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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237855/sex-specific-adaptation-and-genomic-responses-to-y-chromosome-presence-in-female-reproductive-and-neural-tissues
#1
Alan T Branco, Rute M Brito, Bernardo Lemos
Y chromosomes typically harbour a small number of genes and an abundance of repetitive sequences. In Drosophila, the Y chromosome comprises multimegabase long segments of repetitive DNA and a handful of protein-coding genes. In mammals, the Y chromosome also harbours a disproportionally high abundance of repeats. Here, we built on a Drosophila melanogaster model in which the Y chromosome is decoupled from sexual determination. Genotypes were genetically identical for the autosomes, X chromosome, and mitochondria, but differ by the presence or dose of the Y chromosome...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236316/2-5-hexanedione-induces-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-apoptosis-via-inhibition-of-akt-bad-signal-pathway
#2
Jinsong Sun, Xiaoxia Shi, Shuangyue Li, Fengyuan Piao
2,5-Hexanedione (HD) is an important bioactive metabolite of n-hexane and mediates the neurotoxicity of parent compound. Studies show that HD induces apoptotic death of neural progenitor cells. However, its underlying mechanism remains unknown. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotential stem cells with the ability to differentiate into various cell types and have been used as cell model for studying the toxic effects of chemicals on stem cells. In this study, we exposed rat bone marrow MSCs to 0, 10, 20, and 40 mM HD in vitro...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222974/cold-atmospheric-plasma-cap-a-novel-physicochemical-source-induces-neural-differentiation-through-cross-talk-between-the-specific-rons-cascade-and-trk-ras-erk-signaling-pathway
#3
Ja-Young Jang, Young June Hong, Junsup Lim, Jin Sung Choi, Eun Ha Choi, Seongman Kang, Hyangshuk Rhim
Plasma, formed by ionization of gas molecules or atoms, is the most abundant form of matter and consists of highly reactive physicochemical species. In the physics and chemistry fields, plasma has been extensively studied; however, the exact action mechanisms of plasma on biological systems, including cells and humans, are not well known. Recent evidence suggests that cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), which refers to plasma used in the biomedical field, may regulate diverse cellular processes, including neural differentiation...
November 30, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212023/disc1-modulates-neuronal-stress-responses-by-gate-keeping-er-mitochondria-ca2-transfer-through-the-mam
#4
Sung Jin Park, Su Been Lee, Yeongjun Suh, Su-Jeong Kim, Namgyu Lee, Ji-Ho Hong, Cana Park, Youngsik Woo, Koko Ishizuka, Joung-Hun Kim, Per-Olof Berggren, Akira Sawa, Sang Ki Park
A wide range of Ca2+-mediated functions are enabled by the dynamic properties of Ca2+, all of which are dependent on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a scaffold protein that is involved in the function of intracellular organelles and is linked to cognitive and emotional deficits. Here, we demonstrate that DISC1 localizes to the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM). At the MAM, DISC1 interacts with IP3R1 and downregulates its ligand binding, modulating ER-mitochondria Ca2+ transfer through the MAM...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136012/regional-knockdown-of-ndufs4-implicates-a-thalamocortical-circuit-mediating-anesthetic-sensitivity
#5
Renjini Ramadasan-Nair, Jessica Hui, Pavel I Zimin, Leslie S Itsara, Philip G Morgan, Margaret M Sedensky
Knockout of the mitochondrial complex I protein, NDUFS4, profoundly increases sensitivity of mice to volatile anesthetics. In mice carrying an Ndufs4lox/lox gene, adeno-associated virus expressing Cre recombinase was injected into regions of the brain postulated to affect sensitivity to volatile anesthetics. These injections generated otherwise phenotypically wild type mice with region-specific, postnatal inactivation of Ndufs4, minimizing developmental effects of gene loss. Sensitivities to the volatile anesthetics isoflurane and halothane were measured using loss of righting reflex (LORR) and movement in response to tail clamp (TC) as endpoints...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100869/oxidative-stress-induced-mir-27a-targets-the-redox-gene-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2-in-diabetic-embryopathy
#6
Yang Zhao, Daoyin Dong, E Albert Reece, Ashley R Wang, Peixin Yang
BACKGROUND: Maternal diabetes induces neural tube defects, and oxidative stress is a causal factor for maternal diabetes-induced neural tube defects. The redox gene nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 is the master regulator of the cellular antioxidant system. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to determine whether maternal diabetes inhibits nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 expression and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-controlled antioxidant genes through the redox-sensitive miR-27a...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099662/local-oxygen-homeostasis-during-various-neuronal-network-activity-states-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#7
Justus Schneider, Nikolaus Berndt, Ismini E Papageorgiou, Jana Maurer, Sascha Bulik, Martin Both, Andreas Draguhn, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter, Oliver Kann
Cortical information processing comprises various activity states emerging from timed synaptic excitation and inhibition. However, the underlying energy metabolism is widely unknown. We determined the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) along a tissue depth of <0.3 mm in the hippocampal CA3 region during various network activities, including gamma oscillations and sharp wave-ripples that occur during wakefulness and sleep. These physiological states associate with sensory perception and memory formation, and critically depend on perisomatic GABA inhibition...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074393/dcf1-subcellular-localization-and-its-function-in-mitochondria
#8
Yanlu Chen, Ruili Feng, Guanghong Luo, Jianjian Guo, Yajiang Wang, Yangyang Sun, Lili Zheng, Tieqiao Wen
Dendritic cell factor 1 (DCF1) is a transmembrane protein that plays important roles in regulating neural stem cell differentiation and dendritic spine formation. Apart from its cytoplasmic functions, DCF1 plays a role in autophagy during the regulation of amyloid precursor proteins. However, the subcellular localization of DCF1 remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, DCF1 tagged with green fluorescent protein was transiently expression in HelaS3 and HEK293T cells. The results showed that DCF1 was widely expressed in different organelles, including the mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, endosomes and lysosomes...
