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O Pfaar, K Bastl, U Berger, J Buters, M A Calderon, B Clot, U Darsow, P Demoly, S R Durham, C Galán, R Gehrig, R Gerth van Wijk, L Jacobsen, L Klimek, M Sofiev, M Thibaudon, K C Bergmann
BACKGROUND: Clinical efficacy of pollen allergen immunotherapy has been broadly documented in randomized controlled trials. The underlying clinical endpoints are analysed in seasonal time periods pre-defined on the basis of the background pollen concentration. However, any validated or generally accepted definition from academia or regulatory authorities for this relevant pollen-exposure intensity or period of time (season) is currently not available. Therefore, this Task Force initiative of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) aimed to propose definitions based on expert-consensus...
November 22, 2016: Allergy
Nabaz R Khwarahm, Jadunandan Dash, C A Skjøth, R M Newnham, B Adams-Groom, K Head, Eric Caulton, Peter M Atkinson
Grass and birch pollen are two major causes of seasonal allergic rhinitis (hay fever) in the UK and parts of Europe affecting around 15-20% of the population. Current prediction of these allergens in the UK is based on (i) measurements of pollen concentrations at a limited number of monitoring stations across the country and (ii) general information about the phenological status of the vegetation. Thus, the current prediction methodology provides information at a coarse spatial resolution only. Most station-based approaches take into account only local observations of flowering, while only a small number of approaches take into account remote observations of land surface phenology...
November 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
J Kyle Bohannon, Krisztina Janosko, Michael R Holbrook, Jason Barr, Daniela Pusl, Laura Bollinger, Linda Coe, Lisa E Hensley, Peter B Jahrling, Jiro Wada, Jens H Kuhn, Matthew G Lackemeyer
Aerosol or inhalational studies of high-consequence pathogens have recently been increasing in number due to the perceived threat of intentional aerosol releases or unexpected natural aerosol transmission. Specific laboratories designed to perform these experiments require tremendous engineering controls to provide a safe and secure working environment and constant systems maintenance to sustain functionality. Class III biosafety cabinets, also referred to as gloveboxes, are gas-tight enclosures with non-opening windows...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Katharina Bastl, Markus Berger, Karl-Christian Bergmann, Maximilian Kmenta, Uwe Berger
Pollen information as such is highly valuable and was considered so far as a self-evident good free for the public. The foundation for reliable and serious pollen information is the careful, scientific evaluation of pollen content in the air. However, it is essential to state and define now the requirements for pollen data and qualifications needed for institutions working with pollen data in the light of technical developments such as automated pollen counting and various political interests in aerobiology including attempts to finally acknowledge pollen and spores as relevant biological particles in the air worth being considered for pollution and health directives...
October 19, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Rebeca Izquierdo, Marta Alarcón, Jordi Mazón, David Pino, Concepción De Linares, Xabier Aguinagalde, Jordina Belmonte
This work provides a first assessment of the possible barrier effect of the Pyrenees on the atmospheric transport of airborne pollen from Europe to the North of the Iberian Peninsula. Aerobiological data recorded in three Spanish stations located at the eastern, central and western base of the Pyrenees in the period 2004-2014 have been used to identify the possible long range transport episodes of Betula pollen. The atmospheric transport routes and the origin regions have been established by means of trajectory analysis and a source receptor model...
October 2, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jakub Nowosad, Alfred Stach, Idalia Kasprzyk, Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska, Krystyna Piotrowska-Weryszko, Małgorzata Puc, Łukasz Grewling, Anna Pędziszewska, Agnieszka Uruska, Dorota Myszkowska, Kazimiera Chłopek, Barbara Majkowska-Wojciechowska
The aim of the study was to create and evaluate models for predicting high levels of daily pollen concentration of Corylus, Alnus, and Betula using a spatiotemporal correlation of pollen count. For each taxon, a high pollen count level was established according to the first allergy symptoms during exposure. The dataset was divided into a training set and a test set, using a stratified random split. For each taxon and city, the model was built using a random forest method. Corylus models performed poorly. However, the study revealed the possibility of predicting with substantial accuracy the occurrence of days with high pollen concentrations of Alnus and Betula using past pollen count data from monitoring sites...
2016: Aerobiologia
Ivan Glaucio Paulino-Lima, Kosuke Fujishima, Jesica Urbina Navarrete, Douglas Galante, Fabio Rodrigues, Armando Azua-Bustos, Lynn Justine Rothschild
Desiccation resistance and a high intracellular Mn/Fe ratio contribute to ionizing radiation resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans. We hypothesized that this was a general phenomenon and thus developed a strategy to search for highly radiation-resistant organisms based on their natural environment. While desiccation is a typical feature of deserts, the correlation between radiation resistance and the intracellular Mn/Fe ratio of indigenous microorganisms or the Mn/Fe ratio of the environment, has not yet been described...
October 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Absar Alum, Galahad Zachariah Isaacs
BACKGROUND: The modern built environment (BE) design creates unique ecological niches ideal for the survival and mutual interaction of microbial communities. This investigation focused on the synergistic relations between Legionella and the fungal species commonly found in BEs and the impact of these synergistic relationships on the survival and transmission of Legionella. METHODS: A field study was conducted to identify the types and concentrations of fungi in BEs...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Bahram Zargar, Farshad M Kashkooli, M Soltani, Kathryn E Wright, M Khalid Ijaz, Syed A Sattar
BACKGROUND: Computer-aided design and draft, along with computer-aided engineering software, are used widely in different fields to create, modify, analyze, and optimize designs. METHODS: We used computer-aided design and draft software to create a 3-dimensional model of an aerobiology chamber built in accordance with the specifications of the 2012 guideline from the Environmental Protection Agency for studies on survival and inactivation of microbial pathogens in indoor air...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Kavita Ghosal, Bodhisattwa Saha, Swati Gupta Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: The incidence of allergic diseases is increasing gradually and is a global burden affecting the socio-economic quality of life. Identification of allergens is the first step towards paving the way for therapeutic interventions against atopic diseases. Our previous investigation figured out that total pollen load correlated significantly with the rise of respiratory allergy in a subtropical city in India. The most dominant pollen responsible for IgE sensitivity in most patients emerged to be from Lantana camara (LC) an obnoxious weed growing in and around suburban areas of West Bengal...
