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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723387/sigma-1-receptor-activation-modifies-intracellular-calcium-exchange-in-the-g93a-hsod1-als-model
#1
Vedrana Tadić, Ayse Malci, Nadine Goldhammer, Beatrice Stubendorff, Saikata Sengupta, Tino Prell, Silke Keiner, Jingyu Liu, Madlen Guenther, Christiane Frahm, Otto W Witte, Julian Grosskreutz
Aberrations in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) have been well established within amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a severe motor neuron disease. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration is controlled in part through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mitochondria Ca(2+) cycle (ERMCC). The ER supplies Ca(2+) to the mitochondria at close contacts between the two organelles, i.e. the mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs). The Sigma 1 receptor (Sig1R) is enriched at MAMs, where it acts as an inter-organelle signalling modulator...
July 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722750/protein-kinase-d-exerts-neuroprotective-functions-during-oxidative-stress-via-nuclear-factor-kappab-independent-signaling-pathways
#2
Hanna Liliom, Krisztián Tárnok, Zsófia Ábrahám, Bence Rácz, Angelika Hausser, Katalin Schlett
Members of the protein kinase D (PKD) family of serine/threonine kinases are known to exert diverse roles in neuronal stress responses. Here we show the transient activation and nuclear translocation of endogenous PKD upon oxidative stress induced by H2 O2 treatment in primary neuronal cultures. Using pharmacological inhibition we show that PKD activity protects neurons from oxidative stress induced cell death. Although members of the canonical NFκB pathway were phosphorylated upon H2 O2 treatment, it was found that the neuronal response to oxidative stress is not executed through the nuclear translocation and activity of RelA...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716624/mitochondrial-aminoacyl-trna-synthetases-in-human-disease
#3
REVIEW
Marie Sissler, Ligia Elena González-Serrano, Eric Westhof
Dysfunctions in mitochondria - the powerhouses of the cell - lead to several human pathologies. Because mitochondria integrate nuclear and mitochondrial genetic systems, they are richly intertwined with cellular activities. The nucleus-encoded mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mt-aaRSs) are key components of the mitochondrial translation apparatus. Mutations in these enzymes predominantly affect the central nervous system (CNS) but also target other organs. Comparable mutations in mt-aaRSs can lead to vastly diverse diseases, occurring at different stages in life, and within different tissues; this represents a confounding issue...
July 14, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715870/neuroprotective-effect-of-trans-n-caffeoyltyramine-from-lycium-chinense-against-h2o2-induced-cytotoxicity-in-pc12-cells-by-attenuating-oxidative-stress
#4
Opeyemi J Olatunji, Hongxia Chen, Yifeng Zhou
Natural products play a critical role in the promotion of good health as regards the prevention and management of oxidative stress related and neurodegenerative disorders. Oxidative stress has been implicated in several apoptotic pathways associated with cell damages in neuronal disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effect of trans-N-caffeoyltyramine (TNC) isolated from Cortex lycii against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced cell damages in PC12 cells as well as its mechanism of action...
July 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712890/amburana-cearensis-seed-extract-protects-brain-mitochondria-from-oxidative-stress-and-cerebellar-cells-from-excitotoxicity-induced-by-glutamate
#5
E P L Pereira, C S Santos, J Amparo, R Short, Y Nuñez-Figueredo, L G Fernandez, P R Ribeiro, S Braga-de-Souza, V D A Silva, S L Costa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Amburana cearensis (Allemao) A.C.Sm. is a medicinal plant of the Brazilian Caatinga reported to present antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of the extracts obtained from the seeds of A. cearensis in primary cultures of cerebellar cells subjected to excitotoxicity induced by glutamate and brain mitochondria submitted to oxidative stress. MATERIALS: and methods: Primary cultures of cerebellar cells were treated with the ethanol (ETAC), hexane (EHAC), dichloromethane (EDAC) and ethyl acetate (EAAC) extracts of the seeds of A...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711655/ubiquitination-at-the-mitochondria-in-neuronal-health-and-disease
#6
REVIEW
Christian Covill-Cooke, Jack Howden, Nicol Birsa, Josef Kittler
The preservation of mitochondrial function is of particular importance in neurons given the high energy requirements of action potential propagation and synaptic transmission. Indeed, disruptions in mitochondrial dynamics and quality control are linked to cellular pathology in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Here, we will discuss the role of ubiquitination by the E3 ligases: Parkin, MARCH5 and Mul1, and how they regulate mitochondrial homeostasis. Furthermore, given the role of Parkin and Mul1 in the formation of mitochondria-derived vesicles we give an overview of this area of mitochondrial homeostasis...
