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zinc, brain

Branka Popović, Milica Velimirović, Tihomir Stojković, Gavrilo Brajović, Silvio R De Luka, Ivan Milovanović, Srdjan Stefanović, Dragica Nikolić, Jasna L Ristić-Djurović, Nataša D Petronijević, Alexander M Trbovich
Ageing affects various physiological and metabolic processes in a body and a progressive accumulation of oxidative damage stands out as often used explanation. One of the most powerful scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in all organs is melatonin. A majority of melatonin supplied to the body via blood originates from the pineal gland. However, we have been interested in a locally produced melatonin. We have used 2.5- and 36-months-old Wistar rats. Tissues were collected and gene expression of AA-NAT and ASMT, the two key enzymes in a synthesis of melatonin, was determined in brain, liver, kidney, heart, skin, and intestine...
June 12, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Hema Santhakumar, Resmi V Nair, Divya Susan Philips, Sachin J Shenoy, Anoopkumar Thekkuveettil, Ayyappanpillai Ajayaghosh, Ramapurath S Jayasree
Zinc, the essential trace element in human body exists either in the bound or free state, for both structural and functional roles. Insights on Zn2+ distribution and its dynamics are essential in view of the fact that Zn2+ dyshomeostasis is a risk factor for epileptic seizures, Alzheimer's disease, depression, etc. Herein, a bipyridine bridged bispyrrole (BP) probe is used for ratiometric imaging and quantification of Zn2+ in hippocampal slices. The green fluorescence emission of BP shifts towards red in the presence of Zn2+ ...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zohreh Fattahi, Taimoor I Sheikh, Luciana Musante, Memoona Rasheed, Ibrahim Ihsan Taskiran, Ricardo Harripaul, Hao Hu, Somayeh Kazeminasab, Muhammad Rizwan Alam, Masoumeh Hosseini, Farzaneh Larti, Zhila Ghaderi, Arzu Celik, Muhammad Ayub, Muhammad Ansar, Mohammad Haddadi, Thomas F Wienker, Hans Hilger Ropers, Kimia Kahrizi, John B Vincent, H Najmabadi
Exploring genes and pathways underlying Intellectual Disability (ID) provides insight into brain development and function, clarifying the complex puzzle of how cognition develops. As part of ongoing systematic studies to identify candidate ID genes, linkage analysis and next generation sequencing revealed ZBTB11, as a novel candidate ID gene. ZBTB11 encodes a less-studied transcription regulator and the two identified missense variants in this study may disrupt canonical Zn2+-binding residues of its C2H2 zinc finger domain, leading to possible altered DNA binding...
June 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Ekta Yadav, Deepika Singh, Pankajkumar Yadav, Amita Verma
Over recent years, utilization of green synthesized nanomaterials has been widely growing on human body because of its special properties. With the increasing acceptance of nanoparticle approach for various clinical treatments, the biosafety and toxicological effects on the vital organs such as central nervous system, have received more concern. Main focus of this study was to evaluate acute exposure of n -butanol fraction of Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce hydroethanolic extract (BuPC) and green synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles of BuPC (ZnOPC) on spatial cognition behavior, and to assess underlying mechanism by estimation of enzymatic antioxidative status along with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in mice brain...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Stuart D Portbury, Dominic J Hare, David P Bishop, David I Finkelstein, Philip A Doble, Paul A Adlard
Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a clinical consequence of brain injury that can result in neuropathological outcomes that are exacerbated with age. Here, we present laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) imaging data showing modulation of brain Zn levels by the disaccharide trehalose in aged mice following a controlled cortical impact model of traumatic brain injury. In this proof-of-concept study, trehalose induced an increase in brain zinc levels, providing important preliminary data for larger studies using this simple carbohydrate as a modulator of this essential micronutrient in traumatic brain injury...
June 6, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Hala Attia, Howaida Nounou, Manal Shalaby
Growing evidences demonstrated that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) could reach the brain after oral ingestion; however, the "neurotoxicity of" ZnONPs after oral exposure has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to explore the "neurotoxicity of" ZnONPs (.
May 26, 2018: Toxics
Angelo Nicolosi, Laura Cardoit, Pierrick Pasquereau, Christèle Jaillet, Muriel Thoby-Brisson, Laurent Juvin, Didier Morin
Due to their extremely small size that gives them unique physicochemical properties, nanoparticles (NPs) are used in the production of everyday materials. However, NPs can accumulate in body organs and could cause various diseases. Moreover, NPs that cross biological membranes such as the blood-brain barrier can aggregate in the brain and potentially produce neuronal damage. Although studies have reported the effects of diverse NPs on the bioelectrical properties of individual neurons, their potential influences on the operation of whole neuronal networks have not been documented...
