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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638071/emergent-stochastic-oscillations-and-signal-detection-in-tree-networks-of-excitable-elements
#1
Justus Kromer, Ali Khaledi-Nasab, Lutz Schimansky-Geier, Alexander B Neiman
We study the stochastic dynamics of strongly-coupled excitable elements on a tree network. The peripheral nodes receive independent random inputs which may induce large spiking events propagating through the branches of the tree and leading to global coherent oscillations in the network. This scenario may be relevant to action potential generation in certain sensory neurons, which possess myelinated distal dendritic tree-like arbors with excitable nodes of Ranvier at peripheral and branching nodes and exhibit noisy periodic sequences of action potentials...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615476/a-role-for-ankyring-in-maturation-and-maintenance-of-the-nodes-of-ranvier
#2
Benjamin Yang, Bridget M Curran, Stephen R Tymanskyj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575198/autoantibodies-to-nodal-isoforms-of-neurofascin-in-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy
#3
Emilien Delmont, Constance Manso, Luis Querol, Andrea Cortese, Angela Berardinelli, Alessandro Lozza, Maya Belghazi, Pauline Malissart, Pierre Labauge, Guillaume Taieb, Nobuhiro Yuki, Isabel Illa, Shahram Attarian, Jérôme J Devaux
Chronic inflammatory demyelination polyneuropathy is a heterogeneous and treatable immune-mediated disorder that lacks biomarkers to support diagnosis. Recent evidence indicates that paranodal proteins (contactin 1, contactin-associated protein 1, and neurofascin-155) are the targets of autoantibodies in subsets of patients showing distinct clinical presentations. Here, we identified neurofascin-186 and neurofascin-140 as the main targets of autoantibodies in five patients presenting IgG reactivity against the nodes of Ranvier...
May 28, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573768/nodes-of-ranvier-in-skin-biopsies-of-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Kathrin Doppler, Franziska Frank, Ann-Cathrin Koschker, Karlheinz Reiners, Claudia Sommer
Paranodal demyelination has been discussed as a potential mechanism of nerve fiber damage in diabetic neuropathy. Studies on human tissue are limited, as nerve biopsies are invasive and only rarely performed in patients with confirmed diabetic neuropathy. Skin biopsy has recently been suggested as a tool to analyze paranodal and nodal changes of myelinated fibers. We analyzed the myelinated fibers of skin biopsies of 35 patients with diabetic neuropathy, 17 patients with diabetes mellitus without neuropathy, and 30 normal controls...
June 2, 2017: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565865/alterations-of-caspr2-and-nav1-6-on-myelinated-axon-damage-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#5
Weihua Liang, Weiwei Zhang, Shifu Zhao, Hua Liang, Jinli Zhang, Luyan Wang
Myelinated axons require the correct localization of key proteins that are essential for nerve conduction and cognitive function. Little is known regarding the altered expression of contactin-associated protein 2 (Caspr2) at the juxtaparanodal regions and Nav1.6 at the node of Ranvier in response to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). The aim of the present study was to examine the alterations in the key protein of myelinated axons and the potential mechanisms that may follow CCH. We established a rat model of CCH by controllable partial narrowing of bilateral common carotid arteries...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536506/axonal-membranes-and-their-domains-assembly-and-function-of-the-axon-initial-segment-and-node-of-ranvier
#6
REVIEW
Andrew D Nelson, Paul M Jenkins
Neurons are highly specialized cells of the nervous system that receive, process and transmit electrical signals critical for normal brain function. Here, we review the intricate organization of axonal membrane domains that facilitate rapid action potential conduction underlying communication between complex neuronal circuits. Two critical excitable domains of vertebrate axons are the axon initial segment (AIS) and the nodes of Ranvier, which are characterized by the high concentrations of voltage-gated ion channels, cell adhesion molecules and specialized cytoskeletal networks...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534438/the-axonal-cytoskeleton-and-the-assembly-of-nodes-of-ranvier
#7
Aniket Ghosh, Diane L Sherman, Peter J Brophy
Vertebrate nervous systems rely on rapid nerve impulse transmission to support their complex functions. Fast conduction depends on ensheathment of nerve axons by myelin-forming glia and the clustering of high concentrations of voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) in the axonal gaps between myelinated segments. These gaps are the nodes of Ranvier. Depolarization of the axonal membrane initiates the action potential responsible for impulse transmission, and the Nav help ensure that this is restricted to nodes...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411148/behavioural-characterization-of-ankyring-deficient-mice-a-model-for-ank3-related-disorders
#8
I M van der Werf, D Van Dam, S Missault, B Yalcin, P P De Deyn, G Vandeweyer, R F Kooy
ANK3 encodes AnkyrinG (AnkG), a member of the Ankyrin family that is expressed in several different isoforms in many tissues. A unique serine-rich domain and tail domain in the two largest isoforms of AnkG (270 and 480kDa), restrict AnkG to the axon initial segment and nodes of Ranvier of myelinated neurons. At these sites, AnkG is a master regulator, coordinating the strict clustering of components necessary for proper action potential initiation and propagation along the axon. These components include voltage-gated sodium channels, potassium channels and members of the L1 cell adhesion molecule family...
