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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520856/control-of-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-by-a-novel-bundle-including-remodeling-of-sanitary-and-water-supply-systems
#1
A Kossow, S Kampmeier, S Willems, W E Berdel, A H Groll, B Burckhardt, Rossig C, C Groth, E A Idelevich, F Kipp, A Mellmann, M Stelljes
Background.: Infections by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRPa) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Humid environments can serve as a reservoir and source of infection by this pathogen. To minimize the risk of infection from these reservoirs, we performed extensive remodeling of sanitation and water installations as the focus of our hygiene bundle. Methods.: During the reconstruction of our transplantation unit (April 2011- April 2014) we implemented several technical modifications to reduce environmental contamination by and subsequent spreading of MDRPa, including a newly designed shower drain, disinfecting siphons underneath the sinks, and rimless toilets...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515904/weekly-screening-supports-terminating-nosocomial-transmissions-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-on-an-oncologic-ward-a-retrospective-analysis
#2
Stefanie Kampmeier, Dennis Knaack, Annelene Kossow, Stefanie Willems, Christoph Schliemann, Wolfgang E Berdel, Frank Kipp, Alexander Mellmann
BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of weekly screening within the bundle of infection control measures to terminate vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) transmissions on an oncologic ward. METHODS: A cluster of 12 VRE colonisation and five infections was detected on an oncologic ward between January and April 2015. Subsequently, the VRE point prevalence was detected and, as part of a the bundle of infection control strategies to terminate the VRE cluster, we isolated affected patients, performed hand hygiene training among staff on ward, increased observations by infection control specialists, intensified surface disinfection, used personal protective equipment and initiated an admission screening in May 2015...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515215/an-outbreak-of-ndm-1-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-dutch-hospital-with-interspecies-transfer-of-the-resistance-plasmid-and-unexpected-occurrence-in-unrelated-healthcare-centers
#3
Thijs Bosch, Suzanne P M Lutgens, Mirjam H A Hermans, Peter C Wever, Peter M Schneeberger, Nicole H M Renders, Alexander C A P Leenders, Jan A J W Kluytmans, Annelot Schoffelen, Daan Notermans, Sandra Witteveen, Erik Bathoorn, Leo M Schouls
Introduction. In the Netherlands, the number of cases with New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM)-positive Enterobacteriaceae is low. Here, we report an outbreak of NDM-1 producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Dutch hospital with interspecies transfer of the resistance plasmid and unexpected occurrence in other unrelated healthcare centers (HCCs).Methods. Next-generation sequencing was performed on 250 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates including 42 NDM-positive isolates obtained from 29 persons at the outbreak site...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514651/modeling-genomic-instability-and-selection-pressure-in-a-mouse-model-of-melanoma
#4
Lawrence N Kwong, Lihua Zou, Sharmeen Chagani, Chandra Sekhar Pedamallu, Mingguang Liu, Shan Jiang, Alexei Protopopov, Jianhua Zhang, Gad Getz, Lynda Chin
Tumor evolution is an iterative process of selection for pro-oncogenic aberrations. This process can be accelerated by genomic instability, but how it interacts with different selection bottlenecks to shape the evolving genomic landscape remains understudied. Here, we assessed tumor initiation and therapy resistance bottlenecks in mouse models of melanoma, with or without genomic instability. At the initiation bottleneck, whole-exome sequencing revealed that drug-naive tumors were genomically silent, and this was surprisingly unaffected when genomic instability was introduced via telomerase inactivation...
