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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902689/using-intrinsic-flavoprotein-and-nad-p-h-imaging-to-map-functional-circuitry-in-the-main-olfactory-bulb
#1
Cedric R Uytingco, Adam C Puche, Steven D Munger
Neurons exhibit strong coupling of electrochemical and metabolic activity. Increases in intrinsic fluorescence from either oxidized flavoproteins or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) [NAD(P)H] in the mitochondria have been used as an indicator of neuronal activity for the functional mapping of neural circuits. However, this technique has not been used to investigate the flow of olfactory information within the circuitry of the main olfactory bulb (MOB). We found that intrinsic flavoprotein fluorescence signals induced by electrical stimulation of single glomeruli displayed biphasic responses within both the glomerular (GL) and external plexiform layers (EPL) of the MOB...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870427/understanding-the-broad-influence-of-sex-hormones-and-sex-differences-in-the-brain
#2
REVIEW
Bruce S McEwen, Teresa A Milner
Sex hormones act throughout the entire brain of both males and females via both genomic and nongenomic receptors. Sex hormones can act through many cellular and molecular processes that alter structure and function of neural systems and influence behavior as well as providing neuroprotection. Within neurons, sex hormone receptors are found in nuclei and are also located near membranes, where they are associated with presynaptic terminals, mitochondria, spine apparatus, and postsynaptic densities. Sex hormone receptors also are found in glial cells...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853370/apoptotic-neuron-secreted-hn12-inhibits-cell-apoptosis-in-hirschsprung-s-disease
#3
Chunxia Du, Hua Xie, Rujin Zang, Ziyang Shen, Hongxing Li, Pingfa Chen, Xiaoqun Xu, Yankai Xia, Weibing Tang
Perturbation in apoptosis can lead to Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR), which is a genetic disorder of neural crest development. It is believed that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a role in the progression of HSCR. This study shows that apoptotic neurons can suppress apoptosis of nonapoptotic cells by secreting exosomes that contain high levels of HN12 lncRNA. Elevated exogenous HN12 in nonapoptotic cells effectively inhibited cell apoptosis by maintaining the function of mitochondria, including the production of ATP and the release of cytochrome C...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765579/antisera-against-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-cross-react-with-specific-brain-proteins-of-the-common-marmoset-monkey-and-other-nonhuman-primate-species
#4
Bernhard Reuss, Abdul R Asif, Abdullah Almamy, Christian Schwerk, Horst Schroten, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Charis Drummer, Rüdiger Behr
Prenatal maternal infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) correlate with an increased lifetime probability for the offspring to develop psychosis. We could previously demonstrate that in human choroid plexus papilloma cells, anti-NG antibodies (α-NG) bind to mitochondrial proteins HSP60 and ATPB, and interfere with cellular energy metabolism. To assess the in vivo relevance for this, especially during prenatal neural development, we investigated here interactions of NG-specific antisera (α-NG1, α-NG2) with brain, choroid plexus and other non-neural tissues in pre- and perinatal samples of the nonhuman primate (NHP) Callithrix jacchus (CJ), a NHP model for preclinical research...
October 17, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698175/canine-mammary-minute-oncocytomas-with-neuroendocrine-differentiation-associated-with-multifocal-acinar-cell-oncocytic-metaplasia
#5
Rei Nagahara, Masayuki Kimura, Megu Itahashi, Go Sugahara, Masashi Kawashima, Hirotada Murayama, Toshinori Yoshida, Makoto Shibutani
Two solitary and minute tumors of 1 and 1.5 mm diameter were identified by microscopy in the left fourth mammary gland of a 13-year-old female Labrador Retriever dog, in addition to multiple mammary gland tumors. The former tumors were well circumscribed and were composed of small-to-large polyhedral neoplastic oncocytes with finely granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, and were arranged in solid nests separated by fine fibrovascular septa. Scattered lumina of variable sizes containing eosinophilic secretory material were evident...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647473/in-vitro-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-toxicity-in-striatal-cerebrocortical-and-hippocampal-slices-is-attenuated-by-atorvastatin-and-mk-801
#6
Caio M Massari, Adalberto A Castro, Tharine Dal-Cim, Débora Lanznaster, Carla I Tasca
Parkinson's disease (PD) involves the loss of striatal dopaminergic neurons, although other neurotransmitters and brain areas are also involved in its pathophysiology. In rodent models to PD it has been shown statins improve cognitive and motor deficits and attenuate inflammatory responses evoked by PD-related toxins. Statins are the drugs most prescribed to hypercholesterolemia, but neuroprotective effects have also been attributed to statins treatment in humans and in animal models. This study aimed to establish an in vitro model of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity, used as an initial screening test to identify effective drugs against neural degeneration related to PD...
