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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749579/a-new-type-of-neurons-for-machine-learning
#1
Fenglei Fan, Wenxiang Cong, Ge Wang
In machine learning, the use of an artificial neural network is the mainstream approach. Such a network consists of layers of neurons. These neurons are of the same type characterized by the two features: (1) an inner product of an input vector and a matching weighting vector of trainable parameters and (2) a nonlinear excitation function. Here we investigate the possibility of replacing the inner product with a quadratic function of the input vector, thereby upgrading the 1(st) order neuron to the 2(nd) order neuron, empowering individual neurons, and facilitating the optimization of neural networks...
July 27, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748479/sting-signaling-in-cancer-cells-important-or-not
#2
REVIEW
Olga Sokolowska, Dominika Nowis
Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is an adaptor protein that plays an important role in the activation of type I interferons in response to cytosolic nucleic acid ligands. Recent evidence indicates involvement of the STING pathway in the induction of antitumor immune response. Therefore, STING agonists are now being extensively developed as a new class of cancer therapeutics. However, little is known about the consequences of activated STING-mediated signaling in cancer cells on the efficacy of the antitumor treatment...
July 26, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747904/bridging-food-webs-ecosystem-metabolism-and-biogeochemistry-using-ecological-stoichiometry-theory
#3
REVIEW
Nina Welti, Maren Striebel, Amber J Ulseth, Wyatt F Cross, Stephen DeVilbiss, Patricia M Glibert, Laodong Guo, Andrew G Hirst, Jim Hood, John S Kominoski, Keeley L MacNeill, Andrew S Mehring, Jill R Welter, Helmut Hillebrand
Although aquatic ecologists and biogeochemists are well aware of the crucial importance of ecosystem functions, i.e., how biota drive biogeochemical processes and vice-versa, linking these fields in conceptual models is still uncommon. Attempts to explain the variability in elemental cycling consequently miss an important biological component and thereby impede a comprehensive understanding of the underlying processes governing energy and matter flow and transformation. The fate of multiple chemical elements in ecosystems is strongly linked by biotic demand and uptake; thus, considering elemental stoichiometry is important for both biogeochemical and ecological research...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747887/nutrient-sensing-another-chemosensitivity-of-the-olfactory-system
#4
REVIEW
A-Karyn Julliard, Dolly Al Koborssy, Debra A Fadool, Brigitte Palouzier-Paulignan
Olfaction is a major sensory modality involved in real time perception of the chemical composition of the external environment. Olfaction favors anticipation and rapid adaptation of behavioral responses necessary for animal survival. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that there is a direct action of metabolic peptides on the olfactory network. Orexigenic peptides such as ghrelin and orexin increase olfactory sensitivity, which in turn, is decreased by anorexigenic hormones such as insulin and leptin...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745760/advances-in-spectroscopy-and-dynamics-of-small-and-medium-sized-molecules-and-clusters
#5
Majdi Hochlaf
Investigations of the spectroscopy and dynamics of small- and medium-sized molecules and clusters represent a hot topic in atmospheric chemistry, biology, physics, atto- and femto-chemistry and astrophysics. Nowadays, outstanding developments, both theoretical and experimental, have been achieved. The most recent results of these achievements are reviewed here. These molecular systems are studied by means of high-resolution spectroscopic techniques in either the frequency or the time domains. However, they still represent complex molecular systems since they may undergo processes that are still not fully understood in sufficient details...
July 26, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745729/highlights-of-skin-disease-education-foundation-s-41st-annual-hawaii-dermatology-seminar%C3%A2
#6
Kenneth B Gordon, Craig L Leonardi, Daniel E Furst, Neal Bhatia, Lawrence F Eichenfield, Katie Beleznay
New therapies, recent pathophysiological findings, and updated guidelines combined to create compelling presentations at the Skin Disease Education Foundation's 41st Annual Hawaii Dermatology Seminar™. This educational supplement summarizes the highlights of clinical sessions presented during this CME/CE conference. A growing understanding of the biology of psoriasis has facilitated the development of increasingly efficacious medications. Skin clearance used to be regarded as an impractical goal for psoriasis therapy...
June 2017: Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745446/conclusion-special-issue-on-genetic-and-alcohol-use-disorder-research-with-diverse-racial-ethnic-groups-key-findings-and-potential-next-steps
#7
Karen G Chartier, Michie N Hesselbrock, Victor M Hesselbrock
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This special issue brings together papers focusing on a wide range of topics relevant to the research and understanding of the role of race/ethnicity and genetic variation for the susceptibility of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD). METHODS: The key findings from the issue's 10 articles are reviewed and organized here around three topics: I: addictive behaviors and potential environmental influences; II: a focus on four racial/ethnic groups; and III: special methodologies...
