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Periaqueductal gray

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646692/specific-subcortical-structures-are-activated-during-seizure-induced-death-in-a-model-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-sudep-a-manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#1
Srinivasa P Kommajosyula, Marcus E Randall, Thomas J Brozoski, Boris M Odintsov, Carl L Faingold
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major concern for patients with epilepsy. In most witnessed cases of SUDEP generalized seizures and respiratory failure preceded death, and pre-mortem neuroimaging studies in SUDEP patients observed changes in specific subcortical structures. Our study examined the role of subcortical structures in the DBA/1 mouse model of SUDEP using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). These mice exhibit acoustically-evoked generalized seizures leading to seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) that results in sudden death unless resuscitation is rapidly instituted...
May 25, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642688/lower-functional-connectivity-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-is-related-to-negative-affect-and-clinical-manifestations-of-fibromyalgia
#2
Marie-Andrée Coulombe, Keith St Lawrence, Dwight E Moulin, Patricia Morley-Forster, Mahsa Shokouhi, Warren R Nielson, Karen D Davis
Fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome is characterized by chronic widespread pain, muscle tenderness and emotional distress. Previous studies found reduced endogenous pain modulation in FM. This deficiency of pain modulation may be related to the attributes of chronic pain and other clinical symptoms experienced in patients with FM. Thus, we tested whether there is a link between the clinical symptoms of FM and functional connectivity (FC) of the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a key node of pain modulation. We acquired resting state 3T functional MRI (rsfMRI) data from 23 female patients with FM and 16 age- and sex- matched healthy controls (HC) and assessed FM symptoms with the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642284/excitation-of-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-triggers-immediate-transition-from-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-to-wakefulness-in-mice
#3
Shota Kodani, Shingo Soya, Takeshi Sakurai
Emotionally salient situations usually trigger arousal along with autonomic and neuroendocrine reactions. To examine whether the extended amygdala plays a role in sleep/wakefulness regulation, we examined the effects of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic excitation of GABAergic neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (GABA(BNST) neurons). Acute optogenetic excitation of these cells during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep resulted in immediate state transition to wakefulness, while stimulation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep showed no effect on sleep/wakefulness states in male mice...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638117/disrupted-functional-connectivity-between-the-periaqueductal-gray-and-other-brain-regions-in-a-rat-model-of-recurrent-headache
#4
Zhihua Jia, Wenjing Tang, Dengfa Zhao, Shengyuan Yu
Functional connectivity (FC) has been used to investigate the pathophysiology of migraine. We aimed to identify atypical FC between the periaqueductal gray (PAG) and other brain areas in rats induced by repeated meningeal nociception. The rat model was established by infusing an inflammatory soup (IS) through supradural catheters in conscious rats. Quiescent and face-grooming behaviors were observed to assess nociceptive behavior. FC analysis seeded on the PAG was performed on rats 21 days after IS infusion...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627133/mesocorticolimbic-hemodynamic-response-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-compulsive-behaviors
#5
Daniel O Claassen, Adam J Stark, Charis A Spears, Kalen J Petersen, Nelleke C van Wouwe, Robert M Kessler, David H Zald, Manus J Donahue
BACKGROUND: PD patients treated with dopamine therapy can develop maladaptive impulsive and compulsive behaviors, manifesting as repetitive participation in reward-driven activities. This behavioral phenotype implicates aberrant mesocorticolimbic network function, a concept supported by past literature. However, no study has investigated the acute hemodynamic response to dopamine agonists in this subpopulation. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that dopamine agonists differentially alter mesocortical and mesolimbic network activity in patients with impulsive-compulsive behaviors...
June 19, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603349/neural-manual-vs-robotic-assisted-mobilization-to-improve-motion-and-reduce-pain-hypersensitivity-in-hand-osteoarthritis-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Jorge Hugo Villafañe, Kristin Valdes, Grace Imperio, Alberto Borboni, Raquel Cantero-Téllez, Silvia Galeri, Stefano Negrini
[Purpose] The aim of the present study is to detail the protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of neural manual vs. robotic assisted on pain in sensitivity as well as analyse the quantitative and qualitative movement of hand in subjects with hand osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-two patients, aged 50 to 90 years old of both genders, with a diagnosis of hand Osteoarthritis (OA), will be recruited. Two groups of 36 participants will receive an experimental intervention (neurodynamic mobilization intervention plus exercise) or a control intervention (robotic assisted passive mobilization plus exercise) for 12 sessions over 4 weeks...
May 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583050/%C3%AE-opioid-and-5-ht1a-receptors-in-the-dorsomedial-hypothalamus-interact-for-the-regulation-of-panic-related-defensive-responses
#7
Camila Marroni Roncon, Paula Shimene de Melo Yamashita, Alana Tercino Frias, Elisabeth Aparecida Audi, Frederico Guilherme Graeff, Norberto Cysne Coimbra, Helio Zangrossi
The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) and the dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG) have been implicated in the genesis and regulation of panic-related defensive behaviors, such as escape. Previous results point to an interaction between serotonergic and opioidergic systems within the DPAG to inhibit escape, involving µ-opioid and 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1AR). In the present study we explore this interaction in the DMH, using escape elicited by electrical stimulation of this area as a panic attack index. The obtained results show that intra-DMH administration of the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (0...