May 16, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513417/carriage-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-hiv-infected-children-in-zimbabwe
#5
S M S Wilmore, K Kranzer, A Williams, B Makamure, A F Nhidza, J Mayini, T Bandason, J Metcalfe, M P Nicol, I Balakrishnan, M J Ellington, N Woodford, S Hopkins, T D McHugh, R A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging global health issue. Data on the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant organisms are scarce for Africa, especially in HIV-infected individuals who often have frequent contact with healthcare. We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) carriage in stool among HIV-infected children attending an HIV outpatient department in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: We recruited children who were stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART) attending a HIV clinic from August 2014 to June 2015...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512290/evolution-of-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-after-dcd-renal-transplantation
#6
Hong Jiang, Luxi Cao, Lihui Qu, Tingting Qu, Guangjun Liu, Rending Wang, Bingjue Li, Yuchen Wang, Chaoqun Ying, Miao Chen, Yingying Lu, Shi Feng, Yonghong Xiao, Junwen Wang, Jianyong Wu, Jianghua Chen
Infection after renal transplantation remains a major cause of morbidity and death, especially infection from the extensively drug-resistant bacteria, A. baumannii. A total of fourteen A. baumannii isolates were isolated from the donors' preserved fluid from DCD (donation after cardiac death) renal transplantation and four isolates in the recipients' draining liquid at the Kidney Disease Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, from March 2013 to November 2014. An outbreak of A...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512093/population-genomic-analysis-of-1-777-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-houston-texas-unexpected-abundance-of-clonal-group-307
#7
S Wesley Long, Randall J Olsen, Todd N Eagar, Stephen B Beres, Picheng Zhao, James J Davis, Thomas Brettin, Fangfang Xia, James M Musser
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major human pathogen responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. The emergence and spread of strains resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents and documented large nosocomial outbreaks are especially concerning. To develop new therapeutic strategies for K. pneumoniae, it is imperative to understand the population genomic structure of strains causing human infections. To address this knowledge gap, we sequenced the genomes of 1,777 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing K...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510723/decreased-azithromycin-susceptibility-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates-in-patients-recently-treated-with-azithromycin
#8
Carolien M Wind, Esther de Vries, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Martijn S van Rooijen, Alje P van Dam, Walter H B Demczuk, Irene Martin, Henry J C de Vries
Background.: Increasing azithromycin usage and resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae threatens current dual treatment. Because antimicrobial exposure influences resistance, we analyzed the association between azithromycin exposure and decreased susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae. Methods.: We included N. gonorrhoeae isolates of patients who visited the Amsterdam STI Clinic between 1999 and 2013 (t0), with another clinic visit in the previous 60 days (t-1). Exposure was defined as the prescription of azithromycin at t-1...
March 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507112/mcr-1-and-oxa-48-in-vivo-acquisition-in-kpc-producing-escherichia-coli-after-colistin-treatment
#9
Racha Beyrouthy, Frederic Robin, Aude Lessene, Igor Lacombat, Laurent Dortet, Thierry Naas, Valérie Ponties, Richard Bonnet
The spread of mcr-1-encoding plasmids into carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae raises concerns about the emergence of untreatable bacteria. We report the acquisition of mcr-1 in a carbapenem- resistant E. coli after a 3-week course of colistin in a patient repatriated to France from Portugal. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that the KPC-producing E. coli strain acquired two plasmids, an IncL OXA-48-encoding plasmid and an IncX4 mcr-1-encoding plasmid. This is the first report of mcr-1 in carbapenemase-encoding bacteria in France...