August 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744683/sources-and-toxicities-of-phenolic-polychlorinated-biphenyls-oh-pcbs
#8
Kiran Dhakal, Gopi S Gadupudi, Hans-Joachim Lehmler, Gabriele Ludewig, Michael W Duffel, Larry W Robertson
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a group of 209 congeners that differ in the number and position of chlorines on the biphenyl ring, are anthropogenic chemicals that belong to the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). For many years, PCBs have been a topic of interest because of their biomagnification in the food chain and their environmental persistence. PCBs with fewer chlorine atoms, however, are less persistent and more susceptible to metabolic attack, giving rise to chemicals characterized by the addition of one or more hydroxyl groups to the chlorinated biphenyl skeleton, collectively known as hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs)...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744632/combinatorial-screening-of-peptides-specific-ligands-of-death-receptor-dr5
#9
V M Ukrainskaya, A V Stepanov, A A Belogurov, A G Gabibov
Death receptors, in particular DR5, are highly attractive targets of antitumor therapy. The major limitation to application of natural death receptor ligands (TRAIL) is their non-specific cytotoxicity against normal cells. Since TRAIL can also bind decoy receptors (DcR) and prevent induction of apoptosis, the search for new DR-specific ligands is a topical issue. In the present study, we used combinatorial phage display peptide libraries to select a panel of DR5-binding amino acid sequences. A comparative analysis of the selected peptides enabled identification of the consensus sequence responsible for binding to DR5...
July 25, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744000/permeability-barrier-and-microstructure-of-skin-lipid-membrane-models-of-impaired-glucosylceramide-processing
#10
Michaela Sochorová, Klára Staňková, Petra Pullmannová, Andrej Kováčik, Jarmila Zbytovská, Kateřina Vávrová
Ceramide (Cer) release from glucosylceramides (GlcCer) is critical for the formation of the skin permeability barrier. Changes in β-glucocerebrosidase (GlcCer'ase) activity lead to diminished Cer, GlcCer accumulation and structural defects in SC lipid lamellae; however, the molecular basis for this impairment is not clear. We investigated impaired GlcCer-to-Cer processing in human Cer membranes to determine the physicochemical properties responsible for the barrier defects. Minor impairment (5-25%) of the Cer generation from GlcCer decreased the permeability of the model membrane to four markers and altered the membrane microstructure (studied by X-ray powder diffraction and infrared spectroscopy), in agreement with the effects of topical GlcCer in human skin...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742486/-new-life-sciences-the-road-ahead-report-on-the-biovisionalexandria-2016-conference
#11
Marwa Elwakil, Nathalie Roman, Marwa Abdel Rassoul, Israa Elfayoumi, Yousra Sobeih, Mohamed El-Faham
The Bibliotheca Alexandrina (BA) has organised its eighth international biennial conference, BioVisionAlexandria (BVA) 2016 on 12-14 April 2016 in Alexandria, Egypt. The theme of BVA 2016 was 'New Life Sciences: The Road Ahead', where cutting-edge relevant research topics at the forefront of science were presented by a variety of world-wide renowned speakers. BVA 2016 hosted around 2000 participants and speakers of diverse backgrounds, creating a multi-disciplinary arena for dialogue to explore the opportunities, benefits, and controversial threats...
December 1, 2016: Science Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742290/infant-related-intrusive-thoughts-of-harm-in-the-postpartum-period-a-critical-review
#12
Elke C Brok, Patricia Lok, Desiree B Oosterbaan, Aart H Schene, Indira Tendolkar, Philip F van Eijndhoven
BACKGROUND: Besides the expected warm and joyful thoughts, a new mother can be disturbed by sudden frightening thoughts or images of harm done to her baby: harming intrusions, an obsessive phenomenon. Its high prevalence and possible consequences in functioning and in mother-child bonding makes it desirable that clinicians are well informed regarding the current state of knowledge about harming intrusions. OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive review of all studies that have investigated harming intrusions in postpartum women...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740773/botulinum-toxin-a-as-an-adjunct-to-abdominal-wall-reconstruction-for-incisional-hernia
#13
Sinor Soltanizadeh, Frederik Helgstrand, Lars N Jorgensen
BACKGROUND: Repair of large incisional hernias remains a surgical and costly challenge. Temporary paralysis of the lateral abdominal wall muscles with topical administration of botulinum toxin A (BTA) is a new therapeutic concept, which may obviate the need for component separation technique (CST) for repair of large incisional hernias. Current literature on the administration of BTA as adjunct to surgical repair of abdominal incisional hernias was investigated. METHODS: The electronic databases PubMed and Embase were searched for eligible studies...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740761/local-application-of-statins-significantly-reduced-hypertrophic-scarring-in-a-rabbit-ear-model
#14
Shengxian Jia, Ping Xie, Seok J Hong, Robert D Galiano, Thomas A Mustoe
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that intradermal injection of statins is a successful treatment for hypertrophic scarring. Topical application has many advantages over intradermal injection. In this study, we demonstrate the efficacy of topical statin treatment in reducing scar in our validated rabbit ear scar model. METHODS: Twenty New Zealand White rabbits were divided into 2 study groups, with 6 rabbits receiving 10 μm pravastatin intradermally at postoperative days 15, 18, and 21, and 14 rabbits receiving 0...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740438/availability-and-use-of-hemostatic-agents-in-prehospital-trauma-patients-in-pennsylvania-translation-from-the-military-to-the-civilian-setting
#15
Adam Sigal, Anthony Martin, Adrian Ong
OBJECTIVE: To understand the translation of one innovation in trauma care from the military to the civilian setting, the adoption of topical hemostatic agents in the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) community and in Trauma Centers in Pennsylvania. METHOD: We utilized an anonymous electronic survey of EMS Agency Administrative Officers and Trauma Center Coordinators. RESULTS: We received responses from 23% (93/402) Advanced Life Support and Air Medical agencies in the State...
