acute necessity for taxonomy of the aetiological factors along with seeking for new diagnostic tools and therapy procedures aimed at reducing mortality have yielded in an intense research effort worldwide. Surgery is a regular method to counteract extensive development of breast cancer and prevent metastases provided that negative surgical margins are achieved. This highly technical challenge requires fast, extremely sensitive and selective discrimination between malignant and benign tissues even down to molecular level...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919661/a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study-of-the-effects-of-configural-properties-on-sustained-attention
#9
Neil R de Joux, Kyle M Wilson, Paul N Russell, Kristin M Finkbeiner, William S Helton
Forty-five participants performed a vigilance task during which they were required to respond to a critical signal at a local feature level, while the global display was altered between groups (either a circle, a circle broken apart and reversed, or a reconnected figure). The shape in two of the groups formed a configurative whole (the circle and reconnected conditions), while the remaining shape had no complete global element (broken circle). Performance matched the results found in the previous experiments using this stimulus set, where a configural superiority effect was found to influence accuracy over time...
December 2, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915369/at-line-validation-of-a-process-analytical-technology-approach-for-quality-control-of-melamine-urea-formaldehyde-resin-in-composite-wood-panel-production-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#10
Roger Meder, Wolfgang Stahl, Paul Warburton, Sam Woolley, Scott Earnshaw, Klaus Haselhofer, Ken van Langenberg, Nick Ebdon, Roger Mulder
The reactivity of melamine-urea-formaldehyde resins is of key importance in the manufacture of engineered wood products such as medium density fibreboard (MDF) and other wood composite products. Often the MDF manufacturing plant has little available information on the resin reactivity other than details of the resin specification at the time of batch manufacture, which often occurs off-site at a third-party resin plant. Often too, fresh resin on delivery at the MDF plant is mixed with variable volume of aged resin in storage tanks, thereby rendering any specification of the fresh resin batch obsolete...
December 3, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915210/functional-brain-imaging-of-walking-while-talking-an-fnirs-study
#11
Florian G Metzger, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Florian B Haeussinger, Patrick Schneeweiss, Justin Hudak, Andreas J Fallgatter, Sabrina Schneider
Since functional imaging of whole body movements is not feasible with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study presents in vivo functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a suitable technique to measure body movement effects on fronto-temporo-parietal cortical activation in single and dual task paradigms. Previous fNIRS applications in studies addressing whole body movements were typically limited to the assessment of prefrontal brain areas. The current study investigated brain activation in the frontal, temporal and parietal cortex of both hemispheres using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) with two large 4 x 4 probe-sets with 24 channels each during single and dual gait tasks...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915164/can-the-cerebral-regional-oxygen-saturation-be-a-perfusion-parameter-in-shock
#12
Ashraf Al Tayar, Amr Abouelela, Khaja Mohiuddeen
INTRODUCTION: Shock, defined as a state of tissue hypoperfusion and the tissues reperfusion, is the main goal of management of shock. Increase in central venous saturation (CvSo2) and decrease in blood lactate level are useful in assessment of adequacy of tissue perfusion. Near-infrared spectroscopy is a noninvasive way to observe real-time changes in regional cerebral saturation and has been used in patients with different brain diseases. There is a small body of literature suggesting that cerebral regional oxygen saturation (CrSo2) monitoring added a value in assessment and management of intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913885/effect-of-sensor-location-on-regional-cerebral-oxygen-saturation-measured-by-invos-5100-in-on-pump-cardiac-surgery
#13
Ah-Reum Cho, Jae-Young Kwon, Choongrak Kim, Jung-Min Hong, Christine Kang
PURPOSE: Near-infrared spectroscopy sensors often cannot be attached at the commercially recommended locations because combined use of neurological monitoring systems is common during on-pump cardiac surgery. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of regional cerebral oxygen desaturation and regional cerebral oxygen saturation values detected using near-infrared spectroscopy between the upper and lower forehead during on-pump cardiac surgery. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted with 25 adult patients scheduled for elective on-pump cardiac surgery...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911329/comparison-of-model-based-indices-of%C3%A2-cerebral-autoregulation-and-vasomotor-reactivity-using-transcranial-doppler-versus-near-infrared-spectroscopy-in%C3%A2-patients-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#14
Vasilis Z Marmarelis, Dae C Shin, Takashi Tarumi, Rong Zhang
We recently introduced model-based "physiomarkers" of dynamic cerebral autoregulation and CO2 vasomotor reactivity as an aid for diagnosis of early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) [1], where significant impairment of dynamic vasomotor reactivity (DVR) was observed in early-stage AD patients relative to age-matched controls. Milder impairment of DVR was shown in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using the same approach in a subsequent study [2]. The advocated approach utilizes subject-specific data-based models of cerebral hemodynamics to quantify the dynamic effects of resting-state changes in arterial blood pressure and end-tidal CO2 (the putative inputs) upon cerebral blood flow velocity (the putative output) measured at the middle cerebral artery via transcranial Doppler (TCD)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910853/holographic-free-electron-light-source
#15
Guanhai Li, Brendan P Clarke, Jin-Kyu So, Kevin F MacDonald, Nikolay I Zheludev
Recent advances in the physics and technology of light generation via free-electron proximity and impact interactions with nanostructures (gratings, photonic crystals, nano-undulators, metamaterials and antenna arrays) have enabled the development of nanoscale-resolution techniques for such applications as mapping plasmons, studying nanoparticle structural transformations and characterizing luminescent materials (including time-resolved measurements). Here, we introduce a universal approach allowing generation of light with prescribed wavelength, direction, divergence and topological charge via point-excitation of holographic plasmonic metasurfaces...
