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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235190/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-the-central-extended-amygdala
#1
Rachael M Tillman, Melissa D Stockbridge, Brendon M Nacewicz, Salvatore Torrisi, Andrew S Fox, Jason F Smith, Alexander J Shackman
The central extended amygdala (EAc)-including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce)-plays a critical role in triggering fear and anxiety and is implicated in the development of a range of debilitating neuropsychiatric disorders. Although it is widely believed that these disorders reflect the coordinated activity of distributed neural circuits, the functional architecture of the EAc network and the degree to which the BST and the Ce show distinct patterns of functional connectivity is unclear...
December 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234958/the-relationship-between-putamen-sma-functional-connectivity-and-sensorimotor-abnormality-in-esrd-patients
#2
Dun Ding, Peng Li, Xue-Ying Ma, Wang-Huan Dun, Shi-Feng Yang, Shao-Hui Ma, Hong-Juan Liu, Ming Zhang
The basal ganglia (BG) are composed of several nuclei involved in neural processing associated with integration of sensory and motor information. Recent neuroimaging studies implicated its key role in control of voluntary motor function. As the sensorimotor abnormality is common among the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population, in the current study, we aimed to investigate the abnormal structure and functional connectivity patterns of BG in ESRD patients. Twenty-nine ESRD and twenty-nine age and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to compare the volume of the subsets in the BG (e...
December 12, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231812/oxytocin-signaling-in-the-medial-amygdala-is-required-for-sex-discrimination-of-social-cues
#3
Shenqin Yao, Joseph Bergan, Anne Lanjuin, Catherine Dulac
The neural control of social behaviors in rodents requires the encoding of pheromonal cues by the vomeronasal system. Here we show that the typical preference of male mice for females is eliminated in mutants lacking oxytocin, a neuropeptide modulating social behaviors in many species. Ablation of the oxytocin receptor in aromatase-expressing neurons of the medial amygdala (MeA) fully recapitulates the elimination of female preference in males. Further, single-unit recording in the MeA uncovered significant changes in the sensory representation of conspecific cues in the absence of oxytocin signaling...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230808/dopamine-drives-left-hemispheric-lateralization-of-neural-networks-during-human-speech
#4
Stefan Fuertinger, Joel C Zinn, Ashwini D Sharan, Farid Hamzei-Sichani, Kristina Simonyan
Although the concept of left-hemispheric lateralization of neural processes during speech production has been known since the times of Broca, its physiological underpinnings still remain elusive. We sought to assess the modulatory influences of a major neurotransmitter, dopamine, on hemispheric lateralization during real-life speaking using a multimodal analysis of functional MRI, intracranial EEG recordings, and large-scale neural population simulations based on diffusion-weighted MRI. We demonstrate that speech-induced phasic dopamine release into the dorsal striatum and speech motor cortex exerts direct modulation of neuronal activity in these regions and drives left-hemispheric lateralization of speech production network...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230807/a-comparative-study-of-the-neural-stem-cell-niche-in-the-adult-hypothalamus-of-human-mouse-rat-and-grey-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#5
Giuliana Pellegrino, Claire Trubert, Jérémy Terrien, Fabien Pifferi, Danièle Leroy, Anne Loyens, Martine Migaud, Marc Baroncini, Claude-Alain Maurage, Christian Fontaine, Vincent Prévot, Ariane Sharif
The adult brain contains niches of neural stem cells that continuously add new neurons to selected circuits throughout life. Two niches have been extensively studied in various mammalian species including humans, the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Recently, studies conducted mainly in rodents have identified a third neurogenic niche in the adult hypothalamus. In order to evaluate whether a neural stem cell niche also exists in the adult hypothalamus in humans, we performed multiple immunofluorescence labeling to assess the expression of a panel of neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC) markers (Sox2, nestin, vimentin, GLAST, GFAP) in the human hypothalamus and compared them with the mouse, rat and a non-human primate species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230691/beta-blocker-use-in-pregnancy-and-risk-of-specific-congenital-anomalies-a-european-case-malformed-control-study
#6
Jorieke E H Bergman, L Renée Lutke, Rijk O B Gans, Marie-Claude Addor, Ingeborg Barisic, Clara Cavero-Carbonell, Ester Garne, Miriam Gatt, Kari Klungsoyr, Nathalie Lelong, Catherine Lynch, Olatz Mokoroa, Vera Nelen, Amanda J Neville, Anna Pierini, Hanitra Randrianaivo, Anke Rissmann, David Tucker, Awi Wiesel, Helen Dolk, Maria Loane, Marian K Bakker
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of chronic hypertension is increasing in pregnant women. Beta-blockers are among the most prevalent anti-hypertensive agents used in early pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether first-trimester use of beta-blockers increases the risk of specific congenital anomalies in offspring. METHODS: A population-based case-malformed control study was conducted in 117,122 registrations of congenital anomalies from 17 European Concerted Action on Congenital Anomalies and Twins (EUROCAT) registries participating in EUROmediCAT with data for all or part of the period between 1995 and 2013...