2016: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
José María Maya-Manzano, Santiago Fernández-Rodríguez, Matt Smith, Rafael Tormo-Molina, Andrew M Reynolds, Inmaculada Silva-Palacios, Ángela Gonzalo-Garijo, Magdalena Sadyś
The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3)...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Syed A Sattar, Richard J Kibbee, Bahram Zargar, Kathryn E Wright, Joseph R Rubino, M Khalid Ijaz
BACKGROUND: Although indoor air can spread many pathogens, information on the airborne survival and inactivation of such pathogens remains sparse. METHODS: Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were nebulized separately into an aerobiology chamber (24.0 m(3)). The chamber's relative humidity and air temperature were at 50% ± 5% and 20°C ± 2°C, respectively. The air was sampled with a slit-to-agar sampler. Between tests, filtered air purged the chamber of any residual airborne microbes...
June 30, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Maximilian Kmenta, Katharina Bastl, Matthias F Kramer, Simon J Hewings, Juliet Mwange, Reinhard Zetter, Uwe Berger
BACKGROUND: Grasses (Poaceae) are one of the largest plant families and are distributed worldwide. Grass pollen allergy is one of the most important pollen allergies affecting large parts of the population worldwide. The grass pollen season itself is special since it is caused by the flowering of various grass species that present unique profiles of allergenicity, which assumingly plays a significant role and impact on grass pollen sensitization profiles for the allergy sufferer. The aim of this study, conducted in Vienna, 2014, was to analyze the possible contribution of prevalent grass species to the grass pollen season and to the symptom load of grass allergy sufferers...
October 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
C Geller-Bernstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Harefuah
P Skelsey, D E L Cooke, J S Lynott, A K Lees
The impact of climate change on dispersal processes is largely ignored in risk assessments for crop diseases, as inoculum is generally assumed to be ubiquitous and non-limiting. We suggest that consideration of the impact of climate change on the connectivity of crops for inoculum transmission may provide additional explanatory and predictive power in disease risk assessments, leading to improved recommendations for agricultural adaptation to climate change. In this study a crop growth model was combined with aerobiological models and a newly developed infection risk model to provide a framework for quantifying the impact of future climates on the risk of disease occurrence and spread...
May 23, 2016: Global Change Biology
M P Plaza, P Alcázar, C Galán
Olea europaea L. pollen is the second-largest cause of pollinosis in the southern Iberian Peninsula. Airborne-pollen monitoring networks provide essential data on pollen dynamics over a given study area. Recent research, however, has shown that airborne pollen levels alone do not always provide a clear indicator of actual exposure to aeroallergens. This study sought to evaluate correlations between airborne concentrations of olive pollen and Ole e 1 allergen levels in Córdoba (southern Spain), in order to determine whether atmospheric pollen concentrations alone are sufficient to chart changes in hay fever symptoms...
December 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
María Fernández-González, David Ramos-Valcárcel, María Jesús Aira, Francisco Javier Rodríguez-Rajo
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Powdery mildew caused by Uncinula necator and Downy mildew produced by Plasmopara viticola are the most common diseases in the North-West Spain vineyards. Knowledge of airborne spore concentrations could be a useful tool in the Integrated Pest Management protocols in order to reduce the number of pesticide treatments, applied only when there is a real risk of infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out in a vineyard of the D...
2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Michal Hrabovský, Jana Ščevková, Karol Mičieta, Janka Lafférsová, Jozef Dušička
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The invasive alien species Ambrosia artemisiifolia cause environmental, agronomical and medical problems in many regions of the world, including Slovakia. The purpose of this study was to survey the spread and distribution of this species in Slovakia and to analyse its airborne pollen pattern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To evaluate the spatiotemporal dynamics of Ambrosia invasion in the territory of Slovakia, herbarium specimens, published databases and field investigations were considered...
2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Chariton E Papadakis, Devora E Kiagiadaki, Stilianos I Bonatos, Michael Katotomichelakis, Vassilios Danielides, Efklidis K Proimos
The objective of the analytic observational study was to present air-pollen counting program results for a 5-year period. Airborne pollens and fungi collection, from both urban and sub-urban areas, were obtained using a special Burkard pollen trap installed on the roof of Chania General Hospital. Aeroallergen concentration measurement was made in a standardized way with fixation of the material collected and then counting using an optical microscope. Annual and total circulating pollen and fungi counts for the study period are presented...
July 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Mamadou Lamine Fall, Hervé Van der Heyden, Odile Carisse
Lettuce downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Bremia lactucae Regel, is a major threat to lettuce production worldwide. Lettuce downy mildew is a polycyclic disease driven by airborne spores. A weather-based dynamic simulation model for B. lactucae airborne spores was developed to simulate the aerobiological characteristics of the pathogen. The model was built using the STELLA platform by following the system dynamics methodology. The model was developed using published equations describing disease subprocesses (e...
2016: PloS One
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