October 23, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061316/tea-polyphenols-ameliorates-neural-redox-imbalance-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-via-mechanisms-linking-the-key-circadian-regular-bmal1
#9
Guoyuan Qi, Yashi Mi, Rong Fan, Beita Zhao, Bo Ren, Xuebo Liu
Circadian rhythms are autonomous anticipatory oscillators that control a large array of physiological and metabolic processes. Compelling evidence points toward an interplay between circadian rhythms and cellular redox metabolism. Dysregulation of circadian rhythms is associated with neurodegenerative diseases and accelerated aging. Tea polyphenols (TP) is one of the most used antioxidants and exerts beneficial effect on neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate whether circadian clock mechanisms are involved in the protection effect of TP against neural redox imbalance and mitochondrial dysfunction in SH-SY5Y cells...
October 20, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981095/rtn1-c-mediates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-er-stress-and-mitochondria-associated-apoptosis-pathways
#10
Lingli Gong, Yuewen Tang, Ran An, Muya Lin, Lijian Chen, Jian Du
The reticulon family has been found to induce apoptosis, inhibit axon regeneration and regulate protein trafficking. However, little is known about the mechanisms of how reticulon proteins are involved in neuronal death-promoting processes during ischemia. Here, we report that the expression of Reticulon Protein 1-C (RTN1-C) was associated with the progression of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Using a combination of rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke and oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD/R) models, we determined that the expression of RTN1-C was significantly increased during cerebral ischemic/reperfusion...
October 5, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965985/dysfunctions-of-mitochondria-in-close-association-with-strong-perturbation-of-long-noncoding-rnas-expression-in-down-syndrome
#11
Jia-Jun Qiu, Yan-Na Liu, Zhao-Rui Ren, Jing-Bin Yan
Trisomy 21 is the most common chromosomal disorder and underlies Down syndrome. Epigenetics, such as DNA methylation and post-translational histone modifications, plays a vital role in Down syndrome. However, the functions of epigenetics-related long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), found to have an impact on neural diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, remain unknown in Down syndrome. In this study, we analyzed the RNA sequencing data from Down syndrome-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and normal iPSCs. A large number of lncRNAs were identified differentially expressed in Down syndrome-iPSCs...
November 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939434/inhibition-of-drp1-mediated-mitochondrial-fission-improves-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-bioenergetics-stimulating-neurogenesis-in-hippocampal-progenitor-cells-from-a-down-syndrome-mouse-model
#12
Daniela Valenti, Leonardo Rossi, Domenico Marzulli, Francesco Bellomo, Domenico De Rasmo, Anna Signorile, Rosa Anna Vacca
Functional and structural damages to mitochondria have been critically associated with the pathogenesis of Down syndrome (DS), a human multifactorial disease caused by trisomy of chromosome 21 and associated with neurodevelopmental delay, intellectual disability and early neurodegeneration. Recently, we demonstrated in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) isolated from the hippocampus of Ts65Dn mice -a widely used model of DS - a severe impairment of mitochondrial bioenergetics and biogenesis and reduced NPC proliferation...
