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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352704/treatment-of-adult-chronic-indeterminate-chagas-disease-with-benznidazole-and-three-e1224-dosing-regimens-a-proof-of-concept-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#1
Faustino Torrico, Joaquim Gascon, Lourdes Ortiz, Cristina Alonso-Vega, María-Jesús Pinazo, Alejandro Schijman, Igor C Almeida, Fabiana Alves, Nathalie Strub-Wourgaft, Isabela Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a major neglected vector-borne disease. In this study, we investigated the safety and efficacy of three oral E1224 (a water-soluble ravuconazole prodrug) regimens and benznidazole versus placebo in adult chronic indeterminate Chagas disease. METHOD: In this proof-of-concept, double-blind, randomised phase 2 clinical trial, we recruited adults (18-50 years) with confirmed diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection from two outpatient units in Bolivia...
January 15, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350902/hierarchically-self-assembled-supramolecular-host-guest-delivery-system-for-delivery-of-chemotherapeutics-to-drug-resistant-cancer-tumours
#2
Hongwei Cheng, Xiaoshan Fan, Xiaoyuan Wang, Enyi Ye, Xian Jun Loh, Zibiao Li, Yun-Long Wu
In this report, a new star-like copolymer -CD-g-(PNIPAAm-b-POEGA)x consisting of a -CD core, grafted with temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and biocompatible poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) acrylate) (POEGA) in a block copolymer of the arms, was used to deliver chemotherapeutics to drug resistant cancer tumours. The first step of the self-assembly process involves the encapsulation of chemotherapeutics through host-guest inclusion complexation between the -cyclodextrin cavity and the anti-cancer drug...
January 19, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349902/association-between-pre-sarcopenia-sarcopenia-and-bone-mineral-density-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#3
Tatiana Bering, Kiara G D Diniz, Marta Paula P Coelho, Diego A Vieira, Maria Marta S Soares, Adriana M Kakehasi, Maria Isabel T D Correia, Rosângela Teixeira, Dulciene M M Queiroz, Gifone A Rocha, Luciana D Silva
BACKGROUND: Preserved skeletal muscle is essential for the maintenance of healthy bone. Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle strength, considered a predictor of BMD, have been demonstrated in patients with cirrhosis, but they are poorly studied in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) without cirrhosis. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low BMD and its association with body composition, muscle strength, and nutritional status in CHC. METHODS: One hundred and four subjects [mean age, 50...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349829/physicians-perspective-on-the-clinical-meaningfulness-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-trial-results-an-international-organization-for-the-study-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-ioibd-survey
#4
P Olivera, W J Sandborn, J Panés, C Baumann, G D'Haens, S Vermeire, S Danese, L Peyrin-Biroulet
BACKGROUND: Several novel compounds are being developed for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In addition, biosimilar drugs are being approved. An increasing number of head-to-head, superiority and non-inferiority trials in patients with IBD are expected in the future. The clinical relevance of the magnitude of the effect size is often debated. AIM: To better understand physicians' perspectives on the clinical meaningfulness of IBD trial results. METHODS: We conducted an online survey among all IOIBD (International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases) members, asking their opinion on the clinical relevance of the results of IBD trials...
January 19, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349285/a-smart-phone-intervention-to-address-mental-health-stigma-in-the-construction-industry-a-two-arm-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
A Milner, P C F Law, C Mann, T Cooper, K Witt, A D LaMontagne
Background: High levels of self-stigma are associated with a range of adverse mental health, treatment, and functional outcomes. This prospective study examined the effects of an electronic mental health stigma reduction intervention on self-stigma (self-blame, shame, and help-seeking inhibition) among male construction workers in Australia. Method: Male construction workers (N = 682) were randomly assigned to receive either the intervention condition or the wait list control over a six-week period...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349011/middle-glenohumeral-ligament-abrasion-causing-upper-subscapularis-tear
#6
Paul C Brady, Heather Grubbs, Alexandre Lädermann, Christopher R Adams
The middle glenohumeral ligament (MGHL) typically contributes partially to the anterior stability of the shoulder. In a very limited number of cases, the MGHL can cause abrasion on the upper edge of the subscapularis causing persistent pain symptoms for patients. The condition is exacerbated by internal rotation of the arm. In this Technical Note, we describe this entity and call it the SAM lesion (Subscapularis Abrasion from the MGHL). We present a technique of addressing this lesion.