July 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708259/rapid-modulation-of-the-silent-information-regulator-1-sirt1-by-melatonin-after-hypoxia-ischemia-in-the-neonatal-rat-brain
#7
Silvia Carloni, Giulia Riparini, Giuseppe Buonocore, Walter Balduini
Increasing evidence indicates that melatonin possesses protective effects toward different kinds of damage in various organs, including the brain. In a neonatal model of hypoxia-ischemia (HI), melatonin was neuroprotective and preserved the expression of the Silent Information Regulator 1 (SIRT1) 24h after the insult. This study aimed to gain more insight into the role of SIRT1 in the protective effect of melatonin after HI by studying the early (1h) modulation of SIRT1 and its downstream targets, and the consequences on necrosis, apoptosis, autophagy and glial cell activation...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704198/alzheimer-s-disease-as-it-was-in-the-beginning
#8
REVIEW
Stanislav Kozlov, Alexei Afonin, Igor Evsyukov, Andrei Bondarenko
Since Alzheimer's disease was first described in 1907, many attempts have been made to reveal its main cause. Nowadays, two forms of the disease are known, and while the hereditary form of the disease is clearly caused by mutations in one of several genes, the etiology of the sporadic form remains a mystery. Both forms share similar sets of neuropathological and molecular manifestations, including extracellular deposition of amyloid-beta, intracellular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, disturbances in both the structure and functions of mitochondria, oxidative stress, metal ion metabolism disorders, impairment of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-related signaling pathways, abnormalities of lipid metabolism, and aberrant cell cycle reentry in some neurons...
July 12, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702760/regulation-of-long-distance-transport-of-mitochondria-along-microtubules
#9
REVIEW
Anna Melkov, Uri Abdu
Mitochondria are cellular organelles of crucial importance, playing roles in cellular life and death. In certain cell types, such as neurons, mitochondria must travel long distances so as to meet metabolic demands of the cell. Mitochondrial movement is essentially microtubule (MT) based and is executed by two main motor proteins, Dynein and Kinesin. The organization of the cellular MT network and the identity of motors dictate mitochondrial transport. Tight coupling between MTs, motors, and the mitochondria is needed for the organelle precise localization...
July 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701634/mitochondria-regulate-the-differentiation-of-stem-cells-from-human-exfoliated-deciduous-teeth
#10
Hiroki Kato, Thanh Thi Mai Pham, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Keiji Masuda, Yuta Hirofuji, Xu Han, Hiroshi Sato, Tomoaki Taguchi, Kazuaki Nonaka
Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are isolated from the dental pulp tissue of primary teeth and can differentiate into neuronal cells. Although SHED are a desirable type of stem cells for transplantation therapy and for the study of neurological diseases, a large part of the neuronal differentiation machinery of SHED remains unclear. Recent studies have suggested that mitochondrial activity is involved in the differentiation of stem cells. In the present work, we investigated the neuronal differentiation machinery of SHED by focusing on mitochondrial activity...