April 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405806/rearrangement-of-potassium-ions-and-kv1-1-kv1-2-potassium-channels-in-regenerating-axons-following-end-to-end-neurorrhaphy-ionic-images-from-tof-sims
#9
Chiung-Hui Liu, Hung-Ming Chang, Tsung-Huan Wu, Li-You Chen, Yin-Shuo Yang, To-Jung Tseng, Wen-Chieh Liao
The voltage-gated potassium channels Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 that cluster at juxtaparanodal (JXP) regions are essential in the regulation of nerve excitability and play a critical role in axonal conduction. When demyelination occurs, Kv1.1/Kv1.2 activity increases, suppressing the membrane potential nearly to the equilibrium potential of K(+), which results in an axonal conduction blockade. The recovery of K(+)-dependent communication signals and proper clustering of Kv1.1/Kv1.2 channels at JXP regions may directly reflect nerve regeneration following peripheral nerve injury...
April 12, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400815/delayed-treatment-of-secondary-degeneration-following-acute-optic-nerve-transection-using-a-combination-of-ion-channel-inhibitors
#10
Nathanael J Yates, Marcus K Giacci, Ryan L O'Hare Doig, Wissam Chiha, Bethany E Ashworth, Jade Kenna, Carole A Bartlett, Melinda Fitzgerald
Studies have shown that a combined application of several ion channel inhibitors immediately after central nervous system injury can inhibit secondary degeneration. However, for clinical use, it is necessary to determine how long after injury the combined treatment of several ion channel inhibitors can be delayed and efficacy maintained. In this study, we delivered Ca(2+) entry-inhibiting P2X7 receptor antagonist oxidized-ATP and AMPA receptor antagonist YM872 to the optic nerve injury site via an iPRECIO(@) pump immediately, 6 hours, 24 hours and 7 days after partial optic nerve transection surgery...
February 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340093/the-molecular-and-morphologic-structures-that-make-saltatory-conduction-possible-in-peripheral-nerve
#11
Steven L Carroll
Saltatory conduction is the process by which action potentials are rapidly and efficiently propagated along myelinated axons. In the peripheral nervous system, saltatory conduction is made possible by a series of morphologically and molecularly distinct subdomains in both axons and their associated myelinating Schwann cells. This review briefly summarizes current knowledge on the molecular structure and physiology of the node of Ranvier and adjacent regions of the axoglial unit in peripheral nerve.
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334857/co-cultures-with-stem-cell-derived-human-sensory-neurons-reveal-regulators-of-peripheral-myelination
#12
Alex J Clark, Malte S Kaller, Jorge Galino, Hugh J Willison, Simon Rinaldi, David L H Bennett
See Saporta and Shy (doi:10.1093/awx048) for a scientific commentary on this article.Effective bidirectional signalling between axons and Schwann cells is essential for both the development and maintenance of peripheral nerve function. We have established conditions by which human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived sensory neurons can be cultured with rat Schwann cells, and have produced for the first time long-term and stable myelinating co-cultures with human neurons. These cultures contain the specialized domains formed by axonal interaction with myelinating Schwann cells, such as clustered voltage-gated sodium channels at the node of Ranvier and Shaker-type potassium channel (Kv1...
April 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318976/assembly-of-cns-nodes-of-ranvier-in-myelinated-nerves-is-promoted-by-the-axon-cytoskeleton
#13
Veronica Brivio, Catherine Faivre-Sarrailh, Elior Peles, Diane L Sherman, Peter J Brophy
Nodes of Ranvier in the axons of myelinated neurons are exemplars of the specialized cell surface domains typical of polarized cells. They are rich in voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) and thus underpin rapid nerve impulse conduction in the vertebrate nervous system [1]. Although nodal proteins cluster in response to myelination, how myelin-forming glia influence nodal assembly is poorly understood. An axoglial adhesion complex comprising glial Neurofascin155 and axonal Caspr/Contactin flanks mature nodes [2]...
