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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765307/a-novel-integrative-mechanism-in-anxiolytic-behavior-induced-by-galanin-2-neuropeptide-y-y1-receptor-interactions-on-medial-paracapsular-intercalated-amygdala-in-rats
#1
Manuel Narváez, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Luis Santín, Carmelo Millón, Belén Gago, Antonio Flores-Burgess, Miguel A Barbancho, Miguel Pérez de la Mora, José Narváez, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe
Anxiety is evoked by a threatening situation and display adaptive or defensive behaviors, found similarly in animals and humans. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptor (NPYY1R) and Galanin (GAL) receptor 2 (GALR2) interact in several regions of the limbic system, including the amygdala. In a previous study, GALR2 enhanced NPYY1R mediated anxiolytic actions on spatiotemporal parameters in the open field and elevated plus maze, involving the formation of GALR2/NPYY1R heteroreceptor complexes in the amygdala. Moreover, the inclusion of complementary ethological parameters provides a more comprehensive profile on the anxiolytic effects of a treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751998/does-somatostatin-have-a-role-to-play-in-migraine-headache
#2
REVIEW
Geoffrey A Lambert, Alessandro S Zagami
Migraine is a condition without apparent pathology. Its cardinal symptom is the prolonged excruciating headache. Theories about this pain have posited pathologies which run the gamut from neural to vascular to neurovascular, but no observations have detected a plausible pathology. We believe that no pathology can be found for migraine headache because none exists. Migraine is not driven by pathology - it is driven by neural events produced by triggers - or simply by neural noise- noise that has crossed a critical threshold...
April 17, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750883/involvement-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-the-descending-antinociceptive-effect-induced-by-the-central-nucleus-of-amygdala
#3
N Bourbia, A Pertovaara
Here we studied whether descending control of mechanical nociception by glutamate in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) of healthy control animals is induced by amygdaloid NMDA receptors and relayed through the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). Mechanical nociception in the hind paws was assessed in rats with chronic guide cannulae for glutamate administration in the right CeA and for inducing local anesthesia in the PAG. In a separate electrophysiological study, ON-like PAG neurons giving an excitatory response to noxious pinch of the tail were recorded in anesthetized rats following glutamate administration into the CeA...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735274/effects-of-intrathecal-administration-of-orexin-1-receptor-antagonist-on-antinociceptive-responses-induced-by-chemical-stimulation-of-lateral-hypothalamus-in-an-animal-model-of-tonic-nociception
#4
Laleh Rezaee, Saeideh Karimi-Haghighi, Soheila Fazli-Tabaei, Abbas Haghparast
Orexins are produced in the restricted regions of the lateral hypothalamus (LH). However, orexinergic receptors and projections are localized in wide regions like nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, periaqueductal gray area and spinal cord which are involved in the pain modulation. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of intrathecal administration of orexin-1 receptor antagonist (SB-334867) in the spinal antinociception induced by intra-LH administration of carbachol (cholinergic receptor agonist) in both early and late phases of pain related behaviors in formalin test...
April 3, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733874/diffuse-noxious-inhibitory-controls-and-brain-networks-are-modulated-in-a-testosterone-dependent-manner-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#5
Joyce T Da Silva, Youping Zhang, Jamila Asgar, Jin Y Ro, David A Seminowicz
Diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC), which involves endogenous pain modulation, has been investigated as a potential mechanism for the differences in pain modulation observed between men and women, though the literature shows contradictory findings. We used a capsaicin-induced DNIC behavioral assay and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to assess the effect of testosterone on pain modulation and related brain circuitry in rats. We hypothesized that testosterone is required for DNIC that leads to efficient pain inhibition by increasing descending pain modulation...
May 4, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729391/in-vivo-quantitative-structural-imaging-of-the-human-midbrain-and-the-superior-colliculus-at-9-4t
#6
Joana R Loureiro, Marc Himmelbach, Thomas Ethofer, Rolf Pohmann, Pascal Martin, Jonas Bause, Klaus Scheffler, Wolfgang Grodd, Gisela E Hagberg
We explored anatomical details of the superior colliculus (SC) by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 9.4T. The high signal-to-noise ratio allowed the acquisition of high resolution, multi-modal images with voxel sizes ranging between 176 × 132 × 600 μm and (800)3 μm. Quantitative mapping of the longitudinal relaxation rate R1, the effective transverse relaxation rate R2*, and the magnetic susceptibility QSM was performed in 14 healthy volunteers. The images were analyzed in native space as well as after normalization to a common brain space (MNI)...
