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neural population

Arnaud Leleu, Milena Dzhelyova, Bruno Rossion, Renaud Brochard, Karine Durand, Benoist Schaal, Jean-Yves Baudouin
Efficient decoding of even brief and slight intensity facial expression changes is important for social interactions. However, robust evidence for the human brain ability to automatically detect brief and subtle changes of facial expression remains limited. Here we built on a recently developed paradigm in human electrophysiology with full-blown expressions (Dzhelyova et al., 2017), to isolate and quantify a neural marker for the detection of brief and subtle changes of facial expression. Scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 18 participants during stimulation of a neutral face changing randomly in size at a rapid rate of 6 Hz...
June 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Marta Stepien, Andrei Manoliu, Roman Kubli, Karoline Schneider, Philippe N Tobler, Erich Seifritz, Marcus Herdener, Stefan Kaiser, Matthias Kirschner
BACKGROUND: Negative symptoms are a core feature of schizophrenia and also found in healthy individuals in subclinical forms. According to the current literature the two negative symptom domains, apathy and diminished expression may have different underlying neural mechanisms. Previous observations suggest that striatal dysfunction is associated with apathy in schizophrenia. However, it is unclear whether apathy is specifically related to ventral or dorsal striatal alterations. Here, we investigated striatal dysfunction during reward anticipation in patients with schizophrenia and a non-clinical population, to determine whether it is associated with apathy...
2018: PloS One
Laura A Zanella-Calzada, Carlos E Galván-Tejada, Nubia M Chávez-Lamas, Jesús Rivas-Gutierrez, Rafael Magallanes-Quintanar, Jose M Celaya-Padilla, Jorge I Galván-Tejada, Hamurabi Gamboa-Rosales
Oral health represents an essential component in the quality of life of people, being a determinant factor in general health since it may affect the risk of suffering other conditions, such as chronic diseases. Oral diseases have become one of the main public health problems, where dental caries is the condition that most affects oral health worldwide, occurring in about 90% of the global population. This condition has been considered a challenge because of its high prevalence, besides being a chronic but preventable disease which can be caused depending on the consumption of certain nutritional elements interacting simultaneously with different factors, such as socioeconomic factors...
June 18, 2018: Bioengineering
Ming-Chou Ho, Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Seh-Huang Chao, Ching-Tzu Fang, Yi-Chun Liu, Jun-Cheng Weng
Obesity is one of the most challenging problems in human health and is recognized as an important risk factor for many chronic diseases. It remains unclear how the neural systems (e.g., the mesolimbic "reward" and the prefrontal "control" neural systems) are correlated with patients' executive function (EF), conceptualized as the integration of "cool" EF and "hot" EF. "Cool" EF refers to relatively abstract, non-affective operations such as inhibitory control and mental flexibility...
2018: PeerJ
Annamaria Lia, Micaela Zonta, Linda Maria Requie, Giorgio Carmignoto
Brain network activity derives from the concerted action of different cell populations. Together with interneurons, astrocytes play fundamental roles in shaping the inhibition in brain circuitries and modulating neuronal transmission. In this review, we summarize past and recent findings that reveal in neural networks the importance of the interaction between GABAergic signaling and astrocytes and discuss its physiological and pathological relevance.
June 14, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Laila R Bekhet, Yonghui Wu, Ningtao Wang, Xin Geng, Wenjin Jim Zheng, Fei Wang, Hulin Wu, Hua Xu, Degui Zhi
Recently, recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have been applied in predicting disease onset risks with Electronic Health Record (EHR) data. While these models demonstrated promising results on relatively small data sets, the generalizability and transferability of those models and its applicability to different patient populations across hospitals have not been evaluated. In this study, we evaluated an RNN model, RETAIN, over Cerner Health Facts® EMR data, for heart failure onset risk prediction. Our data set included over 150,000 heart failure patients and over 1,000,000 controls from nearly 400 hospitals...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Wladimir Wertelecki, Lyubov Yevtushok, Illia Kuznietsov, Oleksandr Komov, Serhii Lapchenko, Diana Akhmedzanova, Lyubov Ostapchuk
Pregnant women residing in areas impacted by the Chornobyl ionizing radiation of the Rivne Province in Ukraine have persistent higher levels of incorporated cesium-137. In these areas the neural tube defects and microcephaly rates are significantly higher than in areas with lower maternal cesium-137 incorporated levels. In two Rivne counties with populations proximal to nuclear power plants the rates of neural tube defects and microcephaly are the highest in the province. The neural tube defects rates in Rivne are persistently among the highest in Europe...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Jidi Gao, Erika Chow, Aishatu Aloma, Payal Gupta
Primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a high-grade malignant tumor originating from the neural crest and neuroectoderm, which can be subdivided into central and peripheral categories. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor is thought to be identical to Ewing's sarcoma, and falls under a broader category of Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors. Very rarely, it may present without osseous involvement, known as extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma. Here we present a case of a 38-year-old woman, who presented with several-month history of a slow-growing chest wall mass, initially thought to be a breast mass...
