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HIV and coronary artery disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112065/the-effects-of-hiv-and-smoking-on-aortic-and-splenic-inflammation
#1
Chris T Longenecker, Claire E Sullivan, Justin Morrison, Corrilynn O Hileman, David A Zidar, Robert Gilkeson, James O'Donnell, Grace A McComsey
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of smoking and HIV status with tissue specific inflammation measured by flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 55 HIV+ subjects on stable antiretroviral therapy and 19 age-matched HIV-uninfected controls without known CVD. We measured aortic target-to-background ratio (TBR) and spleen standardized uptake values (SUV) three hours post-FDG, and used regression models to examine the independent association of HIV and smoking status with PET variables...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069328/the-relationship-between-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-acute-myocardial-infarction
#2
Moises A Huaman, Eduardo Ticona, Gustavo Miranda, Richard J Kryscio, Raquel Mugruza, Ernesto Aranda, Paola Rondan, David Henson, Cesar Ticona, Timothy R Sterling, Carl J Fichtenbaum, Beth A Garvy
Background: Tuberculosis has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We investigated whether latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) associates with AMI. Methods: We conducted a case-control study in two large national public hospital networks in Lima, Peru between July 2015 and March 2017. Cases were patients with a first time diagnosis of type 1 (spontaneous) AMI. Controls were patients without a history of AMI...
October 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058481/effects-of-antiretroviral-treatment-and-nadir-cd4-count-in-progression-to-cardiovascular-events-and-related-comorbidities-in-a-hiv-brazilian-cohort-a-multi-stage-approach
#3
Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de Oliveira, Silvia Emiko Shimakura, Dayse Pereira Campos, Yara Hahr Marques Hökerberg, Flaviana Pavan Victoriano, Sayonara Ribeiro, Valdiléa G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Marilia Sá Carvalho
The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy has resulted in changes of comorbidity profile in people living with HIV (PLHIV), increasing non-AIDS-related events. The occurrence of cardiovascular events is greater in PLHIV, but the mechanism responsible for it is still controversial. This article aimed to investigate factors associated with the progression to cardiovascular events in PLHIV using HAART. A 15-years cohort study with 1135 PLHIV was conducted in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil. Clinical progression was stratified in five states: No comorbidities (s1), arterial hypertension (s2), lipid abnormalities (s3), hypertension and lipid abnormalities (s4) and major cardiovascular events (stroke, coronary artery disease, thrombosis or death) (s5)...
October 23, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023938/a-pharmacist-led-program-to-evaluate-and-reduce-polypharmacy-and-potentially-inappropriate-prescribing-in-older-hiv-positive-patients
#4
I R McNicholl, M Gandhi, C Bradley Hare, M Greene, E Pierluissi
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this pharmacist-led study was to utilize 2 validated instruments, Beers and Screening Tool of Older Persons' Potentially inappropriate Prescriptions (STOPP), to assess potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) in older patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and evaluate pharmacist interventions. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, interventional trial. SETTING: Large urban clinic providing interdisciplinary primary and HIV care for approximately 2700 HIV-positive, publically insured patients...
October 10, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930079/epicardial-adipose-tissue-volume-and-cardiovascular-risk-indices-among-asymptomatic-women-with-and-without-hiv
#5
Suman Srinivasa, Michael T Lu, Kathleen V Fitch, Travis R Hallett, Timothy K O'Malley, Lauren A Stone, Amanda Martin, Alexandra J Coromilas, Tricia H Burdo, Virginia A Triant, Janet Lo, Sara E Looby, Tomas G Neilan, Markella V Zanni
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying the heightened myocardial infarction risk among HIV-infected women (versus non-HIV-infected women) remain unclear. Our objectives were to assess epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and its associations among asymptomatic women with and without HIV. METHODS: Fifty-five HIV-infected and 27 non-HIV-infected women without known cardiovascular disease who underwent cardiac CT and metabolic/immune phenotyping were included. EAT volume derived from CT was compared among women with and without HIV, and within-group EAT associations were assessed...
September 20, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893184/the-canadian-hiv-and-aging-cohort-study-determinants-of-increased-risk-of-cardio-vascular-diseases-in-hiv-infected-individuals-rationale-and-study-protocol
#6
Madeleine Durand, Carl Chartrand-Lefebvre, Jean-Guy Baril, Sylvie Trottier, Benoit Trottier, Marianne Harris, Sharon Walmsley, Brian Conway, Alexander Wong, Jean-Pierre Routy, Colin Kovacs, Paul A MacPherson, Kenneth Marc Monteith, Samer Mansour, George Thanassoulis, Michal Abrahamowicz, Zhitong Zhu, Christos Tsoukas, Petronela Ancuta, Nicole Bernard, Cécile L Tremblay
BACKGROUND: With potent antiretroviral drugs, HIV infection is becoming a chronic disease. Emergence of comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a leading concern for patients living with the infection. We hypothesized that the chronic and persistent inflammation and immune activation associated with HIV disease leads to accelerated aging, characterized by CVD. This will translate into higher incidence rates of CVD in HIV infected participants, when compared to HIV negative participants, after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors...
