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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679544/1-f-neural-noise-and-electrophysiological-indices-of-contextual-prediction-in-aging
#1
S Dave, T A Brothers, T Y Swaab
Prediction of upcoming words during reading has been suggested to enhance the efficiency of discourse processing. Emerging models have postulated that predictive mechanisms require synchronous firing of neural networks, but to date, this relationship has been investigated primarily through oscillatory activity in narrow frequency bands. A recently-developed measure proposed to reflect broadband neural activity - and thereby synchronous neuronal firing - is 1/f neural noise extracted from EEG spectral power...
April 18, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675839/neural-crest-delamination-and-migration-looking-forward-to-the-next-150-years
#2
REVIEW
Nadège Gouignard, Cyril Andrieu, Eric Theveneau
Neural crest (NC) cells were described for the first time in 1868 by Wilhelm His. Since then, this amazing population of migratory stem cells has been intensively studied. It took a century to fully unravel their incredible abilities to contribute to nearly every organ of the body. Yet, our understanding of the cell and molecular mechanisms controlling their migration is far from complete. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on epithelial-mesenchymal transition and collective behavior of NC cells and propose further stops at which the NC train might be calling in the near future...
April 20, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675332/50-hz-volumetric-functional-imaging-with-continuously-adjustable-depth-of-focus
#3
Rongwen Lu, Masashi Tanimoto, Minoru Koyama, Na Ji
Understanding how neural circuits control behavior requires monitoring a large population of neurons with high spatial resolution and volume rate. Here we report an axicon-based Bessel beam module with continuously adjustable depth of focus (CADoF), that turns frame rate into volume rate by extending the excitation focus in the axial direction while maintaining high lateral resolutions. Cost-effective and compact, this CADoF Bessel module can be easily integrated into existing two-photon fluorescence microscopes...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675301/deep-learning-approach-for-the-detection-and-quantification-of-intraretinal-cystoid-fluid-in-multivendor-optical-coherence-tomography
#4
Freerk G Venhuizen, Bram van Ginneken, Bart Liefers, Freekje van Asten, Vivian Schreur, Sascha Fauser, Carel Hoyng, Thomas Theelen, Clara I Sánchez
We developed a deep learning algorithm for the automatic segmentation and quantification of intraretinal cystoid fluid (IRC) in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes independent of the device used for acquisition. A cascade of neural networks was introduced to include prior information on the retinal anatomy, boosting performance significantly. The proposed algorithm approached human performance reaching an overall Dice coefficient of 0.754 ± 0.136 and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675297/minimally-invasive-multimode-optical-fiber-microendoscope-for-deep-brain-fluorescence-imaging
#5
Shay Ohayon, Antonio Caravaca-Aguirre, Rafael Piestun, James J DiCarlo
A major open challenge in neuroscience is the ability to measure and perturb neural activity in vivo from well defined neural sub-populations at cellular resolution anywhere in the brain. However, limitations posed by scattering and absorption prohibit non-invasive multi-photon approaches for deep (>2mm) structures, while gradient refractive index (GRIN) endoscopes are relatively thick and can cause significant damage upon insertion. Here, we present a novel micro-endoscope design to image neural activity at arbitrary depths via an ultra-thin multi-mode optical fiber (MMF) probe that has 5-10X thinner diameter than commercially available micro-endoscopes...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674960/emergence-of-relaxation-oscillations-in-neurons-interacting-with-non-stationary-ambient-gaba
#6
Denis A Adamchik, Valery V Matrosov, Victor B Kazantsev
Dynamics of a homogeneous neural population interacting with active extracellular medium were considered. The corresponding mathematical model was tuned specifically to describe the behavior of interneurons with tonic GABA conductance under the action of non-stationary ambient GABA. The feedback provided by the GABA mediated transmembrane current enriched the repertoire of population activity by enabling the oscillatory behavior. This behavior appeared in the form of relaxation oscillations which can be considered as a specific type of brainwaves...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674089/biophysical-modeling-of-neural-plasticity-induced-by-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#7
REVIEW
Marcus T Wilson, Ben D Fulcher, Park K Fung, P A Robinson, Alex Fornito, Nigel C Rogasch
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used noninvasive brain stimulation method capable of inducing plastic reorganisation of cortical circuits in humans. Changes in neural activity following TMS are often attributed to synaptic plasticity via process of long-term potentiation and depression (LTP/LTD). However, the precise way in which synaptic processes such as LTP/LTD modulate the activity of large populations of neurons, as stimulated en masse by TMS, are unclear. The recent development of biophysical models, which incorporate the physiological properties of TMS-induced plasticity mathematically, provide an excellent framework for reconciling synaptic and macroscopic plasticity...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673567/electric-acoustic-forward-masking-in-cochlear-implant-users-with-ipsilateral-residual-hearing
#8
Marina Imsiecke, Benjamin Krüger, Andreas Büchner, Thomas Lenarz, Waldo Nogueira
In order to investigate the temporal mechanisms of the auditory system, psychophysical forward masking experiments were conducted in cochlear implant users who had preserved acoustic hearing in the ipsilateral ear. This unique electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) population allowed the measurement of threshold recovery functions for acoustic or electric probes in the presence of electric or acoustic maskers, respectively. In the electric masking experiment, the forward masked threshold elevation of acoustic probes was measured as a function of the time interval after the offset of the electric masker, i...