April 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Bor Luen Tang
The mechanism of intercellular transmission of pathological agents in neurodegenerative diseases has received much recent attention. Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a monogenic mutation in the gene encoding Huntingtin (HTT). Mutant HTT (mHTT) harbors a CAG repeat extension which encodes an abnormally long polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat at HTT's N-terminus. Neuronal pathology in HD is largely due to the toxic gain-of-function by mHTT and its proteolytic products, which forms both nuclear and cytoplasmic aggregates that perturb nuclear gene transcription, RNA splicing and transport as well cellular membrane dynamics...
June 14, 2018: Cells
Chunhong Zhang, Junsheng Huo, Jing Sun, Jian Huang, Wei Piao, Jiyong Yin
OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between maternal MTHFR gene polymorphism( C677T) and neural tube defects in offspring through Meta-analysis in China. METHODS: CNKI, Pub Med, Web of Science, Chinese Wan Fang Data databases, CBM, VIP for published articles were searched from the time of Database establishment to July 5 th 2017. The search strategy was based on combinations of the English and/or Chinese keywords, 'MTHFR'and 'folate pathway'and 'polymorphism'or 'SNP'and'NTDs or Neural Tube Defects'...
March 2018: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Rosario Maugeri, Luigi Basile, Carlo Gulì, Aurelia Banco, Giovanna Giordano, Antonella Giugno, Francesca Graziano, Roberto Giuseppe Giammalva, Domenico Gerardo Iacopino
BACKGROUND:  Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a narrowing of the spinal canal due to spinal degeneration, and its main clinical symptom is neurogenic claudication. Surgical treatment is pursued for patients who do not improve with conservative care. Patients with symptomatic LSS who also have significant medical comorbidities, although clearly in need of intervention, are unattractive candidates for traditional open lumbar decompressive procedures. Thus it is important to explore minimally invasive surgical techniques to treat select patients with LSS...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
Benjamin W Lindsey, Zachary J Hall, Aurélie Heuzé, Jean-Stéphane Joly, Vincent Tropepe, Jan Kaslin
Neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) are the primary source of new neurons in the brain and serve critical roles in tissue homeostasis and plasticity throughout life. Within the vertebrate brain, NSPCs are located within distinct neurogenic niches differing in their location, cellular composition, and proliferative behaviour. Heterogeneity in the NSPC population is hypothesized to reflect varying capacities for neurogenesis, plasticity and repair between different neurogenic zones. Since the discovery of adult neurogenesis, studies have predominantly focused on the behaviour and biological significance of adult NSPCs (aNSPCs) in rodents...
June 11, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
K V Adams, C M Morshead
The brain was long considered an organ that underwent very little change after development. It is now well established that the mammalian central nervous system contains neural stem cells that generate progeny that are capable of making new neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes throughout life. The field has advanced rapidly as it strives to understand the basic biology of these precursor cells, and explore their potential to promote brain repair. The purpose of this review is to present current knowledge about the diversity of neural stem cells in vitro and in vivo, and highlight distinctions between neural stem cell populations, throughout development, and within the niche...