May 15, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506673/high-frequency-of-silver-resistance-genes-in-invasive-isolates-of-enterobacter-and-klebsiella-species
#10
S Sütterlin, M Dahlö, C Tellgren-Roth, W Schaal, Å Melhus
BACKGROUND: Silver-based products have been marketed as an alternative to antibiotics, and their consumption has increased. Bacteria may, however, develop resistance to silver. AIM: To study the presence of genes encoding silver resistance (silE, silP, silS) over time in three clinically important Enterobacteriaceae genera. METHODS: Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 752 bloodstream isolates from the years 1990-2010 were investigated. Age, gender, and ward of patients were registered, and the susceptibility to antibiotics and silver nitrate was tested...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503182/genome-wide-snp-markers-based-on-slaf-seq-uncover-breeding-traces-in-rapeseed-brassica-napus-l
#11
Qinghong Zhou, Can Zhou, Wei Zheng, Annaliese S Mason, Shuying Fan, Caijun Wu, Donghui Fu, Yingjin Huang
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant and richest form of genomic polymorphism, and hence make highly favorable markers for genetic map construction and genome-wide association studies. In this study, a total of 300 rapeseed accessions (278 representative of Chinese germplasm, plus 22 outgroup accessions of different origins and ecotypes) were collected and sequenced using Specific-Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology, obtaining 660.25M reads with an average sequencing depth of 6...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502397/performance-of-the-check-points-check-mdr-ct103xl-assay-utilizing-the-cdc-fda-antimicrobial-resistance-isolate-bank
#12
Eleanor A Powell, David Haslam, Joel E Mortensen
The Check-MDR CT103XL beta-lactamase assay was validated for use in the clinical microbiology laboratory using two CDC-FDA Antimicrobial Resistant Isolate Bank panels (133 gram-negative bacilli known beta-lactamase genes). The CT103XL detected most reported resistance genes (123 of 136 genes) and additionally identified several resistance genes not reported by the CDC. Discrepant results were confirmed via whole genome sequencing.
April 28, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499446/genome-sequence-of-shigella-flexneri-strain-sp1-a-diarrheal-isolate-that-encodes-an-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-esbl
#13
Ping Shen, Jianzhong Fan, Lihua Guo, Jiahua Li, Ang Li, Jing Zhang, Chaoqun Ying, Jinru Ji, Hao Xu, Beiwen Zheng, Yonghong Xiao
BACKGROUND: Shigellosis is the most common cause of gastrointestinal infections in developing countries. In China, the species most frequently responsible for shigellosis is Shigella flexneri. S. flexneri remains largely unexplored from a genomic standpoint and is still described using a vocabulary based on biochemical and serological properties. Moreover, increasing numbers of ESBL-producing Shigella strains have been isolated from clinical samples. Despite this, only a few cases of ESBL-producing Shigella have been described in China...
May 12, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498943/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-whole-genome-sequences-from-southern-india-suggest-novel-resistance-mechanisms-and-the-need-for-region-specific-diagnostics
#14
Abigail L Manson, Thomas Abeel, James E Galagan, Jagadish Chandrabose Sundaramurthi, Alex Salazar, Thies Gehrmann, Siva Kumar Shanmugam, Kannan Palaniyandi, Sujatha Narayanan, Soumya Swaminathan, Ashlee M Earl
Background.: India is home to 25% of all tuberculosis cases and the second highest number of multidrug resistant cases worldwide. However, little is known about the genetic diversity and resistance determinants of Indian Mycobacterium tuberculosis, particularly for the primary lineages found in India, lineages 1 and 3. Methods.: We whole genome sequenced 223 randomly selected M. tuberculosis strains from 196 patients within the Tiruvallur and Madurai districts of Tamil Nadu in Southern India...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498782/clonal-history-and-genetic-predictors-of-transformation-into-small-cell-carcinomas-from-lung-adenocarcinomas
#15
June-Koo Lee, Junehawk Lee, Sehui Kim, Soyeon Kim, Jeonghwan Youk, Seongyeol Park, Yohan An, Bhumsuk Keam, Dong-Wan Kim, Dae Seog Heo, Young Tae Kim, Jin-Soo Kim, Se Hyun Kim, Jong Seok Lee, Se-Hoon Lee, Keunchil Park, Ja-Lok Ku, Yoon Kyung Jeon, Doo Hyun Chung, Peter J Park, Joon Kim, Tae Min Kim, Young Seok Ju