December 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647012/antioxidant-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-dictyophora-indusiata-polysaccharide-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Ju Zhang, Ruona Shi, Haifeng Li, Yanxia Xiang, Lingyun Xiao, Minghua Hu, Fangli Ma, Chung Wah Ma, Zebo Huang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Dictyophora indusiata is a medicinal mushroom traditionally used in China for a variety of conditions, including inflammatory and neural diseases. D. indusiata polysaccharides (DiPS) are shown to have in vitro antioxidant activity but in vivo evidence is lacking. This study aimes to explore the antioxidant capacity and related neuroptotective activities of DiPS using wild-type and neurodegenerative Caenorhabditis elegans models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antioxidant capacities of DiPS were first determined using paraquat survival and Pgst-4::GFP expression assays in wild-type and transgenic C...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644033/rutin-acid-ameliorates-neural-apoptosis-induced-by-traumatic-brain-injury-via-mitochondrial-pathways-in-mice
#8
Xiaofu Zhai, Ying Ding, Qi Wang, Hao Zhang, Fayin Li
Rutin reportedly conveys many beneficial effects, including neuroprotection in brain injury. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still not well understood. This study investigates the effect of rutin on potential mechanisms for neuroprotective effects, using the weight-drop model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in male mice treated either with rutin or a vehicle via intraperitoneal injection 30 min after TBI. After euthanasia and 24 h after TBI, all mice were examined by tests, including neurologic scores, blood-brain barrier permeability, brain water content and neuronal cell death in the cerebral cortex...
2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641647/parkin-and-pink1-patient-ipsc-derived-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-exhibit-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-accumulation
#9
Sun Young Chung, Sarah Kishinevsky, Joseph R Mazzulli, John Graziotto, Ana Mrejeru, Eugene V Mosharov, Lesly Puspita, Parvin Valiulahi, David Sulzer, Teresa A Milner, Tony Taldone, Dimitri Krainc, Lorenz Studer, Jae-Won Shim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the selective loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra; however, the mechanism of neurodegeneration in PD remains unclear. A subset of familial PD is linked to mutations in PARK2 and PINK1, which lead to dysfunctional mitochondria-related proteins Parkin and PINK1, suggesting that pathways implicated in these monogenic forms could play a more general role in PD. We demonstrate that the identification of disease-related phenotypes in PD-patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons depends on the type of differentiation protocol utilized...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619562/inhibition-of-drp1-mitochondrial-translocation-provides-neural-protection-in-dopaminergic-system-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-model-induced-by-mptp
#10
Emily Filichia, Barry Hoffer, Xin Qi, Yu Luo
Accumulating evidence suggest mitochondria-mediated pathways play an important role in dopaminergic neuronal cell death in Parkinson's disease (PD). Drp1, a key regulator of mitochondrial fission, has been shown to be activated and translocated to mitochondria under stress, leading to excessive mitochondria fission and dopaminergic neuronal death in vitro. However, whether Drp1 inhibition can lead to long term stable preservation of dopaminergic neurons in PD-related mouse models remains unknown. In this study, using a classical MPTP animal PD model, we showed for the first time Drp1 activation and mitochondrial translocation in vivo after MPTP administration...
