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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981095/rtn1-c-mediates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-er-stress-and-mitochondria-associated-apoptosis-pathways
#1
Lingli Gong, Yuewen Tang, Ran An, Muya Lin, Lijian Chen, Jian Du
The reticulon family has been found to induce apoptosis, inhibit axon regeneration and regulate protein trafficking. However, little is known about the mechanisms of how reticulon proteins are involved in neuronal death-promoting processes during ischemia. Here, we report that the expression of Reticulon Protein 1-C (RTN1-C) was associated with the progression of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Using a combination of rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke and oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD/R) models, we determined that the expression of RTN1-C was significantly increased during cerebral ischemic/reperfusion...
October 5, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965985/dysfunctions-of-mitochondria-in-close-association-with-strong-perturbation-of-long-noncoding-rnas-expression-in-down-syndrome
#2
Jia-Jun Qiu, Yan-Na Liu, Zhao-Rui Ren, Jing-Bin Yan
Trisomy 21 is the most common chromosomal disorder and underlies Down syndrome. Epigenetics, such as DNA methylation and post-translational histone modifications, plays a vital role in Down syndrome. However, the functions of epigenetics-related long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), found to have an impact on neural diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, remain unknown in Down syndrome. In this study, we analyzed the RNA sequencing data from Down syndrome-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and normal iPSCs. A large number of lncRNAs were identified differentially expressed in Down syndrome-iPSCs...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939434/inhibition-of-drp1-mediated-mitochondrial-fission-improves-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-bioenergetics-stimulating-neurogenesis-in-hippocampal-progenitor-cells-from-a-down-syndrome-mouse-model
#3
Daniela Valenti, Leonardo Rossi, Domenico Marzulli, Francesco Bellomo, Domenico De Rasmo, Anna Signorile, Rosa Anna Vacca
Functional and structural damages to mitochondria have been critically associated with the pathogenesis of Down syndrome (DS), a human multifactorial disease caused by trisomy of chromosome 21 and associated with neurodevelopmental delay, intellectual disability and early neurodegeneration. Recently, we demonstrated in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) isolated from the hippocampus of Ts65Dn mice -a widely used model of DS - a severe impairment of mitochondrial bioenergetics and biogenesis and reduced NPC proliferation...
September 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891994/mdivi-1-protects-adult-rat-hippocampal-neural-stem-cells-against-palmitate-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#4
Sehee Kim, Chanyang Kim, Seungjoon Park
Palmitate concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients are higher than in healthy subjects. The prolonged elevation of plasma palmitate levels induces oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in neuronal cells. In this study, we examined the role of mdivi-1, a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-regulated protein 1 (Drp1), on the survival of cultured hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) exposed to high palmitate. Treatment of hippocampal NSCs with mdivi-1 attenuated palmitate-induced increase in cell death and apoptosis...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883788/loss-of-mitochondrial-ndufs4-in-striatal-medium-spiny-neurons-mediates-progressive-motor-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-leigh-syndrome
#5
Byron Chen, Jessica Hui, Kelsey S Montgomery, Alejandro Gella, Irene Bolea, Elisenda Sanz, Richard D Palmiter, Albert Quintana
Inability of mitochondria to generate energy leads to severe and often fatal myoencephalopathies. Among these, Leigh syndrome (LS) is one of the most common childhood mitochondrial diseases; it is characterized by hypotonia, failure to thrive, respiratory insufficiency and progressive mental and motor dysfunction, leading to early death. Basal ganglia nuclei, including the striatum, are affected in LS patients. However, neither the identity of the affected cell types in the striatum nor their contribution to the disease has been established...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877029/impairments-in-age-dependent-ubiquitin-proteostasis-and-structural-integrity-of-selective-neurons-by-uncoupling-ran-gtpase-from-the-ran-binding-domain-3-of-ranbp2-and-identification-of-novel-mitochondrial-isoforms-of-ubiquitin-conjugating-enzyme-e2i-ubc9-and
#6
Hemangi Patil, Dosuk Yoon, Reshma Bhowmick, Yunfei Cai, Kyoung-In Cho, Paulo A Ferreira
The Ran-binding protein 2 (Ranbp2/Nup358) is a cytoplasmic and peripheral nucleoporin comprised of 4 Ran-GTP-binding domains (RBDs) that are interspersed among diverse structural domains with multifunctional activities. Our prior studies found that the RBD2 and RBD3 of Ranbp2 control mitochondrial motility independently of Ran-GTP-binding in cultured cells, whereas loss of Ran-GTP-binding to RBD2 and RBD3 are essential to support cone photoreceptor development and the survival of mature retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in mice...