June 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574927/altered-functional-connectivity-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-chronic-neck-and-shoulder-pain
#8
Cheng-Xin Yu, Bo Li, Ya-Ka Xu, Ting-Ting Ji, Liang Li, Chang-Jiang Zhao, Long Chen, Zhi-Zheng Zhuo
Chronic neck and shoulder pain with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CNSP-CSR) is one of the most common clinical chronic pain diseases. This study aimed to investigate the abnormal patterns in functional connectivity (FC) pertaining to the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) in patients with CNSP-CSR. A seed-based FC analysis was carried out for the right ventrolateral PAG and a correlation analysis was carried out with pain intensity, duration, and the extracted mean z scores. The PAG FC was significantly positively associated with the right orbital inferior frontal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus/postcentral gyrus, putamen, and the left anterior cingulate cortex, and significant negative FC was observed in the right lingual gyrus/occipital cortex in patients with CNSP-CSR...
June 1, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574391/non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-s-antinociception-mediated-by-the-opioid-mechanism-in-the-nucleus-raphe-magnus
#9
T Gorgiladze, I Nozadze, E Abzianidze, M Tsagareli
It has been established that the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) and rostral ventro-medial medulla (RVM) are involved in the descending pain control system. The latter involves the midline nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and adjacent reticular formation. These brain structures are is one of important parts of CNS circuit that controls nociceptive transmission at the level of spinal cord. Here we report that microinjection of commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diclofenac, ketorolac, metamizol, and xefocam into the NRM produces strong antinociception which is mediated by the opioid mechanism...
April 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554847/panicolytic-like-action-of-bradykinin-in-the-dorsal-periaqueductal-gray-through-%C3%AE-opioid-and-b2-kinin-receptors
#10
Caio César Sestile, Jhonatan Christian Maraschin, Vanessa Scalco Gama, Hélio Zangrossi, Frederico Guilherme Graeff, Elisabeth Aparecida Audi
A wealth of evidence has shown that opioid and kinin systems may control proximal defense in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (dPAG), a critical panic-associated area. Studies with drugs that interfere with serotonin-mediated neurotransmission suggest that the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) synergistically interacts with the 5-HT1A receptor in the dPAG to inhibit escape, a panic-related behavior. A similar inhibitory effect has also been reported after local administration of bradykinin (BK), which is blocked by the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone...
May 26, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541285/endogenous-opioids-regulate-social-threat-learning-in-humans
#11
Jan Haaker, Jonathan Yi, Predrag Petrovic, Andreas Olsson
Many fearful expectations are shaped by observation of aversive outcomes to others. Yet, the neurochemistry regulating social learning is unknown. Previous research has shown that during direct (Pavlovian) threat learning, information about personally experienced outcomes is regulated by the release of endogenous opioids, and activity within the amygdala and periaqueductal gray (PAG). Here we report that blockade of this opioidergic circuit enhances social threat learning through observation in humans involving activity within the amygdala, midline thalamus and the PAG...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505337/sex-differences-in-brain-regions-modulating-pain-among-older-adults-a-cross-sectional-resting-state-functional-connectivity-study
#12
Todd B Monroe, Roger B Fillingim, Stephen P Bruehl, Baxter P Rogers, Mary S Dietrich, John C Gore, Sebastian W Atalla, Ronald L Cowan
Objective.:  A long-standing hypothesis is that when compared with males, females may be at increased risk of experiencing greater pain sensitivity and unpleasantness. The purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in pain psychophysics and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) in core pain regions in an age- and sex-matched sample of healthy older adults. Design.:  Between groups, cross-sectional. Setting.:  Vanderbilt University and Medical Center...
May 13, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502529/mechanisms-underlying-the-early-risk-to-develop-anxiety-and-depression-a-translational-approach
#13
REVIEW
Ned H Kalin
Anxious temperament (AT) is an early life disposition that markedly increases the risk to develop stress related psychopathology such as anxiety and depressive disorders. Since anxiety and depression are common, and frequently have their onset early in life, a better understanding of the factors related to their childhood onset will facilitate the development of new more effective neurally informed interventions. A nonhuman primate (NHP) developmental model of childhood AT has been established, which has provided an understanding of the neural systems and molecular mechanisms mediating the development of AT...
