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HIV and coronary artery disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416195/pitavastatin-versus-pravastatin-in-adults-with-hiv-1-infection-and-dyslipidaemia-intrepid-12-week-and-52-week-results-of-a-phase-4-multicentre-randomised-double-blind-superiority-trial
#1
Judith A Aberg, Craig A Sponseller, Douglas J Ward, Vladimir A Kryzhanovski, Stuart E Campbell, Melanie A Thompson
BACKGROUND: People living with HIV-1 infection are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease than seronegative adults. Treatment of dyslipidaemia with statins has been challenging in people with HIV because of an increased potential for drug interactions due to competing cytochrome P450 metabolism between statins and commonly used antiretroviral agents. Neither pitavastatin nor pravastatin depend on cytochrome P450 for primary metabolism. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of pitavastatin versus pravastatin in adults with HIV and dyslipidaemia...
April 13, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414687/disseminated-cryptococcal-disease-with-diffuse-pulmonary-infiltrates-in-a-non-hiv-host
#2
M Hughes, K Trivedi, M Rudrappa
INTRODUCTION: We present a case of disseminated Cryptococcus in a non-HIV host, where the primary manifestation was pulmonary with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. This patient was on high dose corticosteroids for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. CASE: A 79 year old Caucasian man with a history of autoimmune hemolytic anemia on 100 mg of prednisone daily, coronary artery disease s/p bypass surgery, ischemic cardiomyopathy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, chronic kidney disease, and history of bilateral pulmonary emboli presented to Hematology/Oncology clinic with symptoms of productive cough, worsening shortness of breath, hemoptysis...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397248/porphyromonas-gingivalis-antibody-levels-and-diagnosis-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-hiv-positive-individuals
#3
V L Berquist, A C Hearps, P Ford, A Jaworowski, S J Leishman, J F Hoy, J M Trevillyan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Periodontal disease has been associated with cardiovascular disease in the general population. It is unknown whether IgG antibody levels for periodontal pathogens are associated with the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in HIV-positive individuals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four HIV-positive individuals (cases) with stored plasma available in the 12 months before CAD diagnosis were age- and sex-matched 1:2 with 46 HIV-positive individuals without CAD (controls)...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353539/coronary-artery-endothelial-dysfunction-is-present-in-hiv-positive-individuals-without-significant-coronary-artery-disease
#4
Micaela Iantorno, Michael Schär, Sahar Soleimanifard, Todd T Brown, Richard Moore, Patricia Barditch-Crovo, Matthias Stuber, Shenghan Lai, Gary Gerstenblith, Robert G Weiss, Allison G Hays
OBJECTIVE: HIV+ individuals experience an increased burden of coronary artery disease (CAD) not adequately accounted for by traditional CAD risk factors. Coronary endothelial function (CEF), a barometer of vascular health, is depressed early in atherosclerosis and predicts future events but has not been studied in HIV+ individuals. We tested whether CEF is impaired in HIV+ subjects without CAD as compared to an HIV- population matched for cardiac risk factors. DESIGN/METHODS: In this observational study, CEF was measured noninvasively by quantifying isometric handgrip exercise (IHE)-induced changes in coronary vasoreactivity with MRI in 18 participants with HIV but no CAD (HIV+CAD-, based on prior imaging), 36 age- and cardiac risk factor-matched healthy participants with neither HIV nor CAD (HIV-CAD-), 41 subjects with no HIV but with known CAD (HIV-CAD+) and 17 subjects with both HIV and CAD (HIV+CAD+)...
March 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350300/impact-of-ccr5-integrase-and-protease-inhibitors-on-human-endothelial-cell-function-stress-inflammation-and-senescence
#5
Pauline Afonso, Martine Auclair, Martine Caron-Debarle, Jacqueline Capeau
BACKGROUND: Aging HIV-infected patients present an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases, endothelial dysfunction being an early alteration. Some protease inhibitors (PI)s have been shown to experience risk of increased cardiovascular disease. We evaluated here the effects of CCR5 or integrase inhibitors as compared to PIs on endothelial functions in vitro. METHODS: Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) from adult and old non-HIV infected donors were treated for 15 days with the CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc, the integrase inhibitors dolutegravir or raltegravir or the ritonavir-boosted-PIs, darunavir (DRV/r) or atazanavir (ATV/r), all at Cmax concentrations...