September 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555322/subversion-of-schwann-cell-glucose-metabolism-by-mycobacterium-leprae
#11
Rychelle Clayde Affonso Medeiros, Karina do Carmo de Vasconcelos Girardi, Fernanda Karlla Luz Cardoso, Bruno de Siqueira Mietto, Thiago Gomes de Toledo Pinto, Lilian Sales Gomez, Luciana Silva Rodrigues, Mariana Gandini, Julio Jablonski Amaral, Sérgio Luiz Gomes Antunes, Suzana Corte-Real, Patricia Sammarco Rosa, Maria Cristina Vidal Pessolani, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Leonardo Ribeiro Batista-Silva, Mauro Sola-Penna, Marcus Fernandes Oliveira, Milton Ozório Moraes, Flavio Alves Lara
Mycobacterium leprae, the intracellular etiological agent of leprosy, infects Schwann promoting irreversible physical disabilities and deformities. These cells are responsible for myelination and maintenance of axonal energy metabolism through export of metabolites, such as lactate and pyruvate. In the present work, we observed that infected Schwann cells increase glucose uptake with a concomitant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity, the key enzyme of the oxidative pentose pathway...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554603/metformin-activation-of-ampk-dependent-pathways-is-neuroprotective-in-human-neural-stem-cells-against-amyloid-beta-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#12
Ming-Chang Chiang, Yi-Chuan Cheng, Shiang-Jiuun Chen, Chia-Hui Yen, Rong-Nan Huang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the general consequence of dementia and is diagnostic neuropathology by the cumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein aggregates, which are thought to promote mitochondrial dysfunction processes leading to neurodegeneration. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a critical regulator of energy homeostasis and a major player in lipid and glucose metabolism, is potentially implied in the mitochondrial deficiency of AD. Metformin, one of the widespread used anti- metabolic disease drugs, use its actions in part by stimulation of AMPK...
October 1, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506453/enriched-retinal-ganglion-cells-derived-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#13
Katherine P Gill, Sandy S C Hung, Alexei Sharov, Camden Y Lo, Karina Needham, Grace E Lidgerwood, Stacey Jackson, Duncan E Crombie, Bryony A Nayagam, Anthony L Cook, Alex W Hewitt, Alice Pébay, Raymond C B Wong
Optic neuropathies are characterised by a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that lead to vision impairment. Development of cell therapy requires a better understanding of the signals that direct stem cells into RGCs. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent an unlimited cellular source for generation of human RGCs in vitro. In this study, we present a 45-day protocol that utilises magnetic activated cell sorting to generate enriched population of RGCs via stepwise retinal differentiation using hESCs...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460976/dj-1-modulates-mitochondrial-response-to-oxidative-stress-clues-from-a-novel-diagnosis-of-park7
#14
M Di Nottia, M Masciullo, D Verrigni, S Petrillo, A Modoni, V Rizzo, D Di Giuda, T Rizza, M Niceta, A Torraco, M Bianchi, M Santoro, A R Bentivoglio, E Bertini, F Piemonte, R Carrozzo, G Silvestri
DJ-1 mutations are associated to early-onset Parkinson's disease and accounts for about 1-2% of the genetic forms. The protein is involved in many biological processes and its role in mitochondrial regulation is gaining great interest, even if its function in mitochondria is still unclear. We describe a 47-year-old woman affected by a multisystem disorder characterized by progressive, early-onset parkinsonism plus distal spinal amyotrophy, cataracts and sensory-neural deafness associated with a novel homozygous c...
