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Periaqueductal gray

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326231/linked-networks-for-learning-and-expressing-location-specific-threat
#1
Benjamin Suarez-Jimenez, James A Bisby, Aidan J Horner, John A King, Daniel S Pine, Neil Burgess
Learning locations of danger within our environment is a vital adaptive ability whose neural bases are only partially understood. We examined fMRI brain activity while participants navigated a virtual environment in which flowers appeared and were "picked." Picking flowers in the danger zone (one-half of the environment) predicted an electric shock to the wrist (or "bee sting"); flowers in the safe zone never predicted shock; and household objects served as controls for neutral spatial memory. Participants demonstrated learning with shock expectancy ratings and skin conductance increases for flowers in the danger zone...
January 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318857/-effect-of-electroacupuncture-on-expression-of-5-ht7-receptor-in-periaqueductal-gray-and-plasma-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-migraine-rats
#2
Pei Pei, Huai-Zhen Chen, Yan-Xin Wang, Wen-Ming Yang, Lu Liu, Lin-Peng Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture(EA)by modulating 5-hydroxytryptamine 7 (5-HT7) receptor in periaqueductal gray (PAG) and plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). METHODS: Forty-two male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control,model and EA groups, 14 rat in each one. The neurogenic migraine model was established by repeated electrical stimulation on sagittal sinus duramater. Intracranial electrodes were used in the control group without stimuli...
December 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305892/the-involvement-of-the-pathway-connecting-the-substantia-nigra-the-periaqueductal-gray-matter-and-the-retrotrapezoid-nucleus-in-breathing-control-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Juliana C Lima, Luiz M Oliveira, Marina T Botelho, Thiago S Moreira, Ana C Takakura
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SNpc), accompanied by motor and non-motor deficiencies such as respiratory failure. Here, our aim was to investigate possible neuronal communications between the SNpc and chemoreceptor neurons within the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), in order to explain neurodegeneration and the loss of breathing function in the 6-OHDA PD animal model. Male Wistar rats received tracer injections in the SNpc, RTN and periaqueductal gray (PAG) regions to investigate the projections between those regions...
January 4, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304875/antinociceptive-tolerance-to-nsaids-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-is-mediated-via-endogenous-opioid-mechanism
#4
Nana Tsiklauri, Natia Pirkulashvili, Ivliane Nozadze, Marina Nebieridze, Gulnaz Gurtskaia, Elene Abzianidze, Merab G Tsagareli
BACKGROUND: In the past decade several studies have reported that in some brain areas, particularly, in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter, rostral ventro-medial medulla, central nucleus of amygdala, nucleus raphe magnus, and dorsal hippocampus, microinjections of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induce antinociception with distinct development of tolerance. Given this evidence, in this study we investigated the development of tolerance to the analgesic effects of NSAIDs diclofenac, ketorolac and xefocam microinjected into the rostral part of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in rats...
January 6, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304042/periaqueductal-efferents-to-dopamine-and-gaba-neurons-of-the-vta
#5
Niels R Ntamati, Meaghan Creed, Ridouane Achargui, Christian Lüscher
Neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) modulate threat responses and nociception. Activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on the other hand can cause reinforcement and aversion. While in many situations these behaviors are related, the anatomical substrate of a crosstalk between the PAG and VTA remains poorly understood. Here we describe the anatomical and electrophysiological organization of the VTA-projecting PAG neurons. Using rabies-based, cell type-specific retrograde tracing, we observed that PAG to VTA projection neurons are evenly distributed along the rostro-caudal axis of the PAG, but concentrated in its posterior and ventrolateral segments...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295561/exploring-the-mechanisms-of-electroacupuncture-induced-analgesia-through-rna-sequencing-of-the-periaqueductal-gray
#6
Man-Li Hu, Hong-Mei Zhu, Qiu-Lin Zhang, Jing-Jing Liu, Yi Ding, Ju-Ming Zhong, Vitaly Vodyanoy, Ming-Xing Ding
Electroacupuncture (EA) can relieve various pains. However, its mechanism in terms of the transcriptome is still not well-known. To explore the full profile of EA-induced molecular modification in the central nerve system, three twins of goats were selected for a match-paired experiment: EA stimulation (60 Hz, 30 min) and none-EA (control). Goats in the EA group showed an increased (p < 0.05) nociceptive threshold compared with the control goats. Experimental goats were sacrificed at 4 h of the experiment, and the periaqueductal grays were harvested for RNA sequencing...