March 28, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348607/epidemiology-and-outcomes-in-critically-ill-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-the-era-of-combination-antiretroviral-therapy
#6
Shannon L Turvey, Sean M Bagshaw, Dean T Eurich, Wendy I Sligl
Purpose. The impact of critical illness on survival of HIV-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy remains uncertain. We describe the epidemiology of critical illness in this population and identify predictors of mortality. Materials and Methods. Retrospective cohort of HIV-infected patients was admitted to intensive care from 2002 to 2014. Patient sociodemographics, comorbidities, case-mix, illness severity, and 30-day mortality were captured. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of mortality...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315199/hiv-infection-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-beyond-coronary-artery-disease
#7
REVIEW
Revery P Barnes, John Charles A Lacson, Hossein Bahrami
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) increasingly afflicts people living with HIV (PLWH) in the contemporary era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most widely studied cardiovascular problem in PLWH; however, less is known about other clinically relevant subtypes of CVD such as heart failure (HF), cerebrovascular disease, sudden cardiac death, pericardial diseases, and pulmonary hypertension. This paper reviews evidence of other subtypes of CVD as emerging issues in the post-ART era...
May 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285972/tp-e-interval-and-tp-e-qt-ratio-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#8
Sefa Ünal, Çağrı Yayla, Burak Açar, Ahmet G Ertem, Mehmet K Akboğa, Serkan Gökaslan, Mehmet A Erdöl, Meliha Ç Sönmezer, Esra Kaya Kiliç, Çiğdem Ataman Hatipoğlu, Sinan Aydoğdu, Ahmet Temizhan
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS are known to cause cardiovascular diseases such as premature coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. Recently, Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio has been shown as a novel marker of ventricular repolarization. We aimed to evaluate the ventricular repolarization using Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Totally 48 patients with HIV and 60 control subjects were enrolled to the study...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265887/coronary-artery-disease-in-hiv-infected-patients-downside-of-living-longer
#9
REVIEW
John Charles A Lacson, Revery P Barnes, Hossein Bahrami
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased the life expectancy of patients with HIV infection, allowing them to live longer with this chronic medical condition and consequently experiencing conditions such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Several studies have investigated the increased risk of CVD in people living with HIV (PLWH). However, less is known about the exact mechanisms involved in this increased risk. Also, specific guidelines for management of CVD in PLWH have not been developed yet...
April 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088613/adipocyte-and-epidermal-fatty-acid-binding-protein-serum-concentrations-in-patients-with-lipodystrophy
#10
Konstanze Miehle, Thomas Ebert, Susan Kralisch, Annett Hoffmann, Jürgen Kratzsch, Haiko Schlögl, Michael Stumvoll, Mathias Fasshauer
OBJECTIVE: Lipodystrophy (LD) syndromes are associated with diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia, and coronary artery disease. One pathogenetic factor of LD is dysregulation of several adipokines. However, the insulin resistance- and dyslipidemia-promoting adipokines adipocyte (AFABP) and epidermal (EFABP) fatty acid-binding protein have not been investigated in non-HIV-associated LD so far. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of AFABP and EFABP serum concentrations in 37 LD patients and 37 age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched healthy controls...
January 12, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062146/intensive-statin-regimens-for-reducing-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-population-a-nation-wide-longitudinal-cohort-study-2000-2011
#11
Huang-Tz Ou, Kai-Cheng Chang, Chung-Yi Li, Chen-Yi Yang, Nai-Ying Ko
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in a statin-treated HIV-infected population and the effects of intensive statin regimens (i.e., high-dose or potency) on CVD risks. METHODS: 945 HIV-infected patients newly on statin treatment (144, 15.7% with CVD history) were identified from Taiwan's national HIV cohort. Using the median of the first year cumulative statin dosage as a cut-off point, patients were classified into either a high-dose or low-dose group...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061822/cardiovascular-risk-and-endothelial-function-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids-design-of-the-multi-site-longitudinal-endoafrica-study-in-the-western-cape-province-of-south-africa
#12
Hans Strijdom, Patrick De Boever, Gerhard Walzl, M Faadiel Essop, Tim S Nawrot, Ingrid Webster, Corli Westcott, Nyiko Mashele, Frans Everson, Stephanus T Malherbe, Kim Stanley, Harald H Kessler, Evelyn Stelzl, Nandu Goswami
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of an interaction between HIV-infection, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological studies in Europe and North America have been observing a shift towards an increased incidence of coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarctions in HIV-infected populations compared to the general population even after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Despite South Africa (and sub-Saharan Africa, SSA) being regarded as the epicentre of the global HIV epidemic, very little is known about the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and precursors of vascular disease in HIV-infected populations in this region...
January 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057254/hiv-and-nonischemic-heart-disease
#13
REVIEW
Pravin Manga, Keir McCutcheon, Nqoba Tsabedze, Ahmed Vachiat, Don Zachariah
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated heart disease encompasses a broad spectrum of diseases. HIV infection may involve the pericardium, myocardium, coronary arteries, pulmonary vasculature, and valves, as well as the systemic vasculature. Access to combination antiretroviral therapy, as well as health resources, has had a significant influence on the prevalence and severity of the effects on each cardiac structure. Investigations over the recent past have improved our understanding of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of HIV-associated cardiovascular disease...