October 6, 2016: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454347/imaging-of-neuronal-mitochondria-in-situ
#15
REVIEW
Gabriela Plucińska, Thomas Misgeld
Neuronal mitochondria are receiving a rapidly increasing level of attention. This is to a significant part due to the ability to visualize neuronal mitochondria in novel ways, especially in vivo. Such an approach allows studying neuronal mitochondria in an intact tissue context, during different developmental states and in various genetic backgrounds and disease conditions. Hence, in vivo imaging of mitochondria in the nervous system can reveal aspects of the 'mitochondrial life cycle' in neurons that hitherto have remained obscure or could only be inferred indirectly...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431368/formate-the-neglected-member-of-one-carbon-metabolism
#16
Margaret E Brosnan, John T Brosnan
Formate, the only non-tetrahydrofolate (THF)-linked intermediate in one-carbon metabolism, is produced in mammals from a variety of metabolic sources. It occurs in serum of adults at a concentration of approximately 30 μM. Its principal function lies as a source of one-carbon groups for the synthesis of 10-formyl-THF and other one-carbon intermediates; these are primarily used for purine synthesis, thymidylate synthesis, and the provision of methyl groups for synthetic, regulatory, and epigenetic methylation reactions...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429220/lkb1-regulates-mitochondria-dependent-presynaptic-calcium-clearance-and-neurotransmitter-release-properties-at-excitatory-synapses-along-cortical-axons
#17
Seok-Kyu Kwon, Richard Sando, Tommy L Lewis, Yusuke Hirabayashi, Anton Maximov, Franck Polleux
Individual synapses vary significantly in their neurotransmitter release properties, which underlie complex information processing in neural circuits. Presynaptic Ca2+ homeostasis plays a critical role in specifying neurotransmitter release properties, but the mechanisms regulating synapse-specific Ca2+ homeostasis in the mammalian brain are still poorly understood. Using electrophysiology and genetically encoded Ca2+ sensors targeted to the mitochondrial matrix or to presynaptic boutons of cortical pyramidal neurons, we demonstrate that the presence or absence of mitochondria at presynaptic boutons dictates neurotransmitter release properties through Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter (MCU)-dependent Ca2+ clearance...
July 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345267/linking-mitochondrial-dysfunction-metabolic-syndrome-and-stress-signaling-in-neurodegeneration
#18
Saurabh Kumar Jha, Niraj Kumar Jha, Dhiraj Kumar, Rashmi K Ambasta, Pravir Kumar
Mounting evidence suggests a link between metabolic syndrome (MetS) such as diabetes, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs). For instance, accumulated Aβ oligomer is enhancing neuronal Ca(2+) release and neural NO where increased NO level in the brain through post translational modification is modulating the level of insulin production. It has been further confirmed that irrespective of origin; brain insulin resistance triggers a cascade of the neurodegeneration phenomenon which can be aggravated by free reactive oxygen species burden, ER stress, metabolic dysfunction, neuorinflammation, reduced cell survival and altered lipid metabolism...
June 21, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340665/intracellular-calcium-dysregulation-implications-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Simona Magi, Pasqualina Castaldo, Maria Loredana Macrì, Marta Maiolino, Alessandra Matteucci, Guendalina Bastioli, Santo Gratteri, Salvatore Amoroso, Vincenzo Lariccia
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive neuronal loss. AD is associated with aberrant processing of the amyloid precursor protein, which leads to the deposition of amyloid-β plaques within the brain. Together with plaques deposition, the hyperphosphorylation of the microtubules associated protein tau and the formation of intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles are a typical neuropathological feature in AD brains. Cellular dysfunctions involving specific subcellular compartments, such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), are emerging as crucial players in the pathogenesis of AD, as well as increased oxidative stress and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329428/facilitation-of-brain-mitochondrial-activity-by-5-aminolevulinic-acid-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Chiori Omori, Rika Motodate, Yuzuha Shiraki, Kyoko Chiba, Yuriko Sobu, Ayano Kimura, Tadashi Nakaya, Hikaru Kondo, Satoshi Kurumiya, Toru Tanaka, Kazuo Yamamoto, Motowo Nakajima, Toshiharu Suzuki, Saori Hata
The activities of mitochondrial enzymes, which are essential for neural function, decline with age and in age-related disease. In particular, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX/complex IV) decreases in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). COX, a mitochondrial inner membrane protein complex that contains heme, plays an essential role in the electron transport chain that generates ATP. Heme synthesis begins with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) in mitochondria. 5-ALA synthetase is the rate-limiting enzyme in heme synthesis, suggesting that supplementation with 5-ALA might help preserve mitochondrial activity in the aged brain...
June 22, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
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