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Qualitative coagulation assays

Jerrold H Levy
Patients taking direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) who then need an emergency invasive procedure require specialized management strategies. Appropriate patient evaluation includes assessment of the current anticoagulation state, including timing of the last dose. DOACs require particular coagulation assays to measure anticoagulation levels accurately, although standard coagulation screening tests may provide qualitative guidance. Specialty societies have endorsed general recommendations for patient management to promote hemostasis in anticoagulated patients requiring surgery or other invasive procedures...
September 29, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Meiling Luo, Donghong Deng, Liqun Xiang, Peng Cheng, Lin Liao, Xuelian Deng, Jie Yan, Faquan Lin
Congenital dysfibrinogenemia (CD) is a qualitative fibrinogen disorder caused by an abnormal fibrinogen molecule structure, leading to dysfunctional blood coagulation. This study describes 3 cases of dysfibrinogenemia identified in the unrelated Chinese pedigrees.Routine coagulation screening tests were performed on the probands and their families. The antigens and functionality of fibrinogen was measured using an immunoturbidimetry assay and the Clauss method, respectively. To identify the genetic mutation responsible for these dysfibrinogens, genomic DNA extracted from the blood was analyzed using PCR amplification and direct sequencing...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jerrold H Levy
Patients taking direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) who then need an emergency invasive procedure require specialized management strategies. Appropriate patient evaluation includes assessment of the current anticoagulation state, including timing of the last dose. DOACs require particular coagulation assays to measure anticoagulation levels accurately, although standard coagulation screening tests may provide qualitative guidance. Specialty societies have endorsed general recommendations for patient management to promote hemostasis in anticoagulated patients requiring surgery or other invasive procedures...
November 2016: American Journal of Medicine
L Ponce-Robles, S Miralles-Cuevas, I Oller, A Agüera, M J Trinidad-Lozano, F J Yuste, S Malato
Industrial preparation of cork consists of its immersion for approximately 1 hour in boiling water. The use of herbicides and pesticides in oak tree forests leads to absorption of these compounds by cork; thus, after boiling process, they are present in wastewater. Cork boiling wastewater shows low biodegradability and high acute toxicity involving partial inhibition of their biodegradation when conventional biological treatment is applied. In this work, a treatment line strategy based on the combination of advanced physicochemical technologies is proposed...
August 12, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Aurélien Lebreton, Alessandro Casini
Congenital fibrinogen disorders comprise quantitative disorders defined by a complete absence (afibrinogenemia) or by a decreased level (hypofibrinogenemia) of circulating fibrinogen and qualitative disorders characterized by a discrepancy between the activity and the antigenic levels of fibrinogen (dysfibrinogenemia and hypodysfibrinogenemia). The biological diagnosis is based on a standard haemostasis assessment. All the coagulation tests that depend on the formation of fibrin as the end point are affected; although in dysfibrinogenemia the specificity and sensitivity of routine test depend on reagent and techniques...
August 1, 2016: Annales de Biologie Clinique
M Honickel, O Grottke
BACKGROUND: Compared to conventional coagulation assays, as prothrombin time (PT) or activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), viscoelastic methods of coagulation analysis, including rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®, Tem International GmbH, Munich, Germany), yield prognostic benefits. Results of ROTEM® in citrated whole blood could be generated within 10-12 min and allow for a qualitative and semiquantitative characterisation of clot kinetics. Based on ROTEM® results, the switch between empiric approaches of treating coagulopathy to a goal-directed approach could be accelerated...
July 12, 2016: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Akbar Dorgalaleh, Ahmad Kazemi, Farhad Zaker, Morteza Shamsizadeh, Jamal Rashidpanah, Mojtaba Mollaei
BACKGROUND: Factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency is a severe bleeding disorder with normal routine coagulation tests that makes diagnosis of the disorder complicated. After normal results in routine coagulation tests, clot solubility test, and FXIII activity, antigen assays along with molecular methods can be used for precise diagnosis of disorder. In the present study, we described routine coagulation tests along with clot solubility test and FXIII activity and antigen assays. METHODS: Data were collected from all relevant publications until 2015...