December 11, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230520/ipsilesional-functional-recruitment-within-lower-mu-band-in-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy-an-event-related-desynchronization-study
#7
Alberto Inuggi, Michela Bassolino, Chiara Tacchino, Valentina Pippo, Valeria Bergamaschi, Claudio Campus, Valentina De Franchis, Thierry Pozzo, Paolo Moretti
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of non-progressive developmental movement disorders inducing a strong brain reorganization in primary and secondary motor areas. Nevertheless, few studies have been dedicated to quantify brain pattern changes and correlate them with motor characteristics in CP children. In this context, it is very important to identify feasible and complementary tools able to enrich the description of motor impairments by considering their neural correlates. To this aim, we recorded the electroencephalographic activity and the corresponding event-related desynchronization (ERD) of a group of mild-to-moderate affected unilateral CP children while performing unilateral reach-to-grasp movements with both their paretic and non-paretic arms...
December 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230476/is-the-role-of-external-feedback-in-auditory-skill-learning-age-dependent
#8
Yael Zaltz, Daphne Ari-Even Roth, Liat Kishon-Rabin
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of external feedback in auditory perceptual learning of school-age children as compared with that of adults. Method: Forty-eight children (7-9 years of age) and 64 adults (20-35 years of age) conducted a training session using an auditory frequency discrimination (difference limen for frequency) task, with external feedback (EF) provided for half of them. Results: Data supported the following findings: (a) Children learned the difference limen for frequency task only when EF was provided...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228974/central-nervous-system-transcriptome-of-biomphalaria-alexandrina-an-intermediate-host-for-schistosomiasis
#9
Tamer A Mansour, Mohamed R Habib, Laura C Vicente Rodríguez, Anthony Hernández Vázquez, Julián Maldonado Alers, Alfredo Ghezzi, Roger P Croll, C Titus Brown, Mark W Miller
OBJECTIVE: Globally, more than 200 million people live at risk of the neglected tropical disease schistosomiasis (or snail fever). Larval schistosomes require the presence of specific snail species that act as intermediate hosts, supporting their multiplication and transformation into forms that can infect humans. This project was designed to generate a transcriptome from the central nervous system (CNS) of Biomphalaria alexandrina, the major intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt...
December 11, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228868/solitary-fibrous-tumors-in-pediatric-patients-a-rare-and-potentially-overdiagnosed-neoplasm-confirmed-by-stat6-immunohistochemistry
#10
Serena Y Tan, Linda J Szymanski, Carlos Galliani, David Parham, Eduardo Zambrano
Pathological diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) in the pediatric population is challenging, as it occurs uncommonly in this age-group and resembles other spindle cell neoplasms. SFT contains a NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene, which can be reliably detected using STAT6 immunohistochemistry. Positive staining is highly sensitive and specific. We sought to investigate the utility of STAT6 immunohistochemistry, to show how commonly SFT was historically recognized at 3 academic pediatric institutions, to reclassify them when appropriate, and to demonstrate features of major mimics of SFT...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227993/in-vivo-zebrafish-morphogenesis-shows-cyp26b1-promotes-tendon-condensation-and-musculoskeletal-patterning-in-the-embryonic-jaw
#11
Patrick D McGurk, Mary E Swartz, Jessica W Chen, Jenna L Galloway, Johann K Eberhart
Integrated development of diverse tissues gives rise to a functional, mobile vertebrate musculoskeletal system. However, the genetics and cellular interactions that drive the integration of muscle, tendon, and skeleton are poorly understood. In the vertebrate head, neural crest cells, from which cranial tendons derive, pattern developing muscles just as tendons have been shown to in limb and trunk tissue, yet the mechanisms of this patterning are unknown. From a forward genetic screen, we determined that cyp26b1 is critical for musculoskeletal integration in the ventral pharyngeal arches, particularly in the mandibulohyoid junction where first and second arch muscles interconnect...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227227/reward-system-activation-in-response-to-alcohol-advertisements-predicts-college-drinking
#12
Andrea L Courtney, Kristina M Rapuano, James D Sargent, Todd F Heatherton, William M Kelley
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we assess whether activation of the brain's reward system in response to alcohol advertisements is associated with college drinking. Previous research has established a relationship between exposure to alcohol marketing and underage drinking. Within other appetitive domains, the relationship between cue exposure and behavioral enactment is known to rely on activation of the brain's reward system. However, the relationship between neural activation to alcohol advertisements and alcohol consumption has not been studied in a nondisordered population...