May 31, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Margaret H Hastings, Alvin Qiu, Congyao Zha, Carole A Farah, Yacine Mahdid, Larissa Ferguson, Wayne S Sossin
The Small Optic Lobes (SOL) calpain is a highly conserved member of the calpain family expressed in the nervous system. A dominant negative form of the SOL calpain inhibited consolidation of one form of synaptic plasticity, non-associative facilitation, in sensory-motor neuronal cultures in Aplysia, presumably by inhibiting cleavage of protein kinase Cs (PKCs) into constitutively active protein kinase Ms (PKMs) (Hu et al, 2017a). SOL calpains have a conserved set of 5-6 N-terminal zinc fingers. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that these zinc fingers could bind to ubiquitin...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Nan Zhang, Na Liu, Chu Sun, Jianfeng Zhu, Dongxu Wang, Yunfeng Dai, Yunfeng Wu, Yaming Wang, Junlei Li, Dewei Zhao, Jinglong Yan
Objective: To evaluate the effect of a novel micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coated magnesium-zinc-calcium (Mg-Zn-Ca) alloy scaffold/autologous bone particles to repair critical size bone defect (CSD) in rabbit and explore the novel scaffold in vivo corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Methods: Seventy-two New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups ( n =24), group A was uncoated Mg-Zn-Ca alloy scaffold group, group B was 10 μm MAO coated Mg-Zn-Ca alloy scaffold group, and group C was control group with only autologous bone graft...
March 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Sini L Karjalainen, Hannu K Haapasalo, Ashok Aspatwar, Harlan Barker, Seppo Parkkila, Joonas A Haapasalo
BACKGROUND: Carbonic anhydrase related proteins (CARPs) VIII, X and XI functionally differ from the other carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes. Structurally, they lack the zinc binding residues, which are important for enzyme activity of classical CAs. The distribution pattern of the CARPs in fetal brain implies their role in brain development. In the adult brain, CARPs are mainly expressed in the neuron bodies but only weaker reactivity has been found in the astrocytes and oligodendrocytes...
May 23, 2018: BMC Cancer
Pei-Shan Wu, Hsiou-Yu Ding, Jui-Hung Yen, Shu-Fen Chen, Kuan-Han Lee, Ming-Jiuan Wu
It was demonstrated that isoflavones can cross the blood-brain barrier, making them desirable candidate agents for the prevention of neurological symptoms. 8-Hydroxydaidzein (8-OHD, 4',7,8-trihydoxyisoflavone) is an isoflavone found only in fermented soy food. Current results showed that 8-OHD inhibited LPS-stimulated production of nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, by inhibiting gene expression in BV2 microglial cells. Moreover, 8-OHD markedly quenched reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activated NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) so as to upregulate expression of Phase II enzymes, including heme oxygenase (HO)-1, NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1), and the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLM)...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Abhijit Das, Md Shahid Sarwar, Md Shohel Hossain, Palash Karmakar, Mohammad Safiqul Islam, Mohammad Enayet Hussain, Sujan Banik
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is one of the chronic and heterogeneous epidemic neurological disorders leading to substantial mortality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin C, and trace elements namely zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn) in epileptic patients of Bangladesh and to establish if there are any pathophysiological correlations. METHODS: This was a case-control study with 40 generalized epileptic patients and 40 healthy subjects as controls...
May 1, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Angus Scrimgeour, Christopher Carrigan, Michelle Lynn Condlin, Maria L Urso, Roland M van den Berg, Herman P M van Helden, Scott J Montain, Marloes J A Joosen
Animal models of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) provide opportunity to examine the extent to which dietary interventions can be used to improve recovery after injury. Animal studies also suggest that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a role in tissue remodeling post-TBI. Because dietary zinc (Zn) improved recovery in non-blast mTBI models, and the MMPs are Zn-requiring enzymes, we evaluated the effects of low- and adequate Zn diets on MMP expression and behavioral responses, following exposure to a single blast...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
İnan Gezgin, Cem Öziç
AIM: Zinc oxide nanoparticles are flexible platforms for biotechnology and biomedical applications. To investigate the expression level of the DR4, DR5, OPG, DcR1 and DcR2 in brain tissue. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The expression of DR4, DR5, OPG, DcR1, DcR2 and β-actin were measured through RT-PCR and western blotting in brain tissues of all three groups. The mRNA expression levels of DR4, DR5, OPG, DcR1 and DcR2 was investigated by using the RT-PCR and western blotting methods...