May 2, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722912/region-specific-deletions-of-the-glutamate-transporter-glt1-differentially-affect-nerve-injury-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-mice
#7
Zhuoyang Zhao, Yuichi Hiraoka, Hiroshi Ogawa, Kohichi Tanaka
Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter and plays an important role in neuropathic pain, which is frequently caused by nerve damage. According to recent studies, nerve injury induces changes in glutamatergic transmission in the spinal cord and several supraspinal regions, including the periaqueductal gray (PAG). Among glutamate signaling components, accumulating evidence suggests that the glial glutamate transporter GLT1 plays a critical role in neuropathic pain. Indeed, GLT1 expression is reduced in the spinal cord but increased in the PAG after nerve injury, suggesting that the role of GLT1 in neuropathic pain may vary according to the brain region...
May 3, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695951/dynamic-neural-state-identification-in-deep-brain-local-field-potentials-of-neuropathic-pain
#8
Huichun Luo, Yongzhi Huang, Xueying Du, Yunpeng Zhang, Alexander L Green, Tipu Z Aziz, Shouyan Wang
In neuropathic pain, the neurophysiological and neuropathological function of the ventro-posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus (VPL) and the periventricular gray/periaqueductal gray area (PVAG) involves multiple frequency oscillations. Moreover, oscillations related to pain perception and modulation change dynamically over time. Fluctuations in these neural oscillations reflect the dynamic neural states of the nucleus. In this study, an approach to classifying the synchronization level was developed to dynamically identify the neural states...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695413/altered-excitability-and-local-connectivity-of-mpfc-pag-neurons-in-a-mouse-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#9
John Cheriyan, Patrick L Sheets
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a major role in both sensory and affective aspects of pain. There is extensive evidence that chronic pain produces functional changes within the mPFC. However, our understanding of local circuit changes to defined subpopulations of mPFC neurons in chronic pain models remains unclear. A major subpopulation of mPFC neurons project to the periaqueductal gray (PAG) which is a key midbrain structure involved in endogenous pain suppression and facilitation. Here, we used laser scanning photostimulation of caged glutamate to map cortical circuits of retrogradely-labeled cortico-PAG (CP) neurons in layer 5 (L5) of mPFC in brain slices prepared from male mice having undergone chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681797/electroacupuncture-potentiates-cannabinoid-receptor-mediated-descending-inhibitory-control-in-a-mouse-model-of-knee-osteoarthritis
#10
Xiao-Cui Yuan, Bing Zhu, Xiang-Hong Jing, Li-Ze Xiong, Cai-Hua Wu, Fang Gao, Hong-Ping Li, Hong-Chun Xiang, He Zhu, Bin Zhou, Wei He, Chuan-You Lin, Hui-Lin Pan, Qiang Wang, Man Li
Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a highly prevalent, chronic joint disorder, which can lead to chronic pain. Although electroacupuncture (EA) is effective in relieving chronic pain in the clinic, the involved mechanisms remain unclear. Reduced diffuse noxius inhibitory controls (DNIC) function is associated with chronic pain and may be related to the action of endocannabinoids. In the present study, we determined whether EA may potentiate cannabinoid receptor-mediated descending inhibitory control and inhibit chronic pain in a mouse model of KOA...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680268/distribution-of-mch-containing-fibers-in-the-feline-brainstem-relevance-for-rem-sleep-regulation
#11
Alicia Costa, Santiago Castro-Zaballa, Patricia Lagos, Michael H Chase, Pablo Torterolo
Neurons that utilize melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) as a neuromodulator are localized in the postero-lateral hypothalamus and incerto-hypothalamic area. These neurons project diffusely throughout the central nervous system and have been implicated in critical physiological processes, such as sleep. Unlike rodents, in the order carnivora as well as in humans, MCH exerts its biological functions through two receptors: MCHR-1 and MCHR-2. Hence, the cat is an optimal animal to model MCHergic functions in humans...