December 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348232/a-self-assembled-nanoscale-robotic-arm-controlled-by-electric-fields
#7
Enzo Kopperger, Jonathan List, Sushi Madhira, Florian Rothfischer, Don C Lamb, Friedrich C Simmel
The use of dynamic, self-assembled DNA nanostructures in the context of nanorobotics requires fast and reliable actuation mechanisms. We therefore created a 55-nanometer-by-55-nanometer DNA-based molecular platform with an integrated robotic arm of length 25 nanometers, which can be extended to more than 400 nanometers and actuated with externally applied electrical fields. Precise, computer-controlled switching of the arm between arbitrary positions on the platform can be achieved within milliseconds, as demonstrated with single-pair Förster resonance energy transfer experiments and fluorescence microscopy...
January 19, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348201/solution-structure-of-sperm-lysin-yields-novel-insights-into-molecular-dynamics-of-rapid-protein-evolution
#8
Damien B Wilburn, Lisa M Tuttle, Rachel E Klevit, Willie J Swanson
Protein evolution is driven by the sum of different physiochemical and genetic processes that usually results in strong purifying selection to maintain biochemical functions. However, proteins that are part of systems under arms race dynamics often evolve at unparalleled rates that can produce atypical biochemical properties. In the marine mollusk abalone, lysin and vitelline envelope receptor for lysin (VERL) are a pair of rapidly coevolving proteins that are essential for species-specific interactions between sperm and egg...
January 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347993/updated-efficacy-of-avelumab-in-patients-with-previously-treated-metastatic-merkel-cell-carcinoma-after-%C3%A2-1%C3%A2-year-of-follow-up-javelin-merkel-200-a-phase-2-clinical-trial
#9
Howard L Kaufman, Jeffery S Russell, Omid Hamid, Shailender Bhatia, Patrick Terheyden, Sandra P D'Angelo, Kent C Shih, Céleste Lebbé, Michele Milella, Isaac Brownell, Karl D Lewis, Jochen H Lorch, Anja von Heydebreck, Meliessa Hennessy, Paul Nghiem
BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive skin cancer associated with poor survival outcomes in patients with distant metastatic disease (mMCC). In an initial analysis from JAVELIN Merkel 200, a phase 2, prospective, open-label, single-arm trial in mMCC, avelumab-a human anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibody-showed promising efficacy and a safety profile that was generally manageable and tolerable. Here, we report the efficacy of avelumab after ≥1 year of follow-up in patients with distant mMCC that had progressed following prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease...
January 19, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347990/establishment-of-an-in-vitro-chicken-epithelial-cell-line-model-to-investigate-eimeria-tenella-gamete-development
#10
Françoise I Bussière, Alisson Niepceron, Alix Sausset, Evelyne Esnault, Anne Silvestre, Robert A Walker, Nicholas C Smith, Pascale Quéré, Fabrice Laurent
BACKGROUND: Eimeria tenella infection leads to acute intestinal disorders responsible for important economic losses in poultry farming worldwide. The life-cycle of E. tenella is monoxenous with the chicken as the exclusive host; infection occurs in caecal epithelial cells. However, in vitro, the complete life-cycle of the parasite has only been propagated successfully in primary chicken kidney cells, which comprise undefined mixed cell populations; no cell line model has been able to consistently support the development of the sexual stages of the parasite...