2017: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739503/improved-transdermal-delivery-of-morin-efficiently-inhibits-allergic-contact-dermatitis
#16
Jiao Yu, Kawai Wan, Xun Sun
The skin is an important site for local or systemic application of drugs. However, most of the drugs have poor permeability through the skin's outermost layer, stratum corneum. The aim of this study was to develop a method to enable transdermal delivery of morin (3, 5, 7, 2, 4-pentahydroxyflavone), which is a poorly water-soluble drug with anti-inflammatory properties obtained from natural products. Morin phospholipid complex (MPC) was prepared and then loaded in Carbopol 940 hydrogel (MPC-gel), which can significantly increase the transdermal flux of morin based on the in vitro skin penetration data presented in this paper...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739117/update-on-fertility-preservation-from-the-barcelona-international-society-for-fertility-preservation-eshre-asrm-2015-expert-meeting-indications-results-and-future-perspectives
#17
Francisca Martinez
STUDY QUESTION: What progress has been made in fertility preservation (FP) over the last decade? SUMMARY ANSWER: FP techniques have been widely adopted over the last decade and therefore the establishment of international registries on their short- and long-term outcomes is strongly recommended. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: FP is a fundamental issue for both males and females whose future fertility may be compromised. Reproductive capacity may be seriously affected by age, different medical conditions and also by treatments, especially those with gonadal toxicity...
July 20, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738794/escaschool-study-trial-protocol-of-an-adaptive-treatment-approach-for-school-age-children-with-adhd-including-two-randomised-trials
#18
Manfred Döpfner, Christopher Hautmann, Christina Dose, Tobias Banaschewski, Katja Becker, Daniel Brandeis, Martin Holtmann, Thomas Jans, Carolin Jenkner, Sabina Millenet, Tobias Renner, Marcel Romanos, Elena von Wirth
BACKGROUND: The ESCAschool study addresses the treatment of school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a large multicentre trial. It aims to investigate three interrelated topics: (i) Clinical guidelines often recommend a stepped care approach, including different treatment strategies for children with mild to moderate and severe ADHD symptoms, respectively. However, this approach has not yet been empirically validated. (ii) Behavioural interventions and neurofeedback have been shown to be effective, but the superiority of combined treatment approaches such as medication plus behaviour therapy or medication plus neurofeedback compared to medication alone remains questionable...
July 24, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738415/monocarboxylate-transporters-mediate-fluorescein-uptake-in-corneal-epithelial-cells
#19
Yi-Chen Sun, Hau-Min Liou, Po-Ting Yeh, Wei-Li Chen, Fung-Rong Hu
Purpose: To determine the presence of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) in human and rabbit corneal epithelium and its role in transcellular fluorescein transportation in the cornea. Methods: The presence of MCTs in human and rabbit corneal epithelium was determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Intracellular fluorescein uptake experiment was performed using cultured human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). The involvement of MCT in fluorescein uptake was determined by addition of MCT inhibitors to HCECs and acute dry eye model on New Zealand albino rabbits by spectrophotometry, corneal impression cytology, and external eye photographs...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738394/the-contribution-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-to-the-progression-of-psychiatric-disorders
#20
Rachel A Kohman, Justin S Rhodes
New neurons are continuously formed in the adult hippocampus of the human, nonhuman primate, and rodent throughout life though rates of neurogenesis precipitously decline with age to near zero levels at the end of the natural life span. Since its discovery in the 1960s, a large number of studies have documented numerous environmental and genetic factors which regulate adult neurogenesis. Chief among the positive regulators of neurogenesis are exercise and antidepressant drugs. Chief among the negative regulators of neurogenesis besides age are stress and inflammation...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
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