July 11, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701513/the-prion-protein-regulates-glutamate-mediated-ca-2-entry-and-mitochondrial-ca-2-accumulation-in-neurons
#11
Agnese De Mario, Caterina Peggion, Maria Lina Massimino, Francesca Viviani, Angela Castellani, Marta Giacomello, Dmitry Lim, Alessandro Bertoli, Maria Catia Sorgato
The prion protein, PrP(C), whose conformational misfolding originates deadly prions, has a still unclarified cellular function despite decades of intensive research. Following our recent finding that PrP(C) limits Ca(2+) entry via store-operated Ca(2+) channels in neurons, we investigated whether the protein could also control the activity of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). To this end, we compared local Ca(2+) movements in primary cerebellar granule neurons and cortical neurons, expressing, or not, PrP(C), transduced with genetically encoded Ca(2+) probes...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700993/the-impact-of-oxidative-stress-factors-on-the-viability-senescence-and-methylation-status-of-olfactory-bulb-derived-glial-cells-isolated-from-human-cadaver-donors
#12
Krzysztof Marycz, Katarzyna Kornicka, Jakub Grzesiak, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski, Dariusz Szarek, Paweł Kopacz
The olfactory bulb (OB) is a unique structure in the central nervous system that retains the ability to create new neuronal connections. Glial cells isolated from the OB have been recently considered as a novel and promising tool to establish an effective therapy for central nervous system injuries. Due to the hindered access to autologous tissue for cell isolation, an allogeneic source of tissues obtained postmortem has been proposed. In this study, we focused on the morphological and molecular characteristics of human OB-derived glial cells isolated postmortem, at different time points after a donor's death...
July 13, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698628/%C3%AE-synuclein-control-of-mitochondrial-homeostasis-in-human-derived-neurons-is-disrupted-by-mutations-associated-with-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Victorio Martin Pozo Devoto, Nicolas Dimopoulos, Matías Alloatti, María Belén Pardi, Trinidad M Saez, María Gabriela Otero, Lucas Eneas Cromberg, Antonia Marín-Burgin, Maria Elida Scassa, Gorazd B Stokin, Alejandro F Schinder, Gustavo Sevlever, Tomás Luis Falzone
The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) converges on a common pathogenic pathway of mitochondrial defects in which α-Synuclein (αSyn) is thought to play a role. However, the mechanisms by which αSyn and its disease-associated allelic variants cause mitochondrial dysfunction remain unknown. Here, we analyzed mitochondrial axonal transport and morphology in human-derived neurons overexpressing wild-type (WT) αSyn or the mutated variants A30P or A53T, which are known to have differential lipid affinities...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685837/proteomic-analyses-of-nucleus-laminaris-identified-candidate-targets-of-the-fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein
#14
Hitomi Sakano, Diego A R Zorio, Xiaoyu Wang, Ying S Ting, William S Noble, Michael J MacCoss, Edwin W Rubel, Yuan Wang
The avian nucleus laminaris (NL) is a brainstem nucleus necessary for binaural processing, analogous in structure and function to the mammalian medial superior olive. In chickens (Gallus gallus), NL is a well-studied model system for activity-dependent neural plasticity. Its neurons have bipolar extension of dendrites, which receive segregated inputs from two ears and display rapid and compartment-specific reorganization in response to unilateral changes in auditory input. More recently, FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein), an RNA-binding protein that regulates local protein translation, has been shown to be enriched in NL dendrites, suggesting its potential role in the structural dynamics of these dendrites...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685329/impairment-of-mitochondrial-integrity-and-redox-status-in-brain-regions-during-a-low-dose-long-term-exposition-of-rats-to-pyrethrino%C3%A3-ds-the-preventive-effect-of-quercetin
#15
Afafe Beghoul, Mohamed Kebieche, Salim Gasmi, Zeyneb Chouit, Chouaib Amiour, Asma Lahouel, Zhora Lakroun, Rachid Rouabhi, Hamadi Fetoui, Rachid Soulimani
Pyrethrinoïds are synthetic pesticides widely used in agriculture and farms to protect crops from weeds, insects, fungi, and molds. Increased and uncontrolled use of these pollutants can have harmful effects on human health via consumption of contaminated food products. In the present study, deltamethrin (DLT = 3.72 mg/kg) and Bifenthrin (BF = 2.6 mg/kg) were used during a long-term exposition in the rats to assess their effect on mitochondrial integrity and function in different brain areas (hippocampus, striatum, cortex, and cerebellum)...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684914/regulation-of-apoptosis-through-bcl-2-bax-proteins-expression-and-dna-damage-by-nano-sized-gadolinium-oxide