January 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347832/wire-placement-in-the-sustentaculum-tali-using-a-2d-projection-based-software-application-for-mobile-c-arms-cadaveric-study
#11
Benedict Swartman, Dirk Frere, Wei Wei, Marc Schnetzke, Stephan Grechenig, Amir Matityahu, Nils Beisemann, Holger Keil, Jochen Franke, Paul Alfred Grützner, Sven Yves Vetter
BACKGROUND: Indirect screw fixation of the sustentaculum tali in the lateral-medial direction can be challenging due to the complex calcaneal anatomy. A novel 2-dimensional (2D) projection-based software application detects Kirschner wires (K-wires) and visualizes their intended direction as a colored trajectory. The aim of this prospectively randomized cadaver study was to investigate whether the software would facilitate the indirect K-wire placement in the sustentaculum tali. METHODS: In 20 cadaver foot specimens, K-wires were placed indirectly in the sustentaculum tali by an experienced and an inexperienced surgeon, with and without using the application...
January 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346830/feasibility-of-navigable-percutaneous-disk-decompressor-l-disq-c-for-cervical-disk-herniation
#12
Youngki Hong, Seunghan Yoo, Nack Hwan Kim, Yushin Kim, Sangho Sohn, Sung-Young Yoon, Sangheon Lee
OBJECTIVE:  To assess the procedural efficacy and safety of a Navigable Percutaneous Disk Decompressor (L'DISQ-C) for cervical disk herniation. METHODS:  We performed intradiskal decompression on cervical spine specimens from five human cadavers using the L'DISQ-C under C-arm fluoroscopic guidance. We evaluated our success for positioning the navigable wand tip into the target region and recorded temperature variation at various distances from the wand tip in the cervical nucleus pulposus...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346507/activity-and-safety-of-afatinib-in-a-window-pre-operative-eortc-study-in-patients-with-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck-scchn
#13
J P Machiels, P Bossi, J Menis, M Lia, C Fortpied, Y Liu, R Lhommel, M Lemort, S Schmitz, S Canevari, L De Cecco, M Guzzo, R Bianchi, P Quattrone, F Crippa, T Duprez, Y Lalami, M Quiriny, N de Saint Aubain, P M Clement, R Coropciuc, E Hauben, L F Licitra
Background: To investigate the activity and safety of afatinib in the pre-operative treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Patients and methods: This study was an open-label, randomized, multicenter, phase II window of opportunity trial. Treatment-naïve SCCHN patients selected for primary curative surgery were randomized (5:1 ratio) to receive afatinib during 14 days (day -15 until day -1) before surgery (day 0) or no treatment. Tumor biopsies, 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed at diagnosis and just before surgery...
January 15, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346184/synergistic-impact-of-training-followed-by-on-site-support-on-hiv-clinical-practice-a-mixed-design-study-in-uganda-with-pre-post-and-cluster-randomized-trial-components
#14
Sarah Burnett, Norbert Mubiru, Peace Imani, Martin K Mbonye, Leigh Fisher, Robert Colebunders, Yukari C Manabe, Marcia R Weaver
BACKGROUND: Task-shifting can expand antiretroviral therapy access, but little is known about effective approaches to improve clinical practice among mid-level practitioners' (MLP) such as clinical officers, nurses, and midwives. The Integrated Infectious Diseases Capacity-Building Evaluation compared training alone to training combined with on-site support (OSS). METHODS: Two MLP each from 36 health facilities attended the five-week Integrated Management of Infectious Disease training...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346113/uncertainty-in-limb-configuration-makes-minimal-contribution-to-errors-between-observed-and-predicted-forces-in-a-musculoskeletal-model-of-the-rat-hindlimb
#15
Qi Wei, Dinesh K Pai, Matthew C Tresch
Subject-specific musculoskeletal models are increasingly used in biomedical applications to predict endpoint forces due to muscle activation, matching predicted forces to experimentally observed forces at a specific limb configuration. However, it is difficult to precisely measure the limb configuration at which these forces are observed. The consequent uncertainty in limb configuration might contribute to errors in model predictions. We therefore evaluated how uncertainties in limb configuration measurement contributed to errors in force prediction, using data from in vivo measurements in the rat hindlimb...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344692/the-epidemiology-of-wrist-fractures-in-older-men-the-osteoporotic-fractures-in-men-mros-study
#16
N C Wright, E R Hooker, C M Nielson, K E Ensrud, S L Harrison, E S Orwoll, E Barrett-Connor
There is limited wrist fracture information on men. Our goal was to calculate frequency and identify risk factors for wrist fracture in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study. We confirmed that fracture history and certain medications are predictors, and identified novel predictors including markers of kidney function and physical performance. INTRODUCTION: To calculate the incidence of wrist fractures and their risk factors in older community-dwelling men from the US Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study...