2016: Clinical Laboratory
Yessine Amri, Nour El Houda Toumi, Sondess Hadj Fredj, Philippe de Moerloose
INTRODUCTION: Inherited abnormalities of fibrinogen (FG) are rare coagulation disorders divided into two types: quantitative abnormalities (afibrinogenemia and hypofibrinogenemia) or qualitative abnormalities (dysfibrinogenemia and hypo-dysfibrinogenemia) of circulating fibrinogen. In particular, congenital afibrinogenemia is inherited as an autosomal recessive mode and is usually determined by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations affecting any of the three fibrinogen genes (FGA, FGB and FGG), resulting in the complete absence or extremely reduced amount of fibrinogen...
July 2016: Thrombosis Research
Akbar Dorgalaleh, Shadi Tabibian, Maryam Sadat Hosseini, Yadolla Farshi, Fateme Roshanzamir, Majid Naderi, Ahmad Kazemi, Farhad Zaker, Ali Noroozi Aghideh, Morteza Shamsizadeh
BACKGROUND: Factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency is an extremely rare bleeding disorder with estimated incidence of one per two million. All routine coagulation tests are normal in FXIII deficiency (FXIIID), which complicates the diagnosis of this disorder. Precise diagnosis of FXIIID requires more specific tests, including qualitative tests as well as quantitative tests such as FXIII activity, antigen assays, and finally molecular studies to confirm FXIIID. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to present different quantitative and qualitative methods as well as molecular approaches for screening and diagnosis of FXIIID with advantages and disadvantages of each method...
August 2016: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Kristi J Smock, Elizabeth A Plumhoff, Piet Meijer, Peihong Hsu, Nicole D Zantek, Nahla M Heikal, Elizabeth M Van Cott
In 2010-2012, the North American Specialized Coagulation Laboratory Association (NASCOLA) distributed 12 proficiency testing challenges to evaluate laboratory testing for protein S (PS). Results were analysed to assess the performance of PS activity, PS free antigen, and PS total antigen testing. Statistical analysis was performed on the numeric results and qualitative classification submitted for each method. There were 2,106 total results: 716 results from PS activity assays, 833 results from PS free antigen assays, and 557 results from PS total antigen assays...
July 4, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Francine Charan de Faria, Railson Henneberg, Aguinaldo José do Nascimento, Karen Sumire Kubo, Henrique Ravanhol Frigeri, Paulo Henrique da Silva
UNLABELLED: The hemorrhagic diseases are characterized by bleeding which can vary considerably according to their severity. The von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most frequent hereditary hemorrhagic disease and the prevalence of clinically significant disease is probably closer to 1:1000, being an extremely heterogeneous and complex disorder that is related to the deficiency in concentration, structure or function of von Willebrand factor (VWF). The VWD is divided into type 1, with partial deficiency of the VWF, type 2, with qualitative defects in the molecule with four subdivisions, and type 3, with very low or undetectable levels of plasma and platelet VWF and ristocetin cofactor activity...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
Z Vacková, D Lžičařová, N K Stock, J Kozáková
The study aim was to implement a molecular real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay recommended by the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) for the detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in clinical (culture negative) specimens from patients with suspected invasive bacterial disease. Clinical specimens are referred to the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Meningococcal Infections, Unit for Airborne Bacterial Infections, Centre for Epidemiology and Microbiology, National Institute of Public Health from various regions of the Czech Republic...
October 2015: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
Sandra L Haberichter
von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a large multimeric glycoprotein that mediates the attachment of platelets to damaged endothelium and also serves as the carrier protein for coagulation factor VIII (FVIII), protecting it from proteolytic degradation. Quantitative or qualitative defects in VWF result in von Willebrand disease (VWD), a common inherited bleeding disorder. VWF is synthesized with a very large propeptide (VWFpp) that is critical for intracellular processing of VWF. VWFpp actively participates in the process of VWF multimerization and is essential for trafficking of VWF to the regulated storage pathway...
