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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045839/heterotopic-transplantations-reveal-environmental-influences-on-interneuron-diversity-and-maturation
#1
Giulia Quattrocolo, Gord Fishell, Timothy J Petros
During embryogenesis, neural progenitors in the ganglionic eminences give rise to diverse GABAergic interneuron subtypes that populate all forebrain regions. The extent to which these cells are genetically predefined or determined by postmigratory environmental cues remains unknown. To address this question, we performed homo- and heterotopic transplantation of early postnatal MGE-derived cortical and hippocampal interneurons. Grafted cells migrated, and displayed neurochemical, electrophysiological, morphological, and neurochemical profiles similar to endogenous interneurons...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045412/self-domestication-in-homo-sapiens-insights-from-comparative-genomics
#2
Constantina Theofanopoulou, Simone Gastaldon, Thomas O'Rourke, Bridget D Samuels, Angela Messner, Pedro Tiago Martins, Francesco Delogu, Saleh Alamri, Cedric Boeckx
This study identifies and analyzes statistically significant overlaps between selective sweep screens in anatomically modern humans and several domesticated species. The results obtained suggest that (paleo-)genomic data can be exploited to complement the fossil record and support the idea of self-domestication in Homo sapiens, a process that likely intensified as our species populated its niche. Our analysis lends support to attempts to capture the "domestication syndrome" in terms of alterations to certain signaling pathways and cell lineages, such as the neural crest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037893/gelatin-promotes-rapid-restoration-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-after-acute-brain-injury
#3
Lucas S Kumosa, Valdemar Zetterberg, Jens Schouenborg
Gelatin coating of brain implants is known to provide considerable benefits in terms of reduced inflammatory sequalae and long-term neuroprotective effects. However, the mechanisms for gelatin's protective role in brain injury are still unknown. To address this question, cellular and molecular markers were studied with quantitative immunohistochemical microscopy at acute (<2 hours, 1, 3 days), intermediate (1-2 weeks) and long-term time points (6 weeks) after transient insertion of stainless steel needles into female rat cortex cerebri with or without gelatin coating...
October 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037816/in-vitro-segregation-and-isolation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-crest-cells
#4
Sabine Münst, Philipp Koch, Jaideep Kesavan, Michael Alexander-Mays, Bernhard Münst, Sandra Blaess, Oliver Brüstle
The neural crest (NC) is a transient embryonic cell population with remarkable characteristics. After delaminating from the neural tube, NC cells (NCCs) migrate extensively, populate nearly every tissue of the body and differentiate into highly diverse cell types such as peripheral neurons and glia, but also mesenchymal cells including chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes. While the NC has been extensively studied in several animal models, little is known about human NC development. A number of methods have been established to derive NCCs in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC)...
October 13, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036425/motif-independent-identification-of-potential-rna-g-quadruplexes-by-g4rna-screener
#5
Jean-Michel Garant, Jean-Pierre Perreault, Michelle S Scott
Motivation: G-quadruplex structures in RNA molecules are known to have regulatory impacts in cells but are difficult to locate in the genome. The minimal requirements for G-quadruplex folding in RNA (G ≥3 N 1-7  G ≥3 N 1-7  G ≥3 N 1-7  G ≥3 ) is being challenged by observations made on specific examples in recent years. The definition of potential G-quadruplex sequences has major repercussions on the observation of the structure since it introduces a bias. The canonical motif only describes a sub-population of the reported G-quadruplexes...
August 3, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035691/how-we-hear-the-perception-and-neural-coding-of-sound
#6
Andrew J Oxenham
Auditory perception is our main gateway to communication with others via speech and music, and it also plays an important role in alerting and orienting us to new events. This review provides an overview of selected topics pertaining to the perception and neural coding of sound, starting with the first stage of filtering in the cochlea and its profound impact on perception. The next topic, pitch, has been debated for millennia, but recent technical and theoretical developments continue to provide us with new insights...
October 16, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034586/avoiding-internal-capsule-stimulation-with-a-new-eight-channel-steering-deep-brain-stimulation-lead
#7
Kees J van Dijk, Rens Verhagen, Lo J Bour, Ciska Heida, Peter H Veltink
OBJECTIVE: Novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead designs are currently entering the market, which are hypothesized to provide a way to steer the stimulation field away from neural populations responsible for side effects and towards populations responsible for beneficial effects. The objective of this study is to assess the performances of a new eight channel steering-DBS lead and compare this with a conventional cylindrical contact (CC) lead. APPROACH: The two leads were evaluated in a finite element electric field model combined with multicompartment neuron and axon models, representing the internal capsule (IC) fibers and subthalamic nucleus (STN) cells...