January 17, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344405/lee-silverman-voice-treatment-versus-standard-speech-and-language-therapy-versus-control-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial-pd-comm-pilot
#17
Catherine M Sackley, Christina H Smith, Caroline E Rick, Marian C Brady, Natalie Ives, Smitaa Patel, Rebecca Woolley, Francis Dowling, Ramilla Patel, Helen Roberts, Sue Jowett, Keith Wheatley, Debbie Kelly, Gina Sands, Carl E Clarke
Background: Speech-related problems are common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but there is little evidence for the effectiveness of standard speech and language therapy (SLT) or Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT LOUD®). Methods: The PD COMM pilot was a three-arm, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial (RCT) of LSVT LOUD®, SLT and no intervention (1:1:1 ratio) to assess the feasibility and to inform the design of a full-scale RCT. Non-demented patients with idiopathic PD and speech problems and no SLT for speech problems in the past 2 years were eligible...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343173/effects-of-two-feedback-interventions-on-end-of-life-outcomes-in-nursing-home-residents-with-dementia-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-three-armed-trial
#18
Jannie A Boogaard, Henrica Cw de Vet, Mirjam C van Soest-Poortvliet, Johannes R Anema, Wilco P Achterberg, Jenny T van der Steen
BACKGROUND: Despite increased attention for palliative care in dementia, recent studies found burdensome symptoms and unmet family caregiver needs in the last phase of life. Feedback is being used to improve the quality of palliative care, but we do not know how effective it is. AIM: To assess the effect of two feedback strategies on perceived quality of end-of-life care and comfort in dying nursing home residents with dementia. METHODS: In a cluster-randomized controlled trial, the End-of-Life in Dementia-Satisfaction With Care and the End-of-Life in Dementia-Comfort Assessment in Dying scales were completed by bereaved family caregivers of residents with dementia of 18 Dutch nursing homes...
January 1, 2018: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339985/butterfly-sprint-swimming-technique-analysis-of-somatic-and-spatial-temporal-coordination-variables
#19
Marek Strzała, Arkadiusz Stanula, Piotr Krężałek, Andrzej Ostrowski, Marcin Kaca, Grzegorz Głąb
The aim of this study was to investigate somatic properties and force production of leg extensor muscles measured in the countermovement jump test (CMJ), as well as to analyse kinematic variables of sprint surface butterfly swimming. Thirty-four male competitive swimmers were recruited with an average age of 19.3 ± 1.83 years. Their average body height (BH) was 183.7 ± 5.93 cm, body fat content 10.8 ± 2.64% and body mass (BM) 78.3 ± 5.0 kg. Length measurements of particular body segments were taken and a counter movement jump (CMJ) as well as an all-out 50 m butterfly speed test were completed...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339776/the-experience-of-spasticity-after-spinal-cord-injury-perceived-characteristics-and-impact-on-daily-life
#20
William Barry McKay, William Mark Sweatman, Edelle C Field-Fote
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. OBJECTIVES: Determine the impact of motor control characteristics attributed to spasticity, such as spasms, stiffness, and clonus on the daily life of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Nationwide, United States. METHODS: Internet-administered questionnaire, the Patient Reported Impact of Spasticity Measure (PRISM) and items describing characteristics of spasticity including stiffness, spasms, clonus, and pain...
January 16, 2018: Spinal Cord
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