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Shaoyun Zhang, Bin Xu, Qiang Huang, Huan Yao, Jinwei Xie, Fuxing Pei
There is no consensus as to whether drainage tube should be used and how long it should remain in use after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). As fast-track (FT) program has been implemented in TKA, whether drainage tube could be removed early, and the ideal timing for removal after FT primary TKA has been a new topic. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of early removal of drainage tube when FT program was implemented in primary TKA. A total of 101 patients undergoing FT primary TKA were prospectively allocated into three groups...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Carme Perez-Quilis, Giuseppe Lippi, Gianfranco Cervellin, Roman Leischik, Herbert Löllgen, Enrique Serrano-Ostáriz, Alejandro Lucia
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common heart arrhythmia, the risk of which typically increases with age. This condition is commonly associated with major cardiovascular diseases and structural heart damage, while it is rarely observed in healthy young people. However, increasing evidence indicates that paroxysmal AF can also onset in young or middle-aged and otherwise healthy endurance athletes (e.g., cyclists, runners and cross-country skiers). Here we review the topic of AF associated with strenuous endurance exercise (SEE), for example cycling, running and cross-country skiing, especially at a competitive level, and we propose the definition of a new syndrome based on the accumulating data in the literature: SEE-related AF under the acronym of 'PAFIYAMA' ('paroxysmal AF in young and middle-aged athletes')...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Rui Zhang, Shiping Zhu, Qin Zhou
Infrared image segmentation is a challenging topic because infrared images are characterized by high noise, low contrast, and weak edges. Active contour models, especially gradient vector flow, have several advantages in terms of infrared image segmentation. However, the GVF (Gradient Vector Flow) model also has some drawbacks including a dilemma between noise smoothing and weak edge protection, which decrease the effect of infrared image segmentation significantly. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel generalized gradient vector flow snakes model combining GGVF (Generic Gradient Vector Flow) and NBGVF (Normally Biased Gradient Vector Flow) models...
October 21, 2016: Sensors
Yung-Hao Wong, Chia-Chiun Chiu, Chih-Lung Lin, Ting-Shou Chen, Bo-Ren Jheng, Yu-Ching Lee, Jeremy Chen, Bor-Sen Chen
In recent years, many systems biology approaches have been used with various cancers. The materials described here can be used to build bases to discover novel cancer therapy targets in connection with computer-aided drug design (CADD). A deeper understanding of the mechanisms of cancer will provide more choices and correct strategies in the development of multiple target drug therapies, which is quite different from the traditional cancer single target therapy. Targeted therapy is one of the most powerful strategies against cancer and can also be applied to other diseases...
October 19, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
A Michalsen, O Eddin, A Salama
The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a specific composition of a traditional herbal preparation (DurrDerma) in adult patients with moderate to severe skin psoriasis. The preparation is a newly developed topical combination containing plant-based extracts traditionally used in skin disease as black cumin, olive oil, tea tree oil, cocoa butter completed by vitamin A and vitamin B12. We documented the effectiveness of the preparation in a first case series. A total of 12 patients (8 males and 4 females, 21-86 y) with manifest and treatment-resistant psoriasis were included and treated for 12 weeks...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Silvia Honda Takada, Juliane Midori Ikebara, Erica de Sousa, Débora Sterzeck Cardoso, Rodrigo Ribeiro Resende, Henning Ulrich, Martin Rückl, Sten Rüdiger, Alexandre Hiroaki Kihara
It is well known that calcium (Ca(2+)) is involved in the triggering of neuronal death. Ca(2+) cytosolic levels are regulated by Ca(2+) release from internal stores located in organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum. Indeed, Ca(2+) transit from distinct cell compartments follows complex dynamics that are mediated by specific receptors, notably inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs). Ca(2+) release by IP3Rs plays essential roles in several neurological disorders; however, details of these processes are poorly understood...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Rafael Conceição de Souza, Gabriela de Medeiros Muniz, Andrei Santos Siqueira, Adonis de Melo Lima, Alessandra Pereira da Silva, Evonnildo Costa Gonçalves, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves Vianez Júnior
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections continue to exert an enormous impact on global human health. This led experts to emphasize the importance of new measures for preventing HIV infections, including the development of vaccines and novel drugs. In this context, a promising approach involves the use of lectins that can bind the surface envelope glycoprotein gp120 of HIV with high affinity, preventing viral entry. The cyanobacterial lectin microvirin (MVN) has been proposed as a candidate for development as a topical microbicide because of its ability to bind to high mannose-type glycans, potently inhibiting HIV-1 entry...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Adriana C Vidal, Stephen J Freedland
CONTEXT: In 2012, we published a detailed review on obesity and prostate cancer. Since then, new studies have brought further understanding regarding the role of obesity in selecting active surveillance candidates, and differing associations between obesity and prostate cancer as a function of race and molecular subtype of prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE: To review new manuscripts on these new concepts for which there were limited data before 2012. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A PubMed search from July 2012 to March 2016 was performed using the terms "prostate cancer" and "obesity"...
