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Disaster preparedness in children

Abdallah Mohamed Elsafti, Gerlant van Berlaer, Mohammad Al Safadi, Michel Debacker, Ronald Buyl, Atef Redwan, Ives Hubloue
OBJECTIVE: The Syrian civil war since 2011 has led to one of the most complex humanitarian emergencies in history. The objective of this study was to document the impact of the conflict on the familial, educational, and public health state of Syrian children. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in May 2015. Health care workers visited families with a prospectively designed data sheet in 4 Northern Syrian governorates. RESULTS: The 1001 children included in this study originated from Aleppo (41%), Idleb (36%), Hamah (15%), and Lattakia (8%)...
October 14, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Emma Paras, Matthew Butler, Brian F Maguire, Rich Scarfone
In September 2015, Pope Francis visited Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and led outdoor events over the course of 2 days. As a result, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) was faced with the challenge of planning for and responding to a mass gathering that was anticipated to be one of the largest in US history. As a result of unprecedented traffic restrictions, it was anticipated that patients, staff, and vendors would have severe challenges accessing the hospital, along with impaired communications from widespread cell phone service disruption...
September 29, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Brenda Silverman, Brenda Chen, Nancy Brener, Judy Kruger, Nevin Krishna, Paul Renard, Sandra Romero-Steiner, Rachel Nonkin Avchen
The unique characteristics of children dictate the need for school-based all-hazards response plans during natural disasters, emerging infectious diseases, and terrorism (1-3). Schools are a critical community institution serving a vulnerable population that must be accounted for in public health preparedness plans; prepared schools are adopting policies and plans for crisis preparedness, response, and recovery (2-4). The importance of having such plans in place is underscored by the development of a new Healthy People 2020 objective (PREP-5) to "increase the percentage of school districts that require schools to include specific topics in their crisis preparedness, response, and recovery plans" (5)...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Holli B Bagwell, Rebecca Liggin, Tonya Thompson, Kristin Lyle, Allison Anthony, Matthew Baltz, Maria Melguizo-Castro, Todd Nick, Dennis Z Kuo
Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) may present unique challenges for disaster preparedness. This study's objective was to determine the impact of a disaster supply starter kit intervention on preparedness for families of CSHCN. The study was a 1-group pre-post cohort design with consecutive enrollment at the Arkansas Children's Hospital Medical Home Clinic. Pre- and postintervention survey findings were compared using McNemar's test. Of the 249 enrolled, 223 completed the postsurvey. At presurvey, 43% had an Emergency Information Form, compared with 79% at postsurvey (P < ...
October 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
Kirrilly Thompson, Joshua Trigg, Bradley Smith
CONTEXT: Few studies have examined the prevalence of animal ownership among populations likely to be at greater risk from disaster events within a bushfire context. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the proportion of vulnerable community members keeping animals and the types of animals kept, as well as perceived risk of harm to pets, and their inclusion in bushfire survival planning. DESIGN: Statewide anonymous online survey in 2014 of adult South Australian animal owners threatened by bushfire in January 2014...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Megan Peck, Tai Mendenhall, Louise Stenberg, Nancy Carlson, Debra K Olson
PURPOSE: To identify gaps in disaster behavioral health, the Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (PERL) at the University of Minnesota's School of Public Health supported the development and implementation of a multistate disaster behavioral health preparedness assessment. Information was gathered regarding worker knowledge of current disaster behavioral health capacity at the state and local level, and perceived disaster behavioral health training needs and preferences...
July 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
David J Schonfeld, Thomas Demaria
The death of someone close to a child often has a profound and lifelong effect on the child and results in a range of both short- and long-term reactions. Pediatricians, within a patient-centered medical home, are in an excellent position to provide anticipatory guidance to caregivers and to offer assistance and support to children and families who are grieving. This clinical report offers practical suggestions on how to talk with grieving children to help them better understand what has happened and its implications and to address any misinformation, misinterpretations, or misconceptions...
September 2016: Pediatrics
Megan T Chang, Stuart Bradin, Andrew N Hashikawa
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess if Michigan child care directors have created disaster management plans, and if local resources were used to develop and implement plans. METHODS: From December 2013 to March 2014, the Early Childhood Investment Corporation conducted a survey of licensed child care programs in Michigan. An online survey regarding disaster preparedness and training resources was distributed to the directors of a convenience sample of registered child care centers among the Early Childhood Investment Corporation's statewide network of 11 resource centers...
August 1, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Leila Scannell, Robin S Cox, Sarah Fletcher, Cheryl Heykoop
Place attachment is important for children and youth's disaster preparedness, experiences, recovery, and resilience, but most of the literature on place and disasters has focused on adults. Drawing on the community disaster risk reduction, recovery, and resilience literature as well as the literature on normative place attachment, children and youth's place-relevant disaster experiences are examined. Prior to a disaster, place attachments are postulated to enhance children and youth's disaster preparedness contributions and reinforce their pre-disaster resilience...
September 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
Kasumi Sakurai, Hidekazu Nishigori, Toshie Nishigori, Satoshi Mizuno, Taku Obara, Noriyuki Iwama, Zen Watanabe, Mami Ishikuro, Nozomi Tatsuta, Ichiko Nishijima, Junichi Sugawara, Ikuma Fujiwara, Takahiro Arima, Shinichi Kuriyama, Hirohito Metoki, Fumiaki Takahashi, Kunihiko Nakai, Nobuo Yaegashi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to clarify the correlation between the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and domestic violence (DV) against pregnant females after the disaster in Miyagi Prefecture, an area damaged by the earthquake and tsunami. METHODS: We analyzed 7600 pregnant females from June to December 2011. The incidence of physical and mental DV and the proportions in the inland, north coastal, and south coastal areas of Miyagi Prefecture and nationwide were calculated, and a chi-square test was conducted for comparison...