October 8, 2015: Blood
Rasikh Tuktamyshov, Renad Zhdanov
BACKGROUND: Coagulation is a cascade of reactions that eventually leads to formation of thrombin and fibrin. The two most frequently used tests to describe the coagulation system are activated partial thromboplastin time and international normalized ratio. Both tests are performed in vitro by mixing coagulation factors and measuring the time until the clot forms, but neither represents the biology of coagulation in vivo. OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic potential of thrombodynamics...
December 2015: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Jilani Latona, Atifur Rahman
New oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have recently emerged as an alternative for vitamin K antagonists and are now widely available. Although there is good evidence for their roles in the appropriate clinical settings, so far no reversal agent is currently available. Likewise, there is no readily available laboratory test to quantify drug levels but coagulation assays may provide qualitative information about the presence of some NOACs. We aim to review the current literature regarding the optimal management of oral anticoagulation in the perioperative setting...
September 2015: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Rita Paniccia, Raffaella Priora, Agatina Alessandrello Liotta, Rosanna Abbate
In physiological hemostasis a prompt recruitment of platelets on the vessel damage prevents the bleeding by the rapid formation of a platelet plug. Qualitative and/or quantitative platelet defects promote bleeding, whereas the high residual reactivity of platelets in patients on antiplatelet therapies moves forward thromboembolic complications. The biochemical mechanisms of the different phases of platelet activation - adhesion, shape change, release reaction, and aggregation - have been well delineated, whereas their complete translation into laboratory assays has not been so fulfilled...
2015: Vascular Health and Risk Management
V V Dolgikh, S E Bol'shakova, L I Kolesnikova, I M Mikhalevich
AIM: To estimate the spread and distribution of genotypes and alleles of thrombosis predisposition gene polymorphisms in adolescents with essential hypertension (EH). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One hundred and thirty-seven 14- to 17-year-old adolescents were examined. There were 3 examined groups: 1) 37 EH patients with prothrombotic changes (PTC); 2) 60 EH patients without PTC; 3) 40 healthy adolescents. Prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and the levels of fibrinogen and soluble fibrin monomer complexes were determined...
2014: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Scott W Yates
Three target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs)-dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban-have been approved by the FDA to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation; however, no agents are currently approved to reverse the anticoagulant effects of these TSOACs in cases of active bleeding. This review discusses the benefits and risks of these TSOACs from a clinician's perspective, with a focus on the interruption of treatment for either elective or emergent surgery, monitoring, and reversal of anticoagulation...
December 2014: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
S Neergaard-Petersen, A-M Hvas, S D Kristensen, E L Grove, S B Larsen, F Phoenix, Z Kurdee, P J Grant, R A Ajjan
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases the risk of coronary thrombosis and both conditions are associated with altered fibrin clot properties. However, the influence of T2DM on fibrin clot properties in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the influence of T2DM on fibrin clot properties in patients with CAD. Fibrin clot structure and fibrinolysis were investigated in 581 CAD patients (148 with T2DM) using turbidimetric assays, confocal and scanning electron microscopy...
December 2014: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Bettina Kovács, Zsuzsanna Bereczky, Anna Selmeczi, Réka Gindele, Zsolt Oláh, Adrienne Kerényi, Zoltán Boda, László Muszbek
BACKGROUND: Antithrombin (AT) is a slow-acting progressive inhibitor of activated clotting factors, particularly thrombin and activated factor X (FXa). However, the presence of heparin or heparan sulfate accelerates its effect by several magnitudes. AT deficiency, a severe thrombophilia, is classified as type I (quantitative) and type II (qualitative) deficiency. In the latter case mutations may influence the reactive site, the heparin binding-site (HBS) and exert pleiotropic effect. Heterozygous type II-HBS deficiency is a less severe thrombophilia than other heterozygous subtypes...
December 2014: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
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