September 6, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841638/cerebrovascular-protective-effect-of-boldine-against-neural-apoptosis-via-inhibition-of-mitochondrial-bax-translocation-and-cytochrome-c-release
#7
Xiaozhong Qiu, Ling Shi, Hanting Zhuang, Hongtao Zhang, Juan Wang, Lijun Wang, Peng Sun, Lili Yu, Longxi Liu
BACKGROUND In the present study, we explored the protective effect and mechanism of action of boldine (BOL) against neural apoptosis, which is a mediator of TBI. MATERIAL AND METHODS The effect of BOL on mitochondrial and cytosol proteins of extracted from cerebral cortical tissue of mice was evaluated. The grip test was used to assess the neurological deficit and brain water content of the subjects after administration of BOL to assess its effect on SOD, GSH, and MDA activity in brain ischemic tissues. To further confirm the effect of the BOL, the histopathological analysis and morphology of neurons were studied by Nissl staining...
August 25, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840449/from-mitochondrial-function-to-neuroprotection-an-emerging-role-for-methylene-blue
#8
REVIEW
Donovan Tucker, Yujiao Lu, Quanguang Zhang
Methylene blue (MB) is a well-established drug with a long history of use, owing to its diverse range of use and its minimal side effect profile. MB has been used classically for the treatment of malaria, methemoglobinemia, and carbon monoxide poisoning, as well as a histological dye. Its role in the mitochondria, however, has elicited much of its renewed interest in recent years. MB can reroute electrons in the mitochondrial electron transfer chain directly from NADH to cytochrome c, increasing the activity of complex IV and effectively promoting mitochondrial activity while mitigating oxidative stress...
August 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782874/in-vivo-imaging-reveals-mitophagy-independence-in-the-maintenance-of-axonal-mitochondria-during-normal-aging
#9
Xu Cao, Haiqiong Wang, Zhao Wang, Qingyao Wang, Shuang Zhang, Yuanping Deng, Yanshan Fang
Mitophagy is thought to be a critical mitochondrial quality control mechanism in neurons and has been extensively studied in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about how mitochondria are maintained in the lengthy neuronal axons in the context of physiological aging. Here, we utilized the unique Drosophila wing nerve model and in vivo imaging to rigorously profile changes in axonal mitochondria during aging. We revealed that mitochondria became fragmented and accumulated in aged axons...
October 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735653/-re-wiring-a-brain-with-light-clinical-and-visual-processing-findings-after-application-of-specific-coloured-glasses-in-patients-with-symptoms-of-a-visual-processing-disorder-cvpd-challenge-of-a-possible-new-perspective
#10
Edgar Friederichs, Siegfried Wahl
The present investigation examined whether changes of electrophysiological late event related potential pattern could be used to reflect clinical changes from therapeutic intervention with coloured glasses in a group of patients with symptoms of central visual processing disorder. Subjects consisted of 13 patients with average age 16years (range 6-51years) with attention problems and learning disability, respectively. These patients were provided with specified coloured glasses which were required to be used during day time...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708000/reactive-oxygen-species-and-mitochondrial-homeostasis-as-regulators-of-stem-cell-fate-and-function
#11
Darren Qiancheng Tan, Toshio Suda
SIGNIFICANCE: The precise role and impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stem cells, which are essential for lifelong tissue homeostasis and regeneration, remains of significant interest to the field. The long-term regenerative potential of a stem cell compartment is determined by the delicate balance between quiescence, self-renewal and differentiation; all of which can be influenced by ROS levels. Recent advances: The past decade has seen a growing appreciation for the importance of ROS and redox homeostasis in various stem cell compartments; particularly those of hematopoietic, neural and muscle tissues...
July 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685837/proteomic-analyses-of-nucleus-laminaris-identified-candidate-targets-of-the-fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein
#12
Hitomi Sakano, Diego A R Zorio, Xiaoyu Wang, Ying S Ting, William S Noble, Michael J MacCoss, Edwin W Rubel, Yuan Wang
The avian nucleus laminaris (NL) is a brainstem nucleus necessary for binaural processing, analogous in structure and function to the mammalian medial superior olive. In chickens (Gallus gallus), NL is a well-studied model system for activity-dependent neural plasticity. Its neurons have bipolar extension of dendrites, which receive segregated inputs from two ears and display rapid and compartment-specific reorganization in response to unilateral changes in auditory input. More recently, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein that regulates local protein translation, has been shown to be enriched in NL dendrites, suggesting its potential role in the structural dynamics of these dendrites...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655770/phosphorylation-of-p62-by-amp-activated-protein-kinase-mediates-autophagic-cell-death-in-adult-hippocampal-neural-stem-cells
#13
Shinwon Ha, Seol-Hwa Jeong, Kyungrim Yi, Kyung Min Chung, Caroline Jeeyeon Hong, Seong Who Kim, Eun-Kyoung Kim, Seong-Woon Yu
In the adult brain, programmed death of neural stem cells is considered to be critical for tissue homeostasis and cognitive function and is dysregulated in neurodegeneration. Previously, we have reported that adult rat hippocampal neural (HCN) stem cells undergo autophagic cell death (ACD) following insulin withdrawal. Because the apoptotic capability of the HCN cells was intact, our findings suggested activation of unique molecular mechanisms linking insulin withdrawal to ACD rather than apoptosis. Here, we report that phosphorylation of autophagy-associated protein p62 by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) drives ACD and mitophagy in HCN cells...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643345/mitochondrial-dynamics-in-the-regulation-of-neurogenesis-from-development-to-the-adult-brain