October 15, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034482/deep-reinforcement-learning-for-automated-radiation-adaptation-in-lung-cancer
#8
Huan-Hsin Tseng, Yi Luo, Sunan Cui, Jen-Tzung Chien, Randall K Ten Haken, Issam El Naqa
PURPOSE: To investigate deep reinforcement learning (DRL) based on historical treatment plans for developing automated radiation adaptation protocols for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients that aim to maximize tumor local control at reduced rates of radiation pneumonitis grade 2 (RP2). METHODS: In a retrospective population of 114 NSCLC patients who received radiotherapy, a 3-component neural networks framework was developed for deep reinforcement learning (DRL) of dose fractionation adaptation...
October 16, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034473/development-and-maturation-of-the-fibrous-components-of-the-arterial-roots-in-the-mouse-heart
#9
Rachel Richardson, Lorraine Eley, Charlotte Donald-Wilson, Jonathon Davis, Natasha Curley, Ahlam Alqahtani, Lindsay Murphy, Robert H Anderson, Deborah J Henderson, Bill Chaudhry
The arterial roots are important transitional regions of the heart, connecting the intrapericardial components of the aortic and pulmonary trunks with their ventricular outlets. They house the arterial (semilunar) valves and, in the case of the aorta, are the points of coronary arterial attachment. Moreover, because of the semilunar attachments of the valve leaflets, the arterial roots span the anatomic ventriculo-arterial junction. By virtue of this arrangement, the interleaflet triangles, despite being fibrous, are found on the ventricular aspect of the root and located within the left ventricular cavity...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034318/mediodorsal-thalamic-neurons-mirror-the-activity-of-medial-prefrontal-neurons-responding-to-movement-and-reinforcement-during-a-dynamic-dnmtp-task
#10
Rikki L A Miller, Miranda J Francoeur, Brett M Gibson, Robert G Mair
The mediodorsal nucleus (MD) interacts with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to support learning and adaptive decision-making. MD receives driver (layer 5) and modulatory (layer 6) projections from PFC and is the main source of driver thalamic projections to middle cortical layers of PFC. Little is known about the activity of MD neurons and their influence on PFC during decision-making. We recorded MD neurons in rats performing a dynamic delayed nonmatching to position (dDNMTP) task and compared results to a previous study of mPFC with the same task (Onos et al...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034079/adaptation-in-the-visual-cortex-a-case-for-probing-neuronal-populations-with-natural-stimuli
#11
REVIEW
Michoel Snow, Ruben Coen-Cagli, Odelia Schwartz
The perception of, and neural responses to, sensory stimuli in the present are influenced by what has been observed in the past-a phenomenon known as adaptation. We focus on adaptation in visual cortical neurons as a paradigmatic example. We review recent work that represents two shifts in the way we study adaptation, namely (i) going beyond single neurons to study adaptation in populations of neurons and (ii) going beyond simple stimuli to study adaptation to natural stimuli. We suggest that efforts in these two directions, through a closer integration of experimental and modeling approaches, will enable a more complete understanding of cortical processing in natural environments...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033825/acute-stress-affects-the-expression-of-hippocampal-mu-oscillations-in-an-age-dependent-manner
#12
Samir Takillah, Jérémie Naudé, Steve Didienne, Claude Sebban, Brigitte Decros, Esther Schenker, Michael Spedding, Alexandre Mourot, Jean Mariani, Philippe Faure
Anxiolytic drugs are widely used in the elderly, a population particularly sensitive to stress. Stress, aging and anxiolytics all affect low-frequency oscillations in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) independently, but the interactions between these factors remain unclear. Here, we compared the effects of stress (elevated platform, EP) and anxiolytics (diazepam, DZP) on extracellular field potentials (EFP) in the PFC, parietal cortex and hippocampus (dorsal and ventral parts) of adult (8 months) and aged (18 months) Wistar rats...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033804/second-language-word-learning-through-repetition-and-imitation-functional-networks-as-a-function-of-learning-phase-and-language-distance
#13
Ladan Ghazi-Saidi, Ana Ines Ansaldo
Introduction and Aim: Repetition and imitation are among the oldest second language (L2) teaching approaches and are frequently used in the context of L2 learning and language therapy, despite some heavy criticism. Current neuroimaging techniques allow the neural mechanisms underlying repetition and imitation to be examined. This fMRI study examines the influence of verbal repetition and imitation on network configuration. Integration changes within and between the cognitive control and language networks were studied, in a pair of linguistically close languages (Spanish and French), and compared to our previous work on a distant language pair (Ghazi-Saidi et al...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033784/top-down-control-of-visual-attention-by-the-prefrontal-cortex-functional-specialization-and-long-range-interactions
#14
REVIEW
Sofia Paneri, Georgia G Gregoriou