April 3, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288671/microglia-derived-il-1%C3%AE-contributes-to-axon-development-disorders-and-synaptic-deficit-through-p38-mapk-signal-pathway-in-septic-neonatal-rats
#14
Qianpeng Han, Qiongyu Lin, Peixian Huang, Mengmeng Chen, Xin Hu, Hui Fu, Shaoru He, Fengcai Shen, Hongke Zeng, Yiyu Deng
BACKGROUND: Axon development plays a pivotal role in the formation of synapse, nodes of Ranvier, and myelin sheath. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) produced by microglia may cause myelination disturbances through suppression of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell maturation in the septic neonatal rats. Here, we explored if a microglia-derived IL-1β would disturb axon development in the corpus callosum (CC) following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration, and if so, whether it is associated with disorder of synapse formation in the cerebral cortex and node of Ranvier...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283543/kcnq-smit-complex-formation-facilitates-ion-channel-solute-transporter-cross-talk
#15
Daniel L Neverisky, Geoffrey W Abbott
Voltage-gated potassium channels formed by KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 are essential for normal neuronal excitability. KCNQ2/3 channel activity is augmented in vivo by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), which is generated from myo-inositol, an osmolyte transported into cells by sodium-dependent myo-inositol transporters (SMITs). Here, we discovered that KCNQ2/3 channels isoform-specifically colocalize with SMIT1 and SMIT2 at sciatic nerve nodes of Ranvier and in axon initial segments, and form channel-transporter complexes in vitro and in vivo KCNQ2/3 coexpression protected SMIT1 activity from the otherwise inhibitory effects of cellular depolarization imposed by elevating extracellular [K(+)], and KCNQ2 was required for potentiation of SMIT activity by myo-inositol preincubation...
March 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235672/neurobiology-of-axonal-transport-defects-in-motor-neuron-diseases-opportunities-for-translational-research
#16
REVIEW
Kurt J De Vos, Majid Hafezparast
Intracellular trafficking of cargoes is an essential process to maintain the structure and function of all mammalian cell types, but especially of neurons because of their extreme axon/dendrite polarisation. Axonal transport mediates the movement of cargoes such as proteins, mRNA, lipids, membrane-bound vesicles and organelles that are mostly synthesised in the cell body and in doing so is responsible for their correct spatiotemporal distribution in the axon, for example at specialised sites such as nodes of Ranvier and synaptic terminals...
February 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217083/postnatal-loss-of-neuronal-and-glial-neurofascins-differentially-affects-node-of-ranvier-maintenance-and-myelinated-axon-function
#17
Anna M Taylor, Julia Saifetiarova, Manzoor A Bhat
Intricate molecular interactions between neurons and glial cells underlie the creation of unique domains that are essential for saltatory conduction of action potentials by myelinated axons. Previously, the cell surface adhesion molecule Neurofascin (Nfasc) has been shown to have a dual-role in the establishment of axonal domains from both the glial and neuronal interface. While the neuron-specific isoform of Neurofascin (NF186) is indispensable for clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier; the glial-specific isoform of Neurofascin (NF155) is required for myelinating glial cells to organize the paranodal domain...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214515/igg-degrading-enzyme-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-ides-prevents-disease-progression-and-facilitates-improvement-in-a-rabbit-model-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#18
Yuzhong Wang, Qiguang Shi, Hui Lv, Ming Hu, Weifang Wang, Quanquan Wang, Baojun Qiao, Guorong Zhang, Zhanyun Lv, Christian Kjellman, Sofia Järnum, Lena Winstedt, Yong Zhang, Jiao Wen, Yanlei Hao, Nobuhiro Yuki
Autoantibodies binding to peripheral nerves followed by complement deposition and membrane attack complex formation results in nerve damage in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Strategies to remove the pathogenic autoantibodies or block the complement deposition benefit most patients with GBS. Immunoglobulin G-degrading enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes (IdeS) is a cysteine protease which cleaves IgG antibodies into F(ab')2 and Fc fragments. In this study, using a rabbit model of axonal GBS, acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), we demonstrated that IdeS treatment significantly reduced the disruption of Nav channels as well as activated C3 deposition at the anterior spinal root nodes of Ranvier in AMAN rabbits...
May 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199072/genetic-risk-score-analysis-in-early-onset-bipolar-disorder
#19
Paul E Croarkin, Joan L Luby, Kelly Cercy, Jennifer R Geske, Marin Veldic, Matthew Simonson, Paramjit T Joshi, Karen Dineen Wagner, John T Walkup, Malik M Nassan, Alfredo B Cuellar-Barboza, Leah Casuto, Susan L McElroy, Peter S Jensen, Mark A Frye, Joanna M Biernacka
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we performed a candidate genetic risk score (GRS) analysis of early-onset bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) study enrollment and sample collection took place from 2003 to 2008. Mayo Clinic Bipolar Biobank samples were collected from 2009 to 2013. Genotyping and analyses for the present study took place from 2013 to 2014. The diagnosis of BD was based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155939/proposal-of-a-new-mechanism-for-the-directional-propagation-of-the-action-potential-using-a-mimicking-system
#20
Y Takano, O Shirai, Y Kitazumi, K Kano
A nerve conduction model is constructed by using some liquid-membrane cells that mimic the function of the K(+) and Na(+) channels. By imitating two types of Na(+) channels (ligand-gated Na(+) channels and voltage-gated Na(+) channels), a new mechanism for the directional propagation of the action potential along the axon toward the axon terminal is proposed. When the nerve cell is excited by an external (outer) stimulus, it can be presumed that the ligand-gated channels work as power sources at the synapse to propagate the change in the membrane potential, and then the voltage-gated channels locally assist the propagation at each site of the axon (nodes of Ranvier)...
February 3, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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