September 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886899/frailty-and-subclinical-coronary-atherosclerosis-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study-macs
#7
Sai Krishna C Korada, Di Zhao, Martin Tibuakuu, Todd T Brown, Lisa P Jacobson, Eliseo Guallar, Robert K Bolan, Frank J Palella, Joseph B Margolick, Jeremy J Martinson, Matthew J Budoff, Wendy S Post, Erin D Michos
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Frailty and cardiovascular disease share many risk factors. We evaluated whether frailty is independently associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and whether any relationships differ by HIV-serostatus. METHODS: We studied 976 [62% HIV-infected] male participants of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study who underwent assessment of frailty and non-contrast cardiac CT scanning; of these, 747 men also underwent coronary CT angiography (CCTA)...
November 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834662/human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-heart-failure-in-sub-saharan-africa-evolution-in-the-epidemiology-pathophysiology-and-clinical-manifestations-in-the-antiretroviral-era
#8
REVIEW
Ntobeko A B Ntusi, Mpiko Ntsekhe
The survival of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who have access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically increased in recent times. This review focuses on HIV-associated heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In HIV infected persons, heart failure may be related to pathology of the pericardium, the myocardium, the valves, the conduction system, or the coronary and pulmonary vasculature. HIV-associated heart failure can be because of direct consequences of HIV infection, autoimmune reactions, pro-inflammatory cytokines, opportunistic infections (OIs) or neoplasms, use of ART or therapy for OIs and presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors...
September 2016: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799999/features-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-in-adults-and-children-living-with-hiv
#9
Andrew W McCrary, Chidozie U Nduka, Saverio Stranges, Gerald S Bloomfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article addresses crucial issues in identifying risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people living with HIV in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). These issues are in need of urgent attention to advance our knowledge and inform actions to mitigate CVD in this population. We address CVDs in adults living with HIV as well as the unique aspects pertaining to children living with HIV (CLHIV), a group sorely under-represented in this field. RECENT FINDINGS: CVDs affecting adults such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, and heart failure, in addition to myocardial dysfunction, vascular diseases, and autoimmune phenomena are also being reported in CLHIV...
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796027/heart-fat-in-hiv-marker-or-mediator-of-risk
#10
Jonathan Buggey, Chris T Longenecker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review aims to summarize the literature describing the clinical impact of cardiac fat depots in patients with HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: People living with HIV (PLHIV) have accelerated rates of cardiovascular disease, and are prone to the development of ectopic fat deposition. Specifically, PLHIV have higher volumes of epicardial and intracardiac fat quantified by noninvasive imaging. Higher volumes of epicardial fat may be related to antiretroviral therapy duration and chronic inflammation, independently of other measures of body adiposity such as BMI...
November 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779949/cardiovascular-disease-in-patients-with-hiv
#11
REVIEW
Flavia Ballocca, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo, Sebastiano Gili, Walter Grosso Marra, Fiorenzo Gaita
With the progressive increase in life expectancy of HIV-positive patient, thanks to "highly active antiretroviral therapy" (HAART), new comorbidities, and especially cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are emerging as an important concern. An increased risk of coronary artery disease, often in a younger age, has been observed in this population. The underlying pathophysiology is complex and partially still unclear, with the interaction of viral infection-and systemic inflammation-antiretroviral therapy and traditional risk factors...
November 2017: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763308/revascularization-strategies-and-in-hospital-management-in-acute-coronary-syndromes-complicated-by-hemophilia-a-or-hemophilia-b
#12
Matthew J Reilley, Anne Blair, William H Matthai, Rolando Vega, Meghan Buckley, Phyllis A Gimotty, Patrick F Fogarty
: Among adult patients with hemophilia A and hemophilia B the emergent management of acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) is challenging, and exposure to antithrombotic agents and/or revascularization procedures may confer an enhanced risk of bleeding. We sought to identify clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes among ACS patients with hemophilia A/hemophilia B, compared with matched noncoagulopathic ACS controls. Case discharges from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (1998-2011) had International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes for hemophilia A/hemophilia B and ACS...
July 29, 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697899/hiv-and-coronary-disease-when-secondary-prevention-is-insufficient
#13
Ana Sofia Carvalho, Rui Osório Valente, Luís Almeida Morais, Pedro Modas Daniel, Ramiro Sá Carvalho, Lurdes Ferreira, Rui Cruz Ferreira
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has created a new paradigm for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but their increased risk for coronary disease is well documented. We present the case of a 57-year-old man, co-infected with HIV-2 and hepatitis B virus, adequately controlled and with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia, who was admitted with non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography performed on day four of hospital stay documented two-vessel disease (mid segment of the right coronary artery [RCA, 90% stenosis] and the first marginal)...