The ability to select information that is relevant to current behavioral goals is the hallmark of voluntary attention and an essential part of our cognition. Attention tasks are a prime example to study at the neuronal level, how task related information can be selectively processed in the brain while irrelevant information is filtered out. Whereas, numerous studies have focused on elucidating the mechanisms of visual attention at the single neuron and population level in the visual cortices, considerably less work has been devoted to deciphering the distinct contribution of higher-order brain areas, which are known to be critical for the employment of attention...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033352/the-primate-specific-gene-tmem14b-marks-outer-radial-glia-cells-and-promotes-cortical-expansion-and-folding
#15
Jing Liu, Wensu Liu, Lu Yang, Qian Wu, Haofeng Zhang, Ai Fang, Long Li, Xiaohui Xu, Le Sun, Jun Zhang, Fuchou Tang, Xiaoqun Wang
Human brain evolution is associated with expansion and folding of the neocortex. Increased diversity in neural progenitor (NP) populations (such as basally located radial glia [RG], which reside in an enlarged outer subventricular zone [OSVZ]) likely contributes to this evolutionary expansion, although their characteristics and relative contributions are only partially understood. Through single-cell transcriptional profiling of sorted human NP subpopulations, we identified the primate-specific TMEM14B gene as a marker of basal RG...
October 10, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031547/forebrain-activation-during-social-exposure-in-wild-type-guppies
#16
María J Cabrera-Álvarez, William T Swaney, Simon M Reader
The neural mechanisms regulating social behaviour have received extensive attention in recent years, with much focus on 'complex' forms of sociality. Comparatively little research has addressed fundamental social behaviour, such as grouping, which impacts multiple determinants of fitness, such as foraging and avoiding predation. We are interested in the degree to which brain areas that regulate other forms of sociality are also involved in grouping behaviour, and so we investigated shoal-elicited activation of the brain in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)...
October 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031500/transcription-and-signaling-regulators-in-developing-neuronal-subtypes-of-mouse-and-human-enteric-nervous-system
#17
Fatima Memic, Viktoria Knoflach, Khomgrit Morarach, Rebecca Sadler, Catia Laranjeira, Jens Hjerling-Leffler, Erik Sundström, Vassilis Pachnis, Ulrika Marklund
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The enteric nervous system (ENS) regulates gastrointestinal function via different subtypes of neurons, organized into fine-tuned neural circuits. It is not clear how cell diversity is created within the embryonic ENS-information required for development of cell-based therapies and models of enteric neuropathies. We aimed to identify proteins that regulate ENS differentiation and network formation. METHODS: We generated and compared RNA expression profiles of the entire ENS, ENS progenitor cells, and non-ENS gut cells of mice, collected at embryonic days 11...
October 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030435/dissociation-of-self-motion-and-object-motion-by-linear-population-decoding-that-approximates-marginalization
#18
Ryo Sasaki, Dora E Angelaki, Gregory C DeAngelis
We use visual image motion to judge the movement of objects, as well as our own movements through the environment. Generally, image motion components caused by object motion and self-motion are confounded in the retinal image. Thus, to estimate heading, the brain would ideally marginalize out the effects of object motion (or vice-versa), but little is known about how this is accomplished neurally. Behavioral studies suggest that vestibular signals play a role in dissociating object motion and self-motion, and recent computational work suggests that a linear decoder can approximate marginalization by taking advantage of diverse multisensory representations...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028220/pediatric-brain-repair-from-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-of-the-subventricular-zone
#19
REVIEW
Yusuke Niimi, Steven W Levison
There is great interest in the regenerative potential of the neural stem cells and progenitors that populate the germinal zones of the immature brain. Studies using animal models of pediatric brain injuries have provided a clearer understanding of the responses of these progenitors to injury. In this review we have compared and contrasted the responses of the endogenous neural stem cells and progenitors of the subventricular zone in animal models of neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, neonatal stroke, congenital cardiac disease and pediatric traumatic brain injury...
October 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027522/-morphochemical-changes-in-the-substantia-nigra-cellular-structures-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
V N Salkov, R M Khudoerkov, D N Voronkov, V B Sobolev, K A Kutukova
AIM: to clarify the features of morphochemical changes in the substantia nigra cellular structures in Parkinson's disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The structural characteristics of the substantia nigra were studied microscopically and quantified using computer morphometric methods at brain autopsies of individuals with Parkinson's disease who had died from intercurrent diseases and those who had no evidence of neurological disorders in their history (a control group)...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
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