Purpose Histologic transformation of EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) into small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) has been described as one of the major resistant mechanisms for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, the molecular pathogenesis is still unclear. Methods We investigated 21 patients with advanced EGFR-mutant LADCs that were transformed into EGFR TKI-resistant SCLCs. Among them, whole genome sequencing was applied for nine tumors acquired at various time points from four patients to reconstruct their clonal evolutionary history and to detect genetic predictors for small-cell transformation...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497118/novel-%C3%AE-lactamase-blaarl-in-staphylococcus-arlettae
#16
Sabrina N Andreis, Vincent Perreten, Sybille Schwendener
Whole-genome sequencing of penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus arlettae strain SAN1670 from bovine mastitis milk revealed a novel β-lactamase operon consisting of the β-lactamase-encoding gene blaARL, the antirepressor-encoding gene blaR1ARL, and the repressor-encoding gene blaIARL. The functionality of blaARL was demonstrated by gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus. The blaARL operon was chromosomally located in SAN1670 and present in 10 additional unrelated strains, suggesting intrinsic penicillin resistance in S...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494332/polymorphism-in-abc-transporter-genes-of-dirofilaria-immitis
#17
Thangadurai Mani, Catherine Bourguinat, Roger K Prichard
Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial nematode, causes dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and occasionally in humans. Prevention of the disease has been mainly by monthly use of the macrocyclic lactone (ML) endectocides during the mosquito transmission season. Recently, ML resistance has been confirmed in D. immitis and therefore, there is a need to find new classes of anthelmintics. One of the mechanisms associated with ML resistance in nematodes has been the possible role of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters in reducing drug concentrations at receptor sites...
April 29, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489577/pancreatic-cancer-ascites-xenograft-an-expeditious-model-mirroring-advanced-therapeutic-resistant-disease
#18
Talia Golan, Chani Stossel, Michael Schvimer, Dikla Atias, Sharon Halperin, Ella Buzhor, Maria Raitses-Gurevich, Keren Cohen, Sara Pri-Chen, Julie Wilson, Robert E Denroche, Ilinca Lungu, John M S Bartlett, Faridah Mbabaali, Yosef Yarden, Nishanth Belugali Nataraj, Steven Gallinger, Raanan Berger
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has limited treatment options. There is an urgent need for developing appropriate pre-clinical models recapitulating metastatic disease, the most common clinical scenario at presentation. Ascites accumulation occurs in up to 20-30% of patients with pancreatic cancer; this milieu represents a highly cellular research resource of metastatic peritoneal spread. In this study, we utilized pancreatic ascites/pleural effusion cancer cells to establish patient derived xenografts.Ascites/pleural effusion-patient derived xenografts were established from twelve independent cases...
April 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487681/etha-r-independent-killing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-ethionamide
#19
Michelle L T Ang, Siti Z Zainul Rahim, Paola Florez de Sessions, Wenwei Lin, Vanessa Koh, Kevin Pethe, Martin L Hibberd, Sylvie Alonso
Ethionamide (ETH) is part of the drug arsenal available to treat multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. The current paradigm of this pro-drug activation involves the mycobacterial enzyme EthA and the transcriptional repressor, EthR. However, several lines of evidence suggest the involvement of additional players. The ethA/R locus was deleted in Mycobacterium bovis BCG and three Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains. While complete resistance to ETH was observed with BCG ethA/R KO, drug susceptibility and dose-dependent killing were retained in the ethA/R KO MTB mutants, suggesting the existence of an alternative pathway of ETH bio-activation in MTB...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486667/genomic-and-epidemiological-evidence-for-community-origins-of-hospital-onset-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bloodstream-infections
#20
Kyle J Popovich, Evan S Snitkin, Bala Hota, Stefan J Green, Ali Pirani, Alla Aroutcheva, Robert A Weinstein
Background.: We examined whether disparities existed in hospital-onset (HO) Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (BSIs) and used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to identify factors associated with USA300 transmission networks. Methods.: We evaluated HO methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and HO methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) BSIs for 2009-2013 at 2 hospitals and used an adjusted incidence for modeling. WGS and phylogenetic analyses were performed on a sample of USA300 BSI isolates...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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