April 24, 2018: Turkish Neurosurgery
Stefanie Fingerhut, Michael Sperling, Markus Holling, Thomas Niederstadt, Thomas Allkemper, Alexander Radbruch, Walter Heindel, Werner Paulus, Astrid Jeibmann, Uwe Karst
Recent studies showed gadolinium depositions following serial administrations of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) for magnetic resonance imaging examinations in various parts of the brain with the dentate nucleus (DN) being most affected. Even though no clinical correlates of the deposits are known yet, an intensive debate developed if this might be harmful. The aim of the current study was to specify the gadolinium distribution in brain tissue of patients who received serial injections of GBCAs in the low-µm range and to explore any potential pathological tissue changes caused by gadolinium deposits...
May 10, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Eva Gatineau, Stéphanie Cluzet, Stéphanie Krisa, Isabelle Papet, Carole Migne, Didier Remond, Dominique Dardevet, Sergio Polakof, Tristan Richard, Laurent Mosoni
Little is still known about brain protein synthesis. In order to increase our knowledge of it, we aimed to modulate brain protein synthesis rates through aging, variations in nutritional state (fed state vs. fasted state), high sucrose diet and micronutrient supplementation. Four groups of 16 month-old male rats were fed for five months with a diet containing either 13% or 62% sucrose (wheat starch was replaced with sucrose), supplemented or not with rutin (5 g kg-1 diet), vitamin E (4×), A (2×), D (5×), selenium (10×) and zinc (+44%) and compared with an adult control group...
May 9, 2018: Food & Function
Ngala Elvis Mbiydzenyuy, Herbert Izo Ninsiima, Miriela Betancourt Valladares, Constant Anatole Pieme
BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested the supplementation of Zinc and Linoleic acid in the management of neurodegenerative disorders but none has investigated the combined effects. Little is known about the neuroprotective effects of either Zinc or Linoleic acid or their combination against development of Parkinsonism. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Zinc and Linoleic acid in rotenone-induced Parkinsonism in rats. METHODS: Thirty-six young adult female rats weighing 100-150 g divided into six groups were used...
May 9, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Chengcheng Christine Zhang, Martin Volkmann, Sabine Tuma, Wolfgang Stremmel, Uta Merle
Different mutations in the copper transporter gene Atp7b are identified as the primary cause of Wilson's disease. These changes result in high copper concentrations especially in the liver and brain, and consequently lead to a dysfunction of these organs. The Atp7(-/-) mouse is an established animal model for Wilson's disease and characterized by an abnormal copper accumulation, a low serum oxidase activity and an increased copper excretion in urine. Metallothionein (MT) proteins are low molecular weight metal-binding proteins and essential for the zinc homeostasis but also play a role for the regulation of other metals, e...
May 7, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Peter Joe, Matthew Petrilli, Dolores Malaspina, Judith Weissman
OBJECTIVE: The role of zinc homeostasis in various psychopathologies is an emerging area of interest. Zinc is strongly implicated in depressive disorders but is inadequately studied in schizophrenia, despite growing evidence of abnormal zinc transporters associated with schizophrenia. A meta-analysis of serum zinc concentrations in persons with schizophrenia was conducted to address this gap. METHOD: PubMed and Embase were searched for all articles published through February 2018 that reported serum zinc concentrations in individuals with schizophrenia and in comparison subjects...
April 27, 2018: General Hospital Psychiatry
A F Yakimovskii, I I Shantyr, M A Vlasenko, M V Yakovleva, S Yu Kryzanovskaia
Zinc content in blood plasma and brain tissue of rats was studied by analytic mass-spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. In control (saline-treated animal) zinc content in plasma was 3.6±1.4 mg/ml, in the liver - 12.5±2.5 mg/mg, in the spleen - 10.9±4.1 mg/mg, in the brain - 8.7±3.0 mg/mg. After a single intraperitoneal injection of zinc donator acizolum (24 mg/kg) zinc content decreased in all examined tissues, especially in brain. After a course of sequential acizolum injections (seven administrations during two weeks) essential elevation of zinc content in blood plasma and tissues investigated was detected...
March 2018: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
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