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Taurine AND Diabetes

Jianyin Long, Shawn S Badal, Zengchun Ye, Yin Wang, Bernard A Ayanga, Daniel L Galvan, Nathanael H Green, Benny H Chang, Paul A Overbeek, Farhad R Danesh
The regulatory roles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in transcriptional coactivators are still largely unknown. Here, we have shown that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator α (PGC-1α, encoded by Ppargc1a) is functionally regulated by the lncRNA taurine-upregulated gene 1 (Tug1). Further, we have described a role for Tug1 in the regulation of mitochondrial function in podocytes. Using a murine model of diabetic nephropathy (DN), we performed an unbiased RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of kidney glomeruli and identified Tug1 as a differentially expressed lncRNA in the diabetic milieu...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Szu Yuan Li, Katalin Susztak
An increasing amount of evidence suggests that metabolic alterations play a key role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) pathogenesis. In this issue of the JCI, Long et al. report that the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) taurine-upregulated 1 (Tug1) contributes to CKD development. The authors show that Tug1 regulates mitochondrial function in podocytes by epigenetic targeting of expression of the transcription factor PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α, encoded by Ppargc1a). Transgenic overexpression of Tug1 specifically in podocytes ameliorated diabetes-induced CKD in mice...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Evelien P J G Neis, S Sabrkhany, I Hundscheid, D Schellekens, K Lenaerts, S W Olde Damink, E E Blaak, C H C Dejong, Sander S Rensen
Plasma levels of several amino acids are correlated with metabolic dysregulation in obesity and type 2 diabetes. To increase our understanding of human amino-acid metabolism, we aimed to determine splanchnic interorgan amino-acid handling. Twenty patients planned to undergo a pylorus preserving pancreatico-duodenectomy were included in this study. Blood was sampled from the portal vein, hepatic vein, superior mesenteric vein, inferior mesenteric vein, splenic vein, renal vein, and the radial artery during surgery...
October 6, 2016: Amino Acids
Chang Chen, Bingying Hu, Tongzhi Wu, Yang Zhang, Yong Xu, Yulin Feng, Hongliang Jiang
This study aimed to obtain information on bile acid profiles in diabetic (db/db) mice and their wild type (wt) littermates for the understanding of pathogenesis and discovery of potential biomarkers of type 2 diabetes. Analytical methods based on protein precipitation or solid-phase extraction together with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were developed for the determination of 25 bile acids in plasma, urine and feces samples collected from db/db and wt mice. GLP-1 concentration and hepatic genes related to bile acid synthesis were also investigated...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Muhammad Tayyab Akhtar, Mohamad Syakir Bin Mohd Sarib, Intan Safinar Ismail, Faridah Abas, Amin Ismail, Nordin Hj Lajis, Khozirah Shaari
Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM). Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM). Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Francine Luciano Rahmeier, Lisiane Silveira Zavalhia, Lucas Silva Tortorelli, Fernanda Huf, Luiza Paul Géa, Rosalva Thereza Meurer, Aryadne Cardoso Machado, Rosane Gomez, Marilda da Cruz Fernandes
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been studied recently as a major cause of cognitive deficits, memory and neurodegenerative damage. Taurine and enriched environment have stood out for presenting neuroprotective and stimulating effects that deserve further study. In this paper, we examined the effects of taurine and enriched environment in the context of diabetes, evaluating effects on behaviour, memory, death and cellular activity. Eighty-eight Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups (E=enriched environment; C=standard housing)...