October 19, 2016: European Urology
Aditya K Gupta, Jessie Carviel, William Abramovits
Alopecia areata (AA) is non-scarring hair loss resulting from an autoimmune disorder. Severity varies from patchy hair loss that often spontaneously resolves to severe and chronic cases that can progress to total loss of scalp and body hair. Many treatments are available; however, the efficacy of these treatments has not been confirmed, especially in severe cases, and relapse rates are high. First-line treatment often includes corticosteroids such as intralesional or topical steroids for mild cases and systemic steroids or topical immunotherapy with diphenylcyclopropenone or squaric acid dibutylester in severe cases...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
J Matlach, N Pfeiffer, V Prokosch-Willing
Studying the lamina cribrosa (LC) is relevant to understand the mechanisms of retinal ganglion cell degeneration in glaucoma and develop new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. We would like to present some of the emerging trends and hot topics in imaging of the lamina cribrosa in glaucoma from the 2016 ARVO (The Association of Research in Vision and Ophthalmology) annual meeting, which was held in Seattle, WA, USA. Presentation of the path of ganglion cells through the pores of the lamina cribrosa as well as changes to the shape of the lamina cribrosa with increase of the intraocular and intracerebral pressure have been of great international interest...
October 21, 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Zahra Afghah, Brett Webb, Xiang-Jin Meng, Sheela Ramamoorthy
More than two decades after its emergence, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) remains an economically important swine pathogen. Commercial vaccines which were first introduced to the U.S in 2006, have been highly effective in reducing clinical signs and improving production. Recent studies have indicated a declining level of PCV2 prevalence and viremia in the field. However, reports on the emergence of new viral variants have also continued to increase. This article reviews topics of current interest in the field of PCV2 vaccines; including the comparative efficacy of the available commercial products, efficacy of current vaccines against new and emerging strains, findings on the differences between immunity in natural infection versus vaccination, limitations of current experimental models for PCV2 vaccine studies, and new developments in novel experimental vaccines...
October 13, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Amy J Wint, Diane L Smith, Lisa I Iezzoni
OBJECTIVE: This study describes how women with physical disability experience caregiving for a new infant and how they adapt their home environment and care tasks. METHOD: In 2013, we conducted 2-hr telephone interviews with 22 women with significant physical disability who had delivered babies within the previous 10 yr. The semistructured, open-ended interview protocol addressed wide-ranging pregnancy-related topics. NVivo was used to sort the texts for content analysis...
November 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Jennifer E Arnold
It is well established that language production and comprehension are influenced by information status, for example, whether information is given, new, topical, or predictable, and many scholars suggest that an important component of information status is keeping track of what information is in common ground (i.e., what is shared), and what is not. Information status affects both speakers' choices (e.g., word order, pronoun use, prosodic prominence) and how listeners interpret the speaker's meaning (e.g., Chafe, 1994; Prince, 1981)...
October 20, 2016: Topics in Cognitive Science
Vera Dinkelacker, Sophie Dupont, Séverine Samson
The new classification of epilepsy stratifies the disease into an acute level, based on seizures, and an overarching chronic level of epileptic syndromes (Berg et al., 2010). In this new approach, seizures are considered either to originate and evolve in unilateral networks or to rapidly encompass both hemispheres. This concept extends the former vision of focal and generalized epilepsies to a genuine pathology of underlying networks. These key aspects of the new classification can be linked to the concept of cognitive curtailing in focal epilepsy...
October 17, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Y H Liu, L Chen, Y P Wu, W Cao
Objective: To observe the effects of early applying of microporous polysaccharide on foreign body reaction induced by subcutaneously imbedding expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) in mice. Methods: Ten wide type adult C57BL/6J mice were collected and made a full-thickness skin incision on both sides of their back. The two incisions on the back of each mouse were divided into two groups according the random number table, with 10 incisions in each group. A tube-shaped e-PTFE was imbedded into each incision in microporous polysaccharide group, and then 0...
October 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
David Glenister, Martin Prewer
Objective Most major Victorian hospitals include religious identity in routine admission demographic questions. However, approximately 20% of admissions do not have their religious identity recorded. At the Royal Melbourne Hospital this missing 20% was surveyed throughout 2014-15 for two reasons: (1) to enable patient care; and (2) to provide an insight into the significance of religious identity for patients. There is scarce literature on this subject, so the present mixed-methods study, including a qualitative component, will start to bridge the gap...
October 21, 2016: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
Jennifer Smith-Merry, Merrilyn Walton, Judith Healy, Coletta Hobbs
Objective This paper explores how hospital complaints managers react to recommendations for systemic quality reforms by health complaints commissions in response to complaints by patients in Queensland and New South Wales.Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with complaints managers in 17 hospitals. Interview transcripts were then thematically analysed and data on responses to health complaint commissions was organised in relation to Valerie Braithwaite's typology of motivational postures...
October 21, 2016: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
Chen Wang, Chengcheng Xu, Jinxin Xia, Zhendong Qian
OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to model fault in e-bike fatal crashes in a county-level city in China. METHOD: Three-year crash data are retrieved from the crash reports (2012-2014) from the Taixing Police Department. A mixed logit models is introduced to explore significant factors associated with fault assignment, as well as accounting for similarity among fault assignment and heterogeneity within unobserved variables. RESULTS: The modeling results indicate some interesting new findings...
October 20, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Katherine R Amato
Research examining the gut microbiota is currently exploding, and results are providing new perspectives on human biology. Factors such as host diet and physiology influence the composition and function of the gut microbiota, which in turn affects human nutrition, health, and behavior via interactions with metabolism, the immune system, and the brain. These findings represent an exciting new twist on familiar topics, and as a result, gut microbiome research is likely to provide insight into unresolved biological mechanisms driving human health...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Shokrollah Zandi, Razyeh Ahmad Zadeh, Sayedeh Reyhaneh Yousefi, Fardin Gharibi
BACKGROUND: Warts are common dermatological lesion caused by skin epithelial cells' infection with human Papillomavirus (HPV). OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a new method for the treatment of dermal warts. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this clinical trial study, 60 patients (older than 10 years) with dermal warts living in Baneh city, west of Iran, were allocated into the intervention and control groups using the block randomized method in 2012...
August 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
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