June 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489932/camkii%C3%AE-may-modulate-fentanyl-induced-hyperalgesia-via-a-celc-pag-rvm-spinal-cord-descending-facilitative-pain-pathway-in-rats
#14
Zhen Li, Pingping Yin, Jian Chen, Shenglan Jin, Jieqiong Liu, Fang Luo
Each of the lateral capsular division of central nucleus of amygdala(CeLC), periaqueductal gray (PAG), rostral ventromedial medulla(RVM) and spinal cord has been proved to contribute to the development of opioid-induced hyperalgesia(OIH). Especially, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) in CeLC and spinal cord seems to play a key role in OIH modulation. However, the pain pathway through which CaMKIIα modulates OIH is not clear. The pathway from CeLC to spinal cord for this modulation was explored in the present study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488307/baicalin-alleviates-nitroglycerin-induced-migraine-in-rats-via-the-trigeminovascular-system
#15
Yu-Yao Sun, Wen-Jun Zhang, Cui-Lan Dong, Xiao-Fan Zhang, Jun Ji, Xue Wang, Ling Wang, Wan-Li Hu, Wen-Juan Du, Cheng-Long Cui, Chun-Feng Zhang, Fei Li, Chong-Zhi Wang, Chun-Su Yuan
Migraine is a common neurological disorder with a serious impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of baicalin on nitroglycerin-induced migraine rats. We carried out a behavioral research within 2 h post-nitroglycerin injection, and blood samples were drawn for measurements of nitric oxide (NO), calcitonin gene-related peptide, and endothelin (ET) levels. Immunohistochemistry was adopted to detect the activation of C-fos immunoreactive neurons in periaqueductal gray. The number, area size, and integrated optical density of C-fos positive cells were measured using Image-Pro Plus...
June 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434586/the-periaqueductal-gray-and-primal-emotional-processing-critical-to-influence-complex-defensive-responses-fear-learning-and-reward-seeking
#16
REVIEW
Simone C Motta, Antônio P Carobrez, Newton S Canteras
The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been commonly recognized as a downstream site in neural networks for the expression of a variety of behaviors and is thought to provide stereotyped responses. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that the PAG may exert more complex modulation of a number of behavioral responses and work as a unique hub supplying primal emotional tone to influence prosencephalic sites mediating complex aversive and appetitive responses. Of particular relevance, we review how the PAG is involved in influencing complex forms of defensive responses, such as circa-strike and risk assessment responses in animals...
May 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433648/repeated-threat-without-direct-harm-alters-metabolic-capacity-in-select-regions-that-drive-defensive-behavior
#17
D J Kim, A S Lee, A A Yttredahl, R Gómez-Rodríguez, B J Anderson
To understand the behavioral consequences of intermittent anticipatory stress resulting from threats without accompanying physiological challenges, we developed a semi-naturalistic rodent housing and foraging environment that can include threats that are unpredictable in timing. Behavior is automatically recorded while rats forage for food or water. Over three weeks, the threats have been shown to elicit risk assessment behaviors, increase defensive burying and increase adrenal gland weight. To identify brain regions activated by this manipulation, we measured cytochrome c oxidase (COX), which is tightly coupled to neural activity...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428749/deep-brain-stimulation-improves-the-symptoms-and-sensory-signs-of-persistent-central-neuropathic-pain-from-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-report
#18
Walter J Jermakowicz, Ian D Hentall, Jonathan R Jagid, Corneliu C Luca, James Adcock, Alberto Martinez-Arizala, Eva Widerström-Noga
Central neuropathic pain (CNP) is a significant problem after spinal cord injury (SCI). Pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches may reduce the severity, but relief is rarely substantial. While deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used to treat various chronic pain types, the technique has rarely been used to attenuate CNP after SCI. Here we present the case of a 54-year-old female with incomplete paraplegia who had severe CNP in the lower limbs and buttock areas since her injury 30 years prior. She was treated with bilateral DBS of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424576/defensive-vocalizations-and-motor-asymmetry-triggered-by-disinhibition-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-non-human-primates
#19
Patrick A Forcelli, Hannah F Waguespack, Ludise Malkova
Rapid and reflexive responses to threats are present across phylogeny. The neural circuitry mediating reflexive defense reactions has been well-characterized in a variety of species, for example, in rodents and cats, the detection of and species-typical response to threats is mediated by a network of structures including the midbrain tectum (deep and intermediate layers of the superior colliculus [DLSC]), periaqueductal gray (PAG), and forebrain structures such as the amygdala and hypothalamus. However, relatively little is known about the functional architecture of defense circuitry in primates...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420943/neural-mobilization-treatment-decreases-glial-cells-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-expression-in-the-central-nervous-system-in-rats-with-neuropathic-pain-induced-by-cci-in-rats
#20
Aline Carolina Giardini, Fabio Martinez Dos Santos, Joyce Teixeira da Silva, Mara Evany de Oliveira, Daniel Oliveira Martins, Marucia Chacur
Background. Glial cells are implicated in the development of chronic pain and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) released from activated microglia contributes to the nociceptive transmission. Neural mobilization (NM) technique is a method clinically effective in reducing pain sensitivity. Here we examined the involvement of glial cells and BDNF expression in the thalamus and midbrain after NM treatment in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI). CCI was induced and rats were subsequently submitted to 10 sessions of NM, every other day, beginning 14 days after CCI...
2017: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
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