June 11, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
B Sadoul, S Alfonso, E Bessa, A Bouchareb, E Blondeau-Bidet, P Clair, B Chatain, M L Bégout, B Geffroy
Stress enhances or inhibits neurogenesis in mammals and some fish species. The link between the two processes is still unclear. Most studies have been performed in very specific stressful or altered environments. Despite the known inter-individual divergence in coping abilities within populations, the relationship between the stress axis and neurogenesis has never been addressed in unstressed individuals. Here we correlate brain expression of the pcna (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and neurod1 (neurogenic differentiation factor 1) genes, two markers of neurogenesis, with transcripts of cortisol receptors in three fish species living in very distinct environments...
June 11, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Laure Verrier, Lindsay Davidson, Marek Gierliński, Alwyn Dady, Kate G Storey
Robust protocols for directed differentiation of human pluripotent cells are required to determine whether mechanisms operating in model organisms are relevant to our own development. Recent work in vertebrate embryos has identified neuromesodermal progenitors as a bipotent cell population that contributes to paraxial mesoderm and spinal cord. However, precise protocols for in vitro differentiation of human spinal cord progenitors are lacking. Informed by signalling in amniote embryos, we show here that transient dual-SMAD inhibition, together with retinoic acid (dSMADi-RA), provides rapid and reproducible induction of human spinal cord progenitors from neuromesodermal progenitor-like cells...
June 13, 2018: Development
Richard Piet, Bruna Kalil, Tim McLennan, Robert Porteous, Katja Czieselsky, Allan E Herbison
A population of kisspeptin-GABA co-expressing neurons located in the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V) is believed to activate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons to generate the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge triggering ovulation. Selective optogenetic activation of RP3V kisspeptin (RP3VKISS ) neurons in female mice for >30s and ≥10Hz in either a continuous or bursting mode was found to reliably generate a delayed and long-lasting activation of GnRH neuron firing in brain slices...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jia Chen, Quan Liu, Guo-Hua Liu, Wen-Bin Zheng, Sung-Jong Hong, Hiromu Sugiyama, Xing-Quan Zhu, Hany M Elsheikha
BACKGROUND: Toxocariasis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis that afflicts millions of the pediatric and adolescent populations worldwide, especially in impoverished communities. This disease is caused by infection with the larvae of Toxocara canis and T. cati, the most ubiquitous intestinal nematode parasite in dogs and cats, respectively. In this article, recent advances in the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and pharmacotherapies that have been used in the treatment of toxocariasis are reviewed...
June 13, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Alessandra Pisciotta, Laura Bertoni, Massimo Riccio, Jonathan Mapelli, Albertino Bigiani, Marcella La Noce, Monia Orciani, Anto de Pol, Gianluca Carnevale
Human dental pulp is considered an interesting source of adult stem cells, due to the low-invasive isolation procedures, high content of stem cells and its peculiar embryological origin from neural crest. Based on our previous findings, a dental pulp stem cells sub-population, enriched for the expression of STRO-1, c-Kit, and CD34, showed a higher neural commitment. However, their biological properties were compromised when cells were cultured in adherent standard conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of three dimensional floating spheres to preserve embryological and biological properties of this sub-population...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Liujing Xing, Teni Anbarchian, Jonathan M Tsai, Giles W Plant, Roeland Nusse
In the adult mouse spinal cord, the ependymal cell population that surrounds the central canal is thought to be a promising source of quiescent stem cells to treat spinal cord injury. Relatively little is known about the cellular origin of ependymal cells during spinal cord development, or the molecular mechanisms that regulate ependymal cells during adult homeostasis. Using genetic lineage tracing based on the Wnt target gene Axin2 , we have characterized Wnt-responsive cells during spinal cord development...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Albert Goldbeter
The goal of this review article is to assess how relevant is the concept of dissipative structure for understanding the dynamical bases of non-equilibrium self-organization in biological systems, and to see where it has been applied in the five decades since it was initially proposed by Ilya Prigogine. Dissipative structures can be classified into four types, which will be considered, in turn, and illustrated by biological examples: (i) multistability, in the form of bistability and tristability, which involve the coexistence of two or three stable steady states, or in the form of birhythmicity, which involves the coexistence between two stable rhythms; (ii) temporal dissipative structures in the form of sustained oscillations, illustrated by biological rhythms; (iii) spatial dissipative structures, known as Turing patterns; and (iv) spatio-temporal structures in the form of propagating waves...
July 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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