September 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Yan Zheng, Uta Ceglarek, Tao Huang, Tiange Wang, Yoriko Heianza, Wenjie Ma, George A Bray, Joachim Thiery, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
CONTEXT: Taurine metabolism disturbance is closely linked to obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Previous evidence suggested that the preventative effects of taurine on diabetes might be through regulating the expression levels of diabetes-related genes. OBJECTIVE: We estimated whether blood taurine levels modified the overall genetic susceptibility to diabetes on improvement of insulin sensitivity in a randomized dietary trial. DESIGN AND SETTING: We genotyped 31 diabetes-associated variants to calculate a genetic risk score (GRS) and measured plasma taurine levels and glycemic traits among participants from the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) trial...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Amany Elshorbagy, Fredrik Jernerén, Marianne Basta, Caroline Basta, Cheryl Turner, Maram Khaled, Helga Refsum
PURPOSE: To explore whether changes in dietary protein sources can lower plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), aromatic amino acids and sulfur amino acids (SAAs) that are often elevated in the obese, insulin-resistant state and in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Thirty-six subjects (mean age 31 ± 2 years) underwent a voluntary abstinence from meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products for 6 weeks, while enriching the diet with fish, in fulfillment of a religious fast...
June 11, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Sanaa M Abd El-Twab, Hanaa M Mohamed, Ayman M Mahmoud
Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with impairment of testicular function. The current study aimed to investigate the protective effects and the possible mechanisms of taurine and pioglitazone against diabetes-induced testicular dysfunction in rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection. Both normal and diabetic rats received taurine (100 mg/kg) or pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) orally and daily for 6 weeks. Diabetic rats showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in glycosylated hemoglobin, glucose, homeostasis model of insulin resistance, and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
June 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Yajun Ruan, Mingchao Li, Tao Wang, Jun Yang, Ke Rao, Shaogang Wang, Weiming Yang, Jihong Liu, Zhangqun Ye
INTRODUCTION: For patients with diabetes, erectile dysfunction (ED) is common and greatly affects quality of life. However, these patients often exhibit a poor response to first-line oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. AIM: To investigate whether taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, affects diabetic ED (DED). METHODS: Type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced in male rats by using streptozotocin. After 12 weeks, an apomorphine test was conducted to confirm DED...
May 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Soo-Kyoung Choi, Mihwa Lim, Soo-In Yeon, Young-Ho Lee
What is the central question of this study? Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been reported to be involved in type 2 diabetes; however, the role of exacerbated ER stress in vascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetes remains unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? The main findings of this study are that ER stress is increased in the coronary arteries in type 2 diabetes, and inhibition of ER stress using taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid improves vascular function, which is associated with normalization of the myogenic response and endothelium-dependent relaxation...
June 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Chun-Fei Wang, Jia-Rui Yuan, Dong Qin, Jun-Fei Gu, Bing-Jie Zhao, Li Zhang, Di Zhao, Juan Chen, Xue-Feng Hou, Nan Yang, Wei-Quan Bu, Jing Wang, Chao Li, Gang Tian, Zi-Bo Dong, Liang Feng, Xiao-Bin Jia
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), one of the main ingredients from bear gall which hold "Clearing heat and detoxification, Removing liver fire for improving eyesight" functions, is formed by the conjugation of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) with taurine. However, the limited information of TUDCA on protecting diabetic retinopathy (DR) has been known. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protection of TUDCA on high glucose-induced human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) dysfunction and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic retinopathy (DR) rats and the possible mechanism underlying was also explored...
June 5, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Zaleida Napoli, Giuseppe Seghieri, Loria Bianchi, Roberto Anichini, Alessandra De Bellis, Ilaria Campesi, Ciriaco Carru, Stefano Occhioni, Angelo Zinellu, Flavia Franconi
Background. Taurine transporter gene expression (RNA-TauT) has a role in retinal cell function and is modulated in vitro and in vivo by hyperglycemia and/or oxidative stress. This study was aimed at testing whether RNA-TauT gene expression is modified in blood mononuclear peripheral cells (MPCs) of type 1 diabetic patients, is related to plasma markers of oxidative stress or endothelial dysfunction, or, finally, is related to presence of retinopathy. Methods. RNA-TauT was measured in MPCs by real-time PCR-analysis in 35 type 1 diabetic patients and in 33 age- and sex-matched controls, additionally measuring plasma and cell taurine and markers of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Wen Chen, Junxia Guo, Yanzhen Zhang, Jing Zhang
Metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, has become a very serious public health concern. A number of studies have provided evidence that taurine has an efficient action against metabolic syndrome, which includes reducing triglycerides to prevent obesity, improving insulin resistance to regulate glucose metabolism, lowering cholesterol (especially decreasing VLDL + LDL cholesterol and increasing HDL cholesterol) to prevent diet-induced hypercholesterolemia, and regulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the kallikrein-kinin system etc...