April 9, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672678/aberrant-occipital-dynamics-differentiate-hiv-infected-patients-with-and-without-cognitive-impairment
#9
Alex I Wiesman, Jennifer O'Neill, Mackenzie S Mills, Kevin R Robertson, Howard S Fox, Susan Swindells, Tony W Wilson
Combination antiretroviral therapies have revolutionized the treatment of HIV infection, and many patients now enjoy a lifespan equal to that of the general population. However, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain a major health concern, with between 30% and 70% of all HIV-infected patients developing cognitive impairments during their life time. One important feature of HAND is visuo-perceptual deficits, but the systems-level neural dynamics underlying these impairments are poorly understood...
April 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670623/human-immune-system-mice-for-the-study-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection-of-the-central-nervous-system
#10
REVIEW
Teresa H Evering, Moriya Tsuji
Immunodeficient mice transplanted with human cell populations or tissues, also known as human immune system (HIS) mice, have emerged as an important and versatile tool for the in vivo study of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis, treatment, and persistence in various biological compartments. Recent work in HIS mice has demonstrated their ability to recapitulate critical aspects of human immune responses to HIV-1 infection, and such studies have informed our knowledge of HIV-1 persistence and latency in the context of combination antiretroviral therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670573/gait-asymmetry-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease-is-linked-to-reduced-integrity-of-callosal-sensorimotor-regions
#11
Brett W Fling, Carolin Curtze, Fay B Horak
Background: Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) often manifest significant temporal and spatial asymmetries of the lower extremities during gait, which significantly contribute to mobility impairments. While the neural mechanisms underlying mobility asymmetries within this population remain poorly understood, recent evidence points to altered microstructural integrity of white matter fiber tracts within the corpus callosum as potentially playing a substantial role. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to quantify spatial and temporal gait asymmetries as well as transcallosal microstructural integrity of white matter fiber tracts connecting the primary and secondary sensorimotor cortices in people with PD and age-matched control participants...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670562/a-non-linear-predictive-model-of-borderline-personality-disorder-based-on-multilayer-perceptron
#12
Nelson M Maldonato, Raffaele Sperandeo, Enrico Moretto, Silvia Dell'Orco
Borderline Personality Disorder is a serious mental disease, classified in Cluster B of DSM IV-TR personality disorders. People with this syndrome presents an anamnesis of traumatic experiences and shows dissociative symptoms. Since not all subjects who have been victims of trauma develop a Borderline Personality Disorder, the emergence of this serious disease seems to have the fragility of character as a predisposing condition. Infect, numerous studies show that subjects positive for diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder had scores extremely high or extremely low to some temperamental dimensions (harm Avoidance and reward dependence) and character dimensions (cooperativeness and self directedness)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670548/neural-correlates-of-semantic-inhibition-in-relation-to-hypomanic-traits-an-fmri-study
#13
Delphine Raucher-Chéné, Sarah Terrien, Fabien Gierski, Alexandre Obert, Stéphanie Caillies, Chrystel Besche-Richard, Arthur Kaladjian
Objectives: Language modifications are a core feature of mania, but little is known about the semantic mechanisms behind these disturbances. The aim of the present study was thus to identify deficits in semantic inhibition and their respective neural activation patterns in a sample of individuals assessed for hypomanic personality traits. Methods: Thirty-six young adults with no neurological or psychiatric diagnoses were assessed for hypomanic personality traits with the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) and underwent an fMRI task of semantic ambiguity resolution...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670101/neural-like-computing-with-populations-of-superparamagnetic-basis-functions
#14
Alice Mizrahi, Tifenn Hirtzlin, Akio Fukushima, Hitoshi Kubota, Shinji Yuasa, Julie Grollier, Damien Querlioz
In neuroscience, population coding theory demonstrates that neural assemblies can achieve fault-tolerant information processing. Mapped to nanoelectronics, this strategy could allow for reliable computing with scaled-down, noisy, imperfect devices. Doing so requires that the population components form a set of basis functions in terms of their response functions to inputs, offering a physical substrate for computing. Such a population can be implemented with CMOS technology, but the corresponding circuits have high area or energy requirements...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669275/zika-virus-can-strongly-infect-and-disrupt-secondary-organizers-in-the-ventricular-zone-of-the-embryonic-chicken-brain
#15
Ankita Thawani, Devika Sirohi, Richard J Kuhn, Donna M Fekete
Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with severe neurodevelopmental impairments in human fetuses, including microencephaly. Previous reports examining neural progenitor tropism of ZIKV in organoid and animal models did not address whether the virus infects all neural progenitors uniformly. To explore this, ZIKV was injected into the neural tube of 2-day-old chicken embryos, resulting in nonuniform periventricular infection 3 days later. Recurrent foci of intense infection were present at specific signaling centers that influence neuroepithelial patterning at a distance through secretion of morphogens...