December 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285575/alteration-of-gray-matter-texture-features-over-the-whole-brain-in-medication-overuse-headache-using-a-3-dimentional-texture-analysis
#7
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Zhiqiang Chen, Mengqi Liu, Huiguang He, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: Imaging studies have provided valuable information in understanding the headache neuromechanism for medication-overuse headache (MOH), and the aim of this study is to investigate altered texture features of MR structural images over the whole brain in MOH using a 3-dimentional texture analysis. METHODS: Brain three-dimensional T1-weighted structural images were obtained from 44 MOH patients and 32 normal controls (NC). The imaging processing included two steps: gray matter (gray images) segment and a 3-dimensional texture features mapping...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275839/the-multifaceted-role-of-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-emotion-decision-making-social-cognition-and-psychopathology
#8
REVIEW
Jaryd Hiser, Michael Koenigs
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been implicated in a variety of social, cognitive, and affective functions that are commonly disrupted in mental illness. In this review, we summarize data from a diverse array of human and animal studies demonstrating that the vmPFC is a key node of cortical and subcortical networks that subserve at least three broad domains of psychological function linked to psychopathology. One track of research indicates that the vmPFC is critical for the representation of reward- and value-based decision making, through interactions with the ventral striatum and amygdala...
November 20, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273230/exploring-the-neural-bases-of-primary-muscle-tension-dysphonia-a-case-study-using-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#9
Nelson Roy, Maria Dietrich, Michael Blomgren, Amanda Heller, Daniel R Houtz, James Lee
Primary muscle tension dysphonia (pMTD) is a voice disorder that occurs in the absence of laryngeal pathology. Dysregulated activity of the paralaryngeal muscles is considered the proximal cause; however, the central origin of this aberrant laryngeal muscle activation is unclear. The Trait Theory (Roy and Bless, 2000a,b) proposed that specific personality traits can predispose one to laryngeal motor inhibition and pMTD, and this inhibition is mediated by a hyperactive "behavioral inhibition system (BIS)" composed of limbic system structures (and associated prefrontal connections)...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235190/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-the-central-extended-amygdala
#10
Rachael M Tillman, Melissa D Stockbridge, Brendon M Nacewicz, Salvatore Torrisi, Andrew S Fox, Jason F Smith, Alexander J Shackman
The central extended amygdala (EAc)-including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce)-plays a critical role in triggering fear and anxiety and is implicated in the development of a range of debilitating neuropsychiatric disorders. Although it is widely believed that these disorders reflect the coordinated activity of distributed neural circuits, the functional architecture of the EAc network and the degree to which the BST and the Ce show distinct patterns of functional connectivity is unclear...
December 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209804/efferents-of-anterior-cingulate-areas-24a-and-24b-and-midcingulate-areas-24a-and-24b-in-the-mouse
#11
Clémentine Fillinger, Ipek Yalcin, Michel Barrot, Pierre Veinante
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), constituted by areas 25, 32, 24a and 24b in rodents, plays a major role in cognition, emotion and pain. In a previous study, we described the afferents of areas 24a and 24b and those of areas 24a' and 24b' of midcingulate cortex (MCC) in mice and highlighted some density differences among cingulate inputs (Fillinger et al., Brain Struct Funct 222:1509-1532, 2017). To complete this connectome, we analyzed here the efferents of ACC and MCC by injecting anterograde tracers in areas 24a/24b of ACC and 24a'/24b' of MCC...
December 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209184/dynamics-of-intersubject-brain-networks-during-anxious-anticipation
#12
Mahshid Najafi, Joshua Kinnison, Luiz Pessoa
How do large-scale brain networks reorganize during the waxing and waning of anxious anticipation? Here, threat was dynamically modulated during human functional MRI as two circles slowly meandered on the screen; if they touched, an unpleasant shock was delivered. We employed intersubject correlation analysis, which allowed the investigation of network-level functional connectivity across brains, and sought to determine how network connectivity changed during periods of approach (circles moving closer) and periods of retreat (circles moving apart)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209161/electroacupuncture-attenuates-visceral-hypersensitivity-by-inhibiting-jak2-stat3-signaling-pathway-in-the-descending-pain-modulation-system
#13
Juan Wan, Yi Ding, Adnan H Tahir, Manoj K Shah, Habibullah Janyaro, Xiaojing Li, Juming Zhong, Vitaly Vodyanoy, Mingxing Ding
Electroacupuncture (EA) has been used for treating visceral hypersensitivity (VH). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. This study was aim to testify the effect of EA on ileitis-provoked VH, and to confirm whether EA attenuates VH through Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in the periaqueductal gray (PAG)-the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM)-the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) axis. Methods: Goats were anesthetized and laparotomized for injecting 2,4,6-trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS)-ethanol solution (30mg TNBS dissolved in 40% ethanol) into the ileal wall to induce VH...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204125/alcohol-s-effects-on-pair-bond-maintenance-in-male-prairie-voles
#14
Andre T Walcott, Andrey E Ryabinin
Alcohol abuse can have devastating effects on social relationships. In particular, discrepant patterns of heavy alcohol consumption are associated with increased rates of separation and divorce. Previous studies have attempted to model these effects of alcohol using socially monogamous prairie voles. These studies showed that alcohol consumption can inhibit the formation of pair bonds in this species. While these findings indicated that alcohol's effects on social attachments can involve biological mechanisms, the formation of pair bonds does not properly model long-term human attachments...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191577/electrical-stimulation-of-the-insular-cortex-as-a-novel-target-for-the-relief-of-refractory-pain-an-experimental-approach-in-rodents
#15
Luiz Fabio Dimov, Elaine Flamia Toniolo, Heloísa Alonso-Matielo, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Luis Garcia-Larrea, Gerson Ballester, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Camila Squarzoni Dale
Cortical electrical stimulation (CES) has shown to be an effective therapeutic alternative for neuropathic pain refractory to pharmacological treatment. The primary motor cortex(M1) was the main cortical target used in the vast majority of both invasive and non-invasive studies. Despite positive results M1-based approaches still fail to relieve pain in a significant proportion of individuals. It has been advocated that the direct stimulation of cortical areas directly implicated in the central integration of pain could increase the efficacy of analgesic brain stimulation...