April 2016: Food & Function
Qunzheng Wu, Xiang Zhang, Mingwei Zhong, Haifeng Han, Shaozhuang Liu, Teng Liu, Meng Wei, Wei Guo, Haibin Xie, Sanyuan Hu, Guangyong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Serum bile acids (BAs) are elevated following bariatric surgery and have emerged as a potential glucose-lowering beneficial factor. The change of BA components and its underlying mechanisms may be of great significance during bariatric surgery. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different bariatric procedures on serum BA composition and explore the potential mechanisms using a diabetic rat model. METHODS: Duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and sham operation were performed in diabetic rats induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ)...
October 2016: Obesity Surgery
J Hu, M Xu, J Yuan, B Li, S Entenman, H Yu, Q Y Zheng
Sensorineural hearing loss has long been the subject of experimental and clinical research for many years. The recently identified novel mutation of the Cadherin23 (Cdh23) gene, Cdh23(erl/erl), was proven to be a mouse model of human autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB12). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a taurine-conjugated bile acid, has been used in experimental research and clinical applications related to liver disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and other diseases associated with apoptosis...
March 1, 2016: Neuroscience
Xiang Zhang, Yanmin Wang, Mingwei Zhong, Teng Liu, Haifeng Han, Guangyong Zhang, Shaozhuang Liu, Meng Wei, Qunzheng Wu, Sanyuan Hu
BACKGROUND: Bile acids (BAs) have emerged as important signaling molecules in regulating metabolism and are closely related to gut microbiota. Bariatric surgery elevates serum BAs and affects gut microbiota universally. However, the specific profiles of postsurgical BA components and gut microbiota are still controversial. The aim of this study is to investigate the serum profiles of BA components and gut microbiota after duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB). METHOD: DJB and SHAM procedures were performed in a high-fat-diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model...
August 2016: Obesity Surgery
Sanket N Patel, Kashyap Pandya, George J Clark, Mitul C Parikh, Cesar A Lau-Cam
This study has comparatively evaluated the antiradical and antilipid peroxidizing actions of taurine (TAU) and its N-pantoyl analog pantoyltaurine (PTAU) in vitro, and has determined the extent to which these findings agree with the in vivo ability of these compounds to prevent changes in plasma glucose and in indices of oxidative stress in the plasma, brain and spinal cord induced by the diabetogen streptozotocin (STZ) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Using free radical-generating and oxidizing systems, PTAU was found more effective than TAU in scavenging DPPH, hydroxyl, peroxyl, and superoxide anion radicals and peroxynitrite, and in preventing lipid peroxidation of a brain homogenate by iron (III)-dopamine and the oxidation of dopamine by iron (III)...
February 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
Guro F Giskeødegård, Sarah K Davies, Victoria L Revell, Hector Keun, Debra J Skene
Understanding how metabolite levels change over the 24 hour day is of crucial importance for clinical and epidemiological studies. Additionally, the association between sleep deprivation and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity requires investigation into the links between sleep and metabolism. Here, we characterise time-of-day variation and the effects of sleep deprivation on urinary metabolite profiles. Healthy male participants (n = 15) completed an in-laboratory study comprising one 24 h sleep/wake cycle prior to 24 h of continual wakefulness under highly controlled environmental conditions...
2015: Scientific Reports
Takashi Ito, Natsumi Yoshikawa, Hiromi Ito, Stephen W Schaffer
Taurine, an endogenous sulfur-containing amino acid, is found in millimolar concentrations in mammalian tissue, and its tissue content is altered by diet, disease and aging. The effectiveness of taurine administration against obesity and its related diseases, including type 2 diabetes, has been well documented. However, the impact of taurine depletion on glucose metabolism and fat deposition has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of taurine depletion (in the taurine transporter (TauT) knockout mouse model) on blood glucose control and high fat diet-induced obesity...
September 2015: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
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