#14
REVIEW
Mireille Khacho, Ruth S Slack
Mitochondria are classically known to be the cellular energy producers, but a renewed appreciation for these organelles has developed with the accumulating discoveries of additional functions. The importance of mitochondria within the brain has been long known, particularly given the high-energy demanding nature of neurons. The energy demands imposed by neurons require the well-orchestrated morphological adaptation and distribution of mitochondria. Recent studies now reveal the importance of mitochondrial dynamics not only in mature neurons but also during neural development, particularly during the process of neurogenesis and neural stem cell fate decisions...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643190/mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-neural-differentiation-of-human-ipsc-is-modulated-by-idebenone-in-a-developmental-stage-dependent-manner
#15
J Augustyniak, J Lenart, M Zychowicz, P P Stepien, L Buzanska
Idebenone, the synthetic analog of coenzyme Q10 can improve electron transport in mitochondria. Therefore, it is used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other cognitive impairments. However, the mechanism of its action on neurodevelopment is still to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that the cellular response of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) to idebenone depends on the stage of neural differentiation. When: neural stem cells (NSC), early neural progenitors (eNP) and advanced neural progenitors (NP) have been studied a significant stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis was observed only at the eNP stage of development...
August 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641777/role-of-parl-pink1-parkin-pathway-in-adipocyte-differentiation
#16
Ming-Yuh Shiau, Pin-Shen Lee, Ying-Jyun Huang, Ching-Ping Yang, Chiao-Wan Hsiao, Kai-Yun Chang, Huan-Wen Chen, Yih-Hsin Chang
OBJECTIVE: Adipogenesis determines the number of adipocytes which is increased when individuals become obese. Mitochondria undergo remarkable morphological and functional changes during adipogenesis. PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is pivotal to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis in neural cells. The present study aimed at investigating effects of PINK1 on adipogenesis and energy metabolism. METHODS: Expression of presenilin associated rhomboid-like protein (PARL), PINK1 and Parkin, as well as the interaction among these proteins was temporally examined during adipogenesis...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627365/mitochondria-metabolic-reprogramming-in-the-formation-of-neurons-from-peripheral-cells-cause-or-consequence-and-the-implications-to-their-utility
#17
REVIEW
Gary E Gibson, Ankita Thakkar
The induction of pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from differentiated cells such as fibroblasts and their subsequent conversion to neural progenitor cells (NPC) and finally to neurons is intriguing scientifically, and its potential to medicine nearly infinite, but unrealized. A better understanding of the changes at each step of the transformation will enable investigators to use them better to model neurological disease. Each step of conversion from a differentiated cell to an iPSC to a NPC to neurons requires large changes in glycolysis including aerobic glycolysis, the pentose shunt, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the electron transport chain and in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 13, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615314/mitochondria-and-reactive-oxygen-species-contribute-to-neurogenic-hypertension
#18
REVIEW
Samuel H H Chan, Julie Y H Chan
Beyond its primary role as fuel generators, mitochondria are engaged in a variety of cellular processes, including redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial dysfunction, therefore, may have a profound impact on high-energy-demanding organs such as the brain. Here, we review the roles of mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics, and their associated signaling in cellular redox homeostasis, and illustrate their contributions to the oxidative stress-related neural mechanism of hypertension, focusing on specific brain areas that are involved in the generation or modulation of sympathetic outflows to the cardiovascular system...
July 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606244/-mitophagy-and-nervous-system-disease
#19
REVIEW
Ming-Xi Li, De-Zhi Mu
Mitophagy is a process during which the cell selectively removes the mitochondria via the mechanism of autophagy. It is crucial to the functional completeness of the whole mitochondrial network and determines cell survival and death. On the one hand, the damaged mitochondria releases pro-apoptotic factors which induce cell apoptosis; on the other hand, the damaged mitochondria eliminates itself via autophagy, which helps to maintain cell viability. Mitophagy is of vital importance for the development and function of the nervous system...
June 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600240/neuron-segmentation-with-high-level-biological-priors
#20
Niko Krasowski, Thorsten Beier, Graham Knott, Ullrich Koethe, Fred Hamprecht, Anna Kreshuk
We present a novel approach to the problem of neuron segmentation in image volumes acquired by Electron Microscopy. Existing methods such as agglomerative or correlation clustering rely solely on boundary evidence and have problems where such evidence is lacking (e.g. incomplete staining) or ambiguous (e.g. co-located cell and mitochondria membranes). We investigate if these difficulties can be overcome by means of sparse region appearance cues that differentiate between pre- and postsynaptic neuron segments in mammalian neural tissue...
June 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
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