July 8, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622754/prevalence-of-non-infectious-comorbidities-in-the-hiv-positive-population-in-belgium-a-multicenter-retrospective-study
#14
Jessie Gunter, Steven Callens, Stephane De Wit, Jean-Christophe Goffard, Michel Moutschen, Gilles Darcis, Christelle Meuris, Charlotte van den Bulcke, Karine Fombellida, Marc Del Forge, Homie Razavi, Chloe Wyndham-Thomas
OBJECTIVES: In Belgium, eleven AIDS Reference Centers (ARCs) and seven AIDS Reference Laboratories diagnose and treat HIV-positive individuals and track patients under care. As AIDS-related deaths are avoided and the HIV-positive population ages, non-infectious comorbidities (NICMs), such as cardiovascular disease, renal disease and certain cancers, play a larger role in the quality and length of patients' lives. This study aims to characterize the HIV-positive population in Belgium in terms of the prevalence of key NICMs...
June 16, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614245/wellens-syndrome-in-hiv-infected-patients-two-case-reports
#15
Bowei Tan, Carlos Morales-Mangual, Dan Zhao, Abdullah Khan, Hal Chadow
BACKGROUND: Wellens syndrome is a pattern of electrocardiographic (ECG) changes in the context of unstable angina characterized with deep inverted T-waves or biphasic T-waves in the precordial leads. These specific ECG changes are highly suggestive of stenosis in the left anterior descending artery (LAD), which can result in acute myocardial infarction, left ventricular dysfunction, or death. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is known as an independent risk factor for the cardiovascular disease...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561781/comparison-of-the-peripheral-reactive-hyperemia-index-with-myocardial-perfusion-reserve-by-82-rb-pet-ct-in-hiv-infected-patients
#16
Mathilde Ørbæk, Philip Hasbak, Rasmus Sejersten Ripa, Andreas Kjær, Anne-Mette Lebech, Andreas Knudsen
After the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) the life expectancy of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is now approaching that of the general population and the importance of non-AIDS co-morbidities is increasing. Specifically, the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) seems to be higher in HIV-infected patients and an accurate risk prediction of CAD is of high importance for optimal long term treatment. In this study, we assessed the correlation of the endoPAT, which is an office-based CVD screening tool with the myocardial perfusion reserve by (82)-rubidium PET/CT...
May 31, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502092/hiv-hcv-coinfection-and-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-a-meta-analysis
#17
O Osibogun, O Ogunmoroti, E D Michos, E S Spatz, B Olubajo, K Nasir, P Madhivanan, W Maziak
The emergence of improved antiretroviral therapy has increased the life expectancy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, although there is an increased susceptibility to developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The risk for CVD is purported to be even higher among people with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection because of the increased inflammatory response, which may synergistically impact CVD risk. However, studies comparing CVD outcomes between HIV alone and HIV/HCV individuals have been discordant...
November 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480253/premature-coronary-artery-disease-and-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-in-a-24-year-old-man-with-perinatally-acquired-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-case-report
#18
David C Griffith, Konstantinos N Aronis, Angela M Orozco, Thomas A Traill, Yukari C Manabe, Allison L Agwu
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Although evidence of subclinical atherosclerosis in perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) is available, myocardial infarction has not been described in this population. We report a case of myocardial infarction in a patient with PHIV with a brief literature review.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453572/assessment-of-coronary-artery-calcium-by-chest-ct-compared-with-ekg-gated-cardiac-ct-in-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
Divay Chandra, Aman Gupta, Joseph K Leader, Meghan Fitzpatrick, Lawrence A Kingsley, Eric Kleerup, Sabina A Haberlen, Matthew J Budoff, Mallory Witt, Wendy S Post, Frank C Sciurba, Alison Morris
RATIONALE: Individuals with HIV are at increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). Early detection of subclinical CAD by assessment of coronary artery calcium (CAC) may help risk stratify and prevent CAD events in these individuals. However, the current standard to quantify CAC i.e. Agatston scoring requires EKG-gated cardiac CT imaging. OBJECTIVE: To determine if the assessment of CAC using non-EKG-gated chest CT and the Weston scoring system is a useful surrogate for Agatston scores in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437620/american-association-of-clinical-endocrinologists-and-american-college-of-endocrinology-guidelines-for-management-of-dyslipidemia-and-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#20
Paul S Jellinger, Yehuda Handelsman, Paul D Rosenblit, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Vivian A Fonseca, Alan J Garber, George Grunberger, Chris K Guerin, David S H Bell, Jeffrey I Mechanick, Rachel Pessah-Pollack, Kathleen Wyne, Donald Smith, Eliot A Brinton, Sergio Fazio, Michael Davidson
OBJECTIVE: The development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres with published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). METHODS: Recommendations are based on diligent reviews of the clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors, according to established AACE/ACE guidelines for guidelines protocols...
April 2017: Endocrine Practice
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