April 17, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668846/movement-decomposition-in-the-primary-motor-cortex
#16
Naama Kadmon Harpaz, David Ungarish, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos, Tamar Flash
A complex action can be described as the composition of a set of elementary movements. While both kinematic and dynamic elements have been proposed to compose complex actions, the structure of movement decomposition and its neural representation remain unknown. Here, we examined movement decomposition by modeling the temporal dynamics of neural populations in the primary motor cortex of macaque monkeys performing forelimb reaching movements. Using a hidden Markov model, we found that global transitions in the neural population activity are associated with a consistent segmentation of the behavioral output into acceleration and deceleration epochs with directional selectivity...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666262/spatial-and-temporal-heterogeneity-of-neural-responses-in-human-posteromedial-cortex
#17
Amy L Daitch, Josef Parvizi
Neuroimaging evidence supports a role of the default mode network (DMN) in spontaneous thought and goal-driven internally oriented processes, such as recalling an autobiographical event, and has demonstrated its deactivation during focused, externally oriented attention. Recent work suggests that the DMN is not a homogeneous network but rather is composed of at least several subnetworks, which are engaged in distinct functions; however, it is still unclear if these different functions rely on the same neuronal populations...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665553/development-of-microfluidic-impedance-cytometry-enabling-the-quantification-of-specific-membrane-capacitance-and-cytoplasm-conductivity-from-100-000-single-cells
#18
Yang Zhao, Ke Wang, Deyong Chen, Beiyuan Fan, Ying Xu, Yifei Ye, Junbo Wang, Jian Chen, Chengjun Huang
This paper presents a new microfluidic impedance cytometry with crossing constriction microchannels, enabling the characterization of cellular electrical markers (e.g., specific membrane capacitance (Csm ) and cytoplasm conductivity (σcy )) in large cell populations (~ 100,000 cells) at a rate greater than 100 cells/s. Single cells were aspirated continuously through the major constriction channel with a proper sealing of the side constriction channel. An equivalent circuit model was developed and the measured impedance values were translated to Csm and σcy ...
April 7, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665540/information-theoretic-decomposition-of-embodied-and-situated-systems
#19
Federico Da Rold
The embodied and situated view of cognition stresses the importance of real-time and nonlinear bodily interaction with the environment for developing concepts and structuring knowledge. In this article, populations of robots controlled by an artificial neural network learn a wall-following task through artificial evolution. At the end of the evolutionary process, time series are recorded from perceptual and motor neurons of selected robots. Information-theoretic measures are estimated on pairings of variables to unveil nonlinear interactions that structure the agent-environment system...
March 27, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665106/conditional-deletion-of-neurog1-in-the-cerebellum-of-postnatal-mice-delays-inhibitory-interneuron-maturation
#20
Edwin A Obana, Qiong Zhou, Orion Furmanski, Martin L Doughty
The transcriptional programs that drive the generation of diverse GABAergic neuron populations from their common progenitor pools in the developing cerebellum remain unclear. Neurog1 is a pro-neural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in GABAergic progenitor cells in the ventricular zone (VZ) of embryos and subsequently in the presumptive white matter (pWM) tracts of developing postnatal mice. Genetic inducible fate-mapping labels Purkinje cells and all inhibitory interneuron cell types of the cerebellar cortex...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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