November 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186377/oxytocin-oxytocin-receptor-systems-facilitate-social-defeat-posture-in-male-mice
#16
Naranbat Nasanbuyan, Masahide Yoshida, Yuki Takayanagi, Ayumu Inutsuka, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Akihiro Yamanaka, Tatsushi Onaka
Social stress has deteriorating effects on various psychiatric diseases. In animal models, exposure to socially dominant conspecifics, i.e., social defeat stress, evokes species-specific defeat posture via unknown mechanisms. Oxytocin neurons have been shown to be activated by stressful stimuli and to have pro-social and anxiolytic actions. The roles of oxytocin during social defeat stress remain unclear. Expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in oxytocin neurons and in oxytocin receptor-expressing neurons was investigated in mice...
November 24, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183829/the-rodent-versus-wild-snake-paradigm-as-a-model-for-studying-anxiety-and-panic-like-behaviors-face-construct-and-predictive-validities
#17
Tatiana Paschoalin-Maurin, Tayllon Dos Anjos-Garcia, Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Renato Leonardo de Freitas, Jade Pissamiglio Cysne Coimbra, Carlos Júlio Laure, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
Using an innovative approach to study the neural bases of psychiatric disorders, this study investigated the behavioral, morphological and pharmacological bases of panic attack-induced responses in a prey-versus-coral snake paradigm. Mesocricetus auratus was chronically treated with intraperitoneal administration of the selective serotonin uptake inhibitor paroxetine or the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)/benzodiazepine receptor agonist alprazolam at three different doses and were then confronted with a venomous coral snake (Micrurus frontalis, Reptilia, Colubridae)...
November 25, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180441/neural-deletion-of-sh2b1-results-in-brain-growth-retardation-and-reactive-aggression
#18
Lin Jiang, Haoran Su, Julia M Keogh, Zheng Chen, Elana Henning, Paul Wilkinson, Ian Goodyer, I Sadaf Farooqi, Liangyou Rui
Psychiatric disorders are associated with aberrant brain development and/or aggressive behavior and are influenced by genetic factors; however, genes that affect brain aggression circuits remain elusive. Here, we show that neuronal Src-homology-2 (SH2)B adaptor protein-1 (Sh2b1) is indispensable for both brain growth and protection against aggression. Global and brain-specific deletion of Sh2b1 decreased brain weight and increased aggressive behavior. Global and brain-specific Sh2b1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited fatal, intermale aggression...
November 27, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160143/some-autonomic-deficits-of-acute-or-chronic-cervical-spinal-contusion-reversed-by-interim-brainstem-stimulation
#19
Alberto A Vitores, Stephanie S Sloley, Catalina Martinez, Melissa M Carballosa-Gautam, Ian D Hentall
Prolonged electrical stimulation of the hindbrain's nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) or its major midbrain input region, the periaqueductal gray (PAG), was previously found in rats to promote recovery from sensory-motor and histological deficits of acute thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, some visceral deficits of acute and chronic midline cervical (C5) contusion are similarly examined. Cranially implanted wireless stimulators delivered intermittent 8 Hz, 30-70 µA cathodal pulse trains to a brainstem microelectrode...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158920/enhancement-in-tonically-active-glutamatergic-inputs-to-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-contributes-to-neuropathic-pain-induced-high-blood-pressure
#20
Wei Wang, Zui Zou, Xing Tan, Ru-Wen Zhang, Chang-Zhen Ren, Xue-Ya Yao, Cheng-Bao Li, Wei-Zhong Wang, Xue-Yin Shi
Neuropathic pain increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension with the characteristic of sympathetic overactivity. The enhanced tonically active glutamatergic input to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) contributes to sympathetic overactivity and blood pressure (BP) in cardiovascular diseases. We hypothesize that neuropathic pain enhances tonically active glutamatergic inputs to the RVLM, which contributes to high level of BP and sympathetic outflow. Animal model with the trigeminal neuropathic pain was induced by the infraorbital nerve-chronic constriction injury (ION-CCI)...
2017: Neural Plasticity
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