#16
Saud Alarifi, Huma Ali, Saad Alkahtani, Mohammed S Alessia
Gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles (GNPs) are applied in industrial products, for example, additives, optical glass, and catalysis. There are various suggestions of metal nanoparticles paradigm but the underlying basic mechanism about the toxicity of metal nanoparticles, for example GNPs, remains unclear. This experiment was done to measure the effective toxicity of GNPs (10, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL) over 24 and 48 h and to evaluate toxicity mechanism in human neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells. GNPs produced reactive oxygen species (ROS), as evaluated by 2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680531/mitochondrial-uncoupler-prodrug-of-2-4-dinitrophenol-mp201-prevents-neuronal-damage-and-preserves-vision-in-experimental-optic-neuritis
#17
Reas S Khan, Kimberly Dine, John G Geisler, Kenneth S Shindler
The ability of novel mitochondrial uncoupler prodrug of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), MP201, to prevent neuronal damage and preserve visual function in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of optic neuritis was evaluated. Optic nerve inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss are prominent features of optic neuritis, an inflammatory optic neuropathy often associated with the central nervous system demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. Currently, optic neuritis is frequently treated with high-dose corticosteroids, but treatment fails to prevent permanent neuronal damage and associated vision changes that occur as optic neuritis resolves, thus suggesting that additional therapies are required...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676741/the-truncated-c-terminal-fragment-of-mutant-atxn3-disrupts-mitochondria-dynamics-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3-models
#18
Jung-Yu Hsu, Yu-Ling Jhang, Pei-Hsun Cheng, Yu-Fan Chang, Su-Han Mao, Han-In Yang, Chia-Wei Lin, Chuan-Mu Chen, Shang-Hsun Yang
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), known as Machado-Joseph disease, is an autosomal dominant disease caused by an abnormal expansion of polyglutamine in ATXN3 gene, leading to neurodegeneration in SCA3 patients. Similar to other neurodegenerative diseases, the dysfunction of mitochondria is observed to cause neuronal death in SCA3 patients. Based on previous studies, proteolytic cleavage of mutant ATXN3 is found to produce truncated C-terminal fragments in SCA3 models. However, whether these truncated mutant fragments disturb mitochondrial functions and result in pathological death is still unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673772/methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-mpp-differentially-affects-monoamine-release-and-re-uptake-in-murine-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-dopaminergic-and-serotonergic-neurons
#19
Yasmina Martí, Friederike Matthaeus, Thorsten Lau, Patrick Schloss
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is known to selectively damage dopaminergic (DA) cells in the substantia nigra and to produce symptoms which are alike to those observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Based on the similarity between MPTP-induced neurotoxicity and PD-related neuropathology, application of MPTP or its metabolite methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) was successfully established in experimental rodent models to study PD-related neurodegenerative events. MPP+ is taken up by the dopamine transporter (DAT) into DA neurons where it exerts its neurotoxic action on mitochondria by affecting complex I of the respiratory chain...
June 30, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673739/sirtuin-3-rescues-neurons-through-the-stabilisation-of-mitochondrial-biogenetics-in-the-virally-expressing-mutant-%C3%AE-synuclein-rat-model-of-parkinsonism
#20
Jacqueline A Gleave, Lindsay R Arathoon, Dennison Trinh, Kristin E Lizal, Nicolas Giguère, James H M Barber, Zainab Najarali, M Hassan Khan, Sherri L Thiele, Mahin S Semmen, James B Koprich, Jonathan M Brotchie, James H Eubanks, Louis-Eric Trudeau, Joanne E Nash
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder, which affects approximately 1-2% of the population over 60years of age. Current treatments for PD are symptomatic, and the pathology of the disease continues to progresses over time until palliative care is required. Mitochondria are key players in the pathology of PD. Genetic and post mortem studies have shown a large number of mitochondrial abnormalities in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of the parkinsonian brain. Furthermore, physiologically, mitochondria of nigral neurons are constantly under unusually high levels of metabolic stress because of the excitatory properties and architecture of these neurons...
July 1, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
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