December 2, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910802/near-infrared-spectroscopy-evaluated-cerebral-oxygenation-during-anesthesia
#16
Henrik Sørensen
Likely, maintained organ and notably cerebral perfusion, secures rapid recovery following anesthesia. To secure cerebral blood flow (CBF) at least mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) need to be considered. CBF is "autoregulated", i.e. stays more or less stable within a MAP of 50-150 mmHg, but the lower limit appears to depend on the central blood volume and/or cardiac output, illustrated by a decrease in CBF at a MAP of 80 mmHg with a compromised central blood volume, while CBF remains constant with a MAP < 40 mmHg, if the central blood volume is maintained...
December 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910541/research-on-the-best-measurement-situation-between-optical-probe-and-tissue-surfaces-in-non-invasive-detection
#17
Xuyao Yu, Rong Liu, Hui Yu, Jiao Wang, Jun Wang, Kexin Xu
Near-infrared spectroscopy is often used for the non-invasive detection of composition in the human body, such as that of blood glucose and haemoglobin, due to its high penetration depth into tissues. Although it is feasible to position the optical probe precisely, contact situation between probe and human tissues is a difficult problem to determine because of physiological tremor and mechanical performance of bio-soft tissue. Here, we proposed a novel estimation method for the situation between the optical probe and tissue surfaces based on the dynamic auto-correlation matrix of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and radar chart...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909403/cortical-sensorimotor-processing-of-painful-pressure-in-patients-with-chronic-lower-back-pain-an-optical-neuroimaging-study-using-fnirs
#18
Andrea Vrana, Michael L Meier, Sabina Hotz-Boendermaker, Barry K Humphreys, Felix Scholkmann
In this study we investigated sensorimotor processing of painful pressure stimulation on the lower back of patients with chronic lower back pain (CLBP) by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure changes in cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation. The main objectives were whether patients with CLBP show different relative changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin ([O2Hb] and [HHb]) in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary somatosensory cortex (S1) compared to healthy controls (HC). Twelve patients with CLBP (32 ± 6...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909011/age-dependent-effects-of-catechol-o-methyltransferase-comt-gene-val158met-polymorphism-on-language-function-in-developing-children
#19
Lisa Sugiura, Tomoko Toyota, Hiroko Matsuba-Kurita, Yoshimi Iwayama, Reiko Mazuka, Takeo Yoshikawa, Hiroko Hagiwara
The genetic basis controlling language development remains elusive. Previous studies of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met genotype and cognition have focused on prefrontally guided executive functions involving dopamine. However, COMT may further influence posterior cortical regions implicated in language perception. We investigated whether COMT influences language ability and cortical language processing involving the posterior language regions in 246 children aged 6-10 years. We assessed language ability using a language test and cortical responses recorded during language processing using a word repetition task and functional near-infrared spectroscopy...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906234/generation-of-spectral-clusters-in-a-mixture-of-noble-and-raman-active-gases
#20
Pooria Hosseini, Amir Abdolvand, Philip St J Russell
We report a novel scheme for the generation of dense clusters of Raman sidebands. The scheme uses a broadband-guiding hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) filled with a mixture of H<sub>2</sub>, D<sub>2</sub>, and Xe for efficient interaction between the gas mixture and a green laser pump pulse (532 nm, 1 ns) of only 5 μJ of energy. This results in the generation from noise of more than 135 rovibrational Raman sidebands covering the visible spectral region with an average spacing of only 2...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
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