July 27, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Aubrey Miller, Kevin Yeskey, Stavros Garantziotis, Stacey Arnesen, April Bennett, Liam O'Fallon, Claudia Thompson, Les Reinlib, Scott Masten, James Remington, Cindy Love, Steve Ramsey, Richard Rosselli, Betsy Galluzzo, Joy Lee, Richard Kwok, Joseph Hughes
The need for high quality and timely disaster research has been a topic of great discussion over the past several years. Recent high profile incidents have exposed gaps in knowledge about the health impacts of disasters or the benefits of specific interventions-such was the case with the 2010 Gulf Oil Spill and recent events associated with lead-contaminated drinking water in Flint, Michigan, and the evolving health crisis related to Zika virus disease. Our inability to perform timely research to inform the community about health and safety risks or address specific concerns further heightens anxiety and distrust...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Takeo Fujiwara, Junko Yagi, Hiroaki Homma, Hirofumi Mashiko, Keizo Nagao, Makiko Okuyama
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its association with each traumatic experience among 5- to 8-year-old children 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. METHOD: Children ages 5-8 years who were in selected preschool classes on March 11, 2011, in 3 prefectures affected by the earthquake and 1 prefecture that was unaffected, participated in the study (N=280). PTSD symptoms were assessed through questionnaires completed by caregivers and interviews by psychiatrists or psychologists conducted between September 2012 and May 2013 (ie, 1...
July 1, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Keith J Petrie, Kate Faasse, Mark G Thomas
OBJECTIVE: We examined public perceptions of the risk of an Ebola outbreak, knowledge about transmission, and the factors associated with planned protective behavior, including willingness to vaccinate. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey using random digit dialing of 750 members of the New Zealand public between February 12 and 19, 2015. RESULTS: Most of the sample (72%) reported that they had been following news of the outbreak closely and 28% were concerned that there would be a large outbreak in New Zealand...
August 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Jun Wang, Hui Ding, Qi Lv, Jin-Hong Chen, Yan-Feng Sun, Hao-Jun Fan, Qiu-Ling Liu
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyze the rescue and treatment of pediatric patients by the Chinese Red Cross medical team during the Nepal earthquake relief. METHODS: The medical team set up a field hospital; the pediatric clinic consisted of 1 pediatrician and several nurses. Children younger than 18 years old were placed in the pediatric clinic for injury examination and treatment. RESULTS: During the 7-day period of medical assistance (the second to third week after the earthquake), a total of 108 pediatric patients were diagnosed and treated, accounting for 2...
May 18, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Robert P Olympia, Christopher Weber, Jodi Brady, Susana Ho
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the compliance of school transportation staff and school buses with recommendations for the safe transportation of children to and from school and school-related activities. METHODS: An electronic questionnaire was distributed to school transportation staff represented by the International Brotherhood of Teamsters during the 2013-2014 academic year. RESULTS: Analysis was performed on 558 completed questionnaires (13% usable response rate)...
May 12, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Lydia B Zablotska
It has been 30 years since the worst accident in the history of the nuclear era occurred at the Chernobyl power plant in Ukraine close to densely populated urban areas. To date, epidemiological studies reported increased long-term risks of leukemia, cardiovascular diseases, and cataracts among cleanup workers and of thyroid cancer and non-malignant diseases in those exposed as children and adolescents. Mental health effects were the most significant public health consequence of the accident in the three most contaminated countries of Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation...
June 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Suzanne F Jackson, Nadia Fazal, Geneviève Gravel, Heather Papowitz
A rapid review of literature was conducted to identify effective health promotion (HP) intervention strategies that relate to the management of disasters from natural hazards, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery measures. Searches were conducted in formal literature from 2000 to 2011 and then updated to 2013. Out of 719 relevant abstracts, 57 studies were selected for more detailed review. In total, 16 studies were annotated for the narrative synthesis; these articles all reported an outcome-oriented evaluation of an HP-related intervention in a natural disaster situation in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) or vulnerable populations in high-income countries (HIC)...
April 20, 2016: Health Promotion International
J Brian Houston, Jennifer First, Matthew L Spialek, Mary E Sorenson, Megan Koch
Children have been identified as particularly vulnerable to psychological and behavioral difficulties following disaster. Public child and family disaster communication is one public health tool that can be utilized to promote coping/resilience and ameliorate maladaptive child reactions following an event. We conducted a review of the public disaster communication literature and identified three main functions of child and family disaster communication: fostering preparedness, providing psychoeducation, and conducting outreach...
June 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Katie R Kirsch, Bonnie A Feldt, David F Zane, Tracy Haywood, Russell W Jones, Jennifer A Horney
On September 4, 2011, a wildfire ignited in Bastrop County, Texas, resulting in losses of 34,068 acres of land and 1,645 homes and 2 deaths. At the request of the Texas Department of State Health Services Health Service Region 7 and the Bastrop County Office of Emergency Management, Community Assessments for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) were conducted in the weeks following the wildfire and again 3.5 years later to assess both the immediate and long-term public health and preparedness impacts of the wildfire...
March 2016: Health Security
Joanne Grindlay, Katina Mai Breeze
Children comprise 19% of the Australian population. Children are at risk of higher morbidity and mortality in disaster events than adults; however, there is a paucity of paediatric-specific disaster preparedness in Australia. Paediatric disaster plans should be developed, tested and renewed regularly. Plans need to address unaccompanied and unidentified children, medical and psychosocial needs and family reunification. Specific management is required for chemical, biological and radiological events.
February 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
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