September 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891994/mdivi-1-protects-adult-rat-hippocampal-neural-stem-cells-against-palmitate-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#13
Sehee Kim, Chanyang Kim, Seungjoon Park
Palmitate concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients are higher than in healthy subjects. The prolonged elevation of plasma palmitate levels induces oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in neuronal cells. In this study, we examined the role of mdivi-1, a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-regulated protein 1 (Drp1), on the survival of cultured hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) exposed to high palmitate. Treatment of hippocampal NSCs with mdivi-1 attenuated palmitate-induced increase in cell death and apoptosis...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883788/loss-of-mitochondrial-ndufs4-in-striatal-medium-spiny-neurons-mediates-progressive-motor-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-leigh-syndrome
#14
Byron Chen, Jessica Hui, Kelsey S Montgomery, Alejandro Gella, Irene Bolea, Elisenda Sanz, Richard D Palmiter, Albert Quintana
Inability of mitochondria to generate energy leads to severe and often fatal myoencephalopathies. Among these, Leigh syndrome (LS) is one of the most common childhood mitochondrial diseases; it is characterized by hypotonia, failure to thrive, respiratory insufficiency and progressive mental and motor dysfunction, leading to early death. Basal ganglia nuclei, including the striatum, are affected in LS patients. However, neither the identity of the affected cell types in the striatum nor their contribution to the disease has been established...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877029/impairments-in-age-dependent-ubiquitin-proteostasis-and-structural-integrity-of-selective-neurons-by-uncoupling-ran-gtpase-from-the-ran-binding-domain-3-of-ranbp2-and-identification-of-novel-mitochondrial-isoforms-of-ubiquitin-conjugating-enzyme-e2i-ubc9-and
#15
Hemangi Patil, Dosuk Yoon, Reshma Bhowmick, Yunfei Cai, Kyoung-In Cho, Paulo A Ferreira
The Ran-binding protein 2 (Ranbp2/Nup358) is a cytoplasmic and peripheral nucleoporin comprised of 4 Ran-GTP-binding domains (RBDs) that are interspersed among diverse structural domains with multifunctional activities. Our prior studies found that the RBD2 and RBD3 of Ranbp2 control mitochondrial motility independently of Ran-GTP-binding in cultured cells, whereas loss of Ran-GTP-binding to RBD2 and RBD3 are essential to support cone photoreceptor development and the survival of mature retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in mice...
September 6, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841638/cerebrovascular-protective-effect-of-boldine-against-neural-apoptosis-via-inhibition-of-mitochondrial-bax-translocation-and-cytochrome-c-release
#16
Xiaozhong Qiu, Ling Shi, Hanting Zhuang, Hongtao Zhang, Juan Wang, Lijun Wang, Peng Sun, Lili Yu, Longxi Liu
BACKGROUND In the present study, we explored the protective effect and mechanism of action of boldine (BOL) against neural apoptosis, which is a mediator of TBI. MATERIAL AND METHODS The effect of BOL on mitochondrial and cytosol proteins of extracted from cerebral cortical tissue of mice was evaluated. The grip test was used to assess the neurological deficit and brain water content of the subjects after administration of BOL to assess its effect on SOD, GSH, and MDA activity in brain ischemic tissues. To further confirm the effect of the BOL, the histopathological analysis and morphology of neurons were studied by Nissl staining...
August 25, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840449/from-mitochondrial-function-to-neuroprotection-an-emerging-role-for-methylene-blue
#17
REVIEW
Donovan Tucker, Yujiao Lu, Quanguang Zhang
Methylene blue (MB) is a well-established drug with a long history of use, owing to its diverse range of use and its minimal side effect profile. MB has been used classically for the treatment of malaria, methemoglobinemia, and carbon monoxide poisoning, as well as a histological dye. Its role in the mitochondria, however, has elicited much of its renewed interest in recent years. MB can reroute electrons in the mitochondrial electron transfer chain directly from NADH to cytochrome c, increasing the activity of complex IV and effectively promoting mitochondrial activity while mitigating oxidative stress...
August 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782874/in-vivo-imaging-reveals-mitophagy-independence-in-the-maintenance-of-axonal-mitochondria-during-normal-aging
#18
Xu Cao, Haiqiong Wang, Zhao Wang, Qingyao Wang, Shuang Zhang, Yuanping Deng, Yanshan Fang
Mitophagy is thought to be a critical mitochondrial quality control mechanism in neurons and has been extensively studied in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about how mitochondria are maintained in the lengthy neuronal axons in the context of physiological aging. Here, we utilized the unique Drosophila wing nerve model and in vivo imaging to rigorously profile changes in axonal mitochondria during aging. We revealed that mitochondria became fragmented and accumulated in aged axons...
October 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735653/-re-wiring-a-brain-with-light-clinical-and-visual-processing-findings-after-application-of-specific-coloured-glasses-in-patients-with-symptoms-of-a-visual-processing-disorder-cvpd-challenge-of-a-possible-new-perspective
#19
Edgar Friederichs, Siegfried Wahl
The present investigation examined whether changes of electrophysiological late event related potential pattern could be used to reflect clinical changes from therapeutic intervention with coloured glasses in a group of patients with symptoms of central visual processing disorder. Subjects consisted of 13 patients with average age 16years (range 6-51years) with attention problems and learning disability, respectively. These patients were provided with specified coloured glasses which were required to be used during day time...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708000/reactive-oxygen-species-and-mitochondrial-homeostasis-as-regulators-of-stem-cell-fate-and-function
#20
Darren Q Tan, Toshio Suda
SIGNIFICANCE: The precise role and impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stem cells, which are essential for lifelong tissue homeostasis and regeneration, remain of significant interest to the field. The long-term regenerative potential of a stem cell compartment is determined by the delicate balance between quiescence, self-renewal, and differentiation, all of which can be influenced by ROS levels. Recent Advances: The past decade has seen a growing appreciation for the importance of ROS and redox homeostasis in various stem cell compartments, particularly those of hematopoietic, neural, and muscle tissues...
October 26, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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