January 3, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969855/tct-496-differences-in-quantitative-coronary-angiographic-qca-characteristics-of-coronary-artery-disease-between-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-patients-presenting-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-acs-and-stable-angina-pectoris-sap-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary
#14
Kleanthis Theodoropoulos, Omar Meelu, Marco Mennuni, Samantha Sartori, Jennifer Yu, Usman Baber, Giulio Stefanini, Ioannis Mastoris, Pedro Moreno, George Dangas, Roxana Mehran, Samin Sharma, Annapoorna Kini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860212/alcohol-and-dietary-factors-associate-with-gut-integrity-and-inflammation-in-hiv-infected-adults
#15
A R Webel, A Sattar, N T Funderburg, B Kinley, C T Longenecker, D Labbato, Sm Khurshid Alam, G A McComsey
OBJECTIVES: HIV-infected adults have heightened monocyte activation and inflammation, at least partially as a consequence of altered gut integrity. The role of dietary factors in microbial translocation and inflammation and their downstream effect on markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been explored. Our purpose was to describe the longitudinal dietary patterns of HIV-infected adults, and to examine the relationship between dietary intake, gut integrity, inflammation and subclinical markers of CVD in HIV-infected adults...
November 9, 2016: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853986/the-hidden-risk-incorporating-inflammation-and-hiv-serostatus-into-coronary-artery-disease-screening
#16
EDITORIAL
Gregory A Payne, Edgar Turner Overton
CAD is a well-established comorbidity associated with HIV infection. This association is in large part due to ongoing inflammation propagated by viremia and dysregulation of the immune system. Despite this knowledge, evidence to guide clinical management and screening for CAD among HIV-infected patients is lacking. The following editorial discusses recent evidence that HIV-infected patients with abnormal cardiovascular stress testing are more likely to undergo subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention. Importantly, the cardiovascular consequences of HIV infection and potential clinical implications are discussed...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848272/decreased-levels-of-platelet-derived-soluble-glycoprotein-vi-detected-prior-to-the-first-diagnosis-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-hiv-positive-individuals
#17
J M Trevillyan, E E Gardiner, R K Andrews, A Maisa, A C Hearps, M Al-Tamimi, S M Crowe, J F Hoy
HIV-positive patients are at increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD); changes in platelet activation may play a role. This study was performed to determine if levels of soluble glycoprotein VI (sGPVI), a platelet-specific marker of activation, were different in HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative controls and further if levels were predictive of CAD in HIV. Twenty-four HIV-positive individuals (HIV cases) with CAD were compared with 46 age- and sex-matched HIV-positive controls without CAD and 41 HIV-negative controls (healthy controls)...
November 16, 2016: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845996/acute-coronary-syndromes-in-patients-with-hiv
#18
Valmiki K Seecheran, Stanley L Giddings, Naveen A Seecheran
Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) has considerably increased the life expectancy of patients infected with HIV. Coronary artery disease is a leading cause of mortality in patients infected with HIV. This is primarily attributed to their increased survival, HAART-induced metabolic derangements, and to HIV itself. The pathophysiology of atherosclerosis in HIV is both multifactorial and complex - involving direct endothelial injury and dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and a significant contribution from traditional cardiac risk factors...
March 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828877/brief-report-elevated-red-cell-distribution-width-identifies-elevated-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-patients-with-hiv-infection
#19
Sadeer G Al-Kindi, Chang H Kim, Stephen R Morris, Michael L Freeman, Nicholas T Funderburg, Benigno Rodriguez, Grace A McComsey, Jarrod E Dalton, Daniel I Simon, Michael M Lederman, Chris T Longenecker, David A Zidar
Red cell distribution width (RDW) is linked to cardiovascular risk in the general population, an association that might be driven by inflammation. Whether this relationship holds for patients with HIV infection has not been previously studied. Using a large clinical registry, we show that elevated RDW (>14.5%) is independently associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease {odds ratio [OR] 1.39 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25 to 1.55]}, peripheral vascular disease [OR 1.41 (95% CI: 1.29 to 1...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739037/differences-by-hiv-serostatus-in-coronary-artery-disease-severity-and-likelihood-of-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-following-stress-testing
#20
Matthew J Feinstein, Brian Poole, Pedro Engel Gonzalez, Anna E Pawlowski, Daniel Schneider, Tim S Provias, Frank J Palella, Chad J Achenbach, Donald M Lloyd-Jones
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected persons develop coronary artery disease (CAD) more commonly and earlier than uninfected persons; however, the role of non-invasive testing to stratify CAD risk in HIV is not well defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients were selected from a single-center electronic cohort of HIV-infected patients and uninfected controls matched 1:2 on age, sex, race, and type of cardiovascular testing performed. Patients with abnormal echocardiographic or nuclear stress testing who subsequently underwent coronary angiography were included...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
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