January 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224583/nutrients-for-neurocognition-in-health-and-disease-measures-methodologies-and-mechanisms
#13
Andrew Scholey
Effective pharmaceutical treatments for age-related cognitive decline have proved elusive. There is, however, compelling evidence that nutritional status and supplementation could play crucial roles in modifying the expression of cognitive change through the lifespan. Subjective memory impairment and mild cognitive impairment can be harbingers of dementia but this is by no means inevitable. Neurocognitive change is influenced by a variety of processes, many of which are involved in other aspects of systemic health, including cardiovascular function...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222729/coding-of-time-dependent-stimuli-in-homogeneous-and-heterogeneous-neural-populations
#14
Manuel Beiran, Alexandra Kruscha, Jan Benda, Benjamin Lindner
We compare the information transmission of a time-dependent signal by two types of uncoupled neuron populations that differ in their sources of variability: i) a homogeneous population whose units receive independent noise and ii) a deterministic heterogeneous population, where each unit exhibits a different baseline firing rate ('disorder'). Our criterion for making both sources of variability quantitatively comparable is that the interspike-interval distributions are identical for both systems. Numerical simulations using leaky integrate-and-fire neurons unveil that a non-zero amount of both noise or disorder maximizes the encoding efficiency of the homogeneous and heterogeneous system, respectively, as a particular case of suprathreshold stochastic resonance...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222469/hippocampal-oxytocin-receptors-are-necessary-for-discrimination-of-social-stimuli
#15
Tara Raam, Kathleen M McAvoy, Antoine Besnard, Alexa Veenema, Amar Sahay
Oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) signaling in neural circuits mediating discrimination of social stimuli and affiliation or avoidance behavior is thought to guide social recognition. Remarkably, the physiological functions of Oxtrs in the hippocampus are not known. Here we demonstrate using genetic and pharmacological approaches that Oxtrs in the anterior dentate gyrus (aDG) and anterior CA2/CA3 (aCA2/CA3) of mice are necessary for discrimination of social, but not non-social, stimuli. Further, Oxtrs in aCA2/CA3 neurons recruit a population-based coding mechanism to mediate social stimuli discrimination...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221791/online-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-prefrontal-metabolites-in-gambling-disorder
#16
Maya Dickler, Christophe Lenglos, Emmanuelle Renauld, Francine Ferland, Richard A Edden, Jean Leblond, Shirley Fecteau
Gambling disorder is characterized by persistent maladaptive gambling behaviors and is now considered among substance-related and addictive disorders. There is still unmet therapeutic need for these clinical populations, however recent advances indicate that interventions targeting the Glutamatergic/GABAergic system hold promise in reducing symptoms in substance-related and addictive disorders, including gambling disorder. There is some data indicating that transcranial direct current stimulation may hold clinical benefits in substance use disorders and modulate levels of brain metabolites including glutamate and GABA...
December 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220864/the-nature-of-catecholamine-containing-neurons-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-in-relationship-with-organogenesis-normal-human-anatomy-and-neurodegeneration
#17
G Natale, L Ryskalin, C L Busceti, F Biagioni, F Fornai
The gastrointestinal tract is provided with extrinsic and intrinsic innervation. The extrinsic innervation includes the classic vagal parasympathetic and sympathetic components, with afferent sensitive and efferent secretomotor fibers. The intrinsic innervations is represented by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is recognized as a complex neural network controlling a variety of cell populations, including smooth muscle cells, mucosal secretory cells, endocrine cells, microvasculature, immune and inflammatory cells...
September 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220309/quantifying-strength-of-chaos-in-the-population-firing-rate-of-neurons
#18
Takashi Kanamaru
In this study, I considered quantifying the strength of chaos in the population firing rate of a pulse-coupled neural network. In particular, I considered the dynamics where the population firing rate is chaotic and the firing of each neuron is stochastic. I calculated a time histogram of firings to show the variation in the population firing rate over time. To smooth this histogram, I used Bayesian adaptive regression splines and a gaussian filter. The nonlinear prediction method, based on reconstruction, was applied to a sequence of interpeak intervals in the smoothed time histogram of firings...
December 8, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217999/prospects-for-modeling-abnormal-neuronal-function-in-schizophrenia-using-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#19
REVIEW
Iya Prytkova, Kristen J Brennand
Excitatory dopaminergic neurons, inhibitory GABAergic neurons, microglia, and oligodendrocytes have all been implicated in schizophrenia (SZ) network pathology. Still, SZ has been a difficult disorder to study, not only because of the limitations of animal models in capturing the complexity of the human mind, but also because it is greatly polygenic, with high rates of variability across the population. The advent of patient-derived pluripotent stem cells and induced neural and glial cultures has brought hope for modeling the molecular dysfunction underlying SZ pathology in a patient-specific manner...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217752/mapping-the-distribution-of-stem-progenitor-cells-across-the-middle-ear-during-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#20
Abigail S Tucker, Carlene J Dyer, Juan M Fons Romero, Tathyane H N Teshima, Jennifer C Fuchs, Hannah Thompson
The middle ear epithelium is derived from neural crest and endoderm, which line distinct regions of the middle ear cavity. Here we investigate the distribution of putative stem cell markers in the middle ear combined with an analysis of the location of label retaining cells (LRCs) to create a map of the middle ear mucosa. We show that proliferating cells and LRCs were associated with specific regions of the ear epithelium, concentrated in the hypotympanum at the base of the auditory bulla and around the ear drum...
December 7, 2017: Development
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