April 19, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679881/ventrolateral-orbital-cortex-oxytocin-attenuates-neuropathic-pain-through-periaqueductal-gray-opioid-receptor
#12
Mina Taati, Esmaeal Tamaddonfard
BACKGROUND: Oxytocin plays an important role in supraspinal modulation of pain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLOC) microinjection of oxytocin on neuropathic pain after blockade of opioid receptors in this area and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). METHODS: Neuropathic pain was induced by complete transcection of preoneal and tibial branches of sciatic nerve. The VLOC and vlPAG were unilaterally (contralateral to the sciatic nerve-injured side) and bilaterally implanted with guide cannulas, respectively...
December 21, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662445/dysregulation-of-pain-and-emotion-related-networks-in-trigeminal-neuralgia
#13
Yanyang Zhang, Zhiqi Mao, Longsheng Pan, Zhipei Ling, Xinyun Liu, Jun Zhang, Xinguang Yu
Classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe neuropathic facial pain disorder associated with increased risks of anxiety and depression. Converging evidence suggests that chronic pain pathophysiology involves dysfunctional pain-related and emotion-related networks. However, whether these systems are also among the culprit networks for TN remains unclear. Here, we aimed to assess TN-related anatomical and functional brain anomalies in pain-related and emotion-related networks. We investigated differences in gray matter (GM) volume and the related resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between 29 classical TN patients and 34 matched healthy controls...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623029/hypersensitivity-of-prelimbic-cortex-neurons-contributes-to-aggravated-nociceptive-responses-in-rats-with-experience-of-chronic-inflammatory-pain
#14
Xiao-Cen Fan, Su Fu, Feng-Yu Liu, Shuang Cui, Ming Yi, You Wan
Previous experience of chronic pain causes enhanced responses to upcoming noxious events in both humans and animals, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we found that rats with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic inflammatory pain experience exhibited aggravated pain responses to later formalin test. Enhanced neuronal activation upon formalin assaults and increased phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) were observed in the prelimbic cortex (PL) of rats with chronic inflammatory pain experience, and inhibiting PL neuronal activities reversed the aggravated pain...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596901/periaqueductal-gray-glutamatergic-cannabinoid-and-vanilloid-receptor-interplay-in-defensive-behavior-and-aversive-memory-formation
#15
Franklin P Back, Antonio P Carobrez
Stimulation of the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) in humans elicits sensations of fear and impending terror, and mediates predator defensive responses in rodents. In rats, pharmacological stimulation of the dorsolateral portion of the PAG (dlPAG) with N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) induces aversive conditioning that acts as an unconditioned stimulus (US). In the present work, we investigated the interplay between the vanilloid TRPV1 and cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the NMDA-dlPAG defensive response and in subsequent aversive learning...
March 26, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577439/glutamatergic-cells-in-the-periaqueductal-gray-matter-mediate-sensory-inputs-after-bladder-stimulation-in-freely-moving-rats
#16
Aryo Zare, Ali Jahanshahi, Celine Meriaux, Harry Wm Steinbusch, Gommert A van Koeveringe
OBJECTIVES: To determine the phenotype of the ventrolateral part of the periaqueductal gray matter neurons after bladder stimulation. METHODS: In the experimental group, electrical stimulation of the bladder was carried out under freely moving condition by a bipolar stimulation electrode implanted in the bladder wall. Thereafter, the brain sections were processed for immunohistochemical analysis using antibodies against c-Fos (neuronal activation marker) together with one of the following: tyrosine hydroxylase (dopaminergic cell marker), vesicular glutamate transporter (glutamatergic cell marker), serotonin, glutamate decarboxylase (glutamate decarboxylase 67, gamma-aminobutyric acid cell marker) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase...
March 25, 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565956/neonatal-sleep-restriction-increases-nociceptive-sensitivity-in-adolescent-mice
#17
Paula Araujo, Cesar A Coelho, Maria G Oliveira, Sergio Tufik, Monica L Andersen
BACKGROUND: Sleep loss in infants may have a negative effect on the functional and structural development of the nociceptive system. We tested the hypothesis that neonatal sleep restriction induces a long-term increase of pain-related behaviors in mice and that this hypersensitivity occurs due to changes in the neuronal activity of nociceptive pathways. OBJECTIVES: We aim to investigate the effects of sleep loss in neonatal mice on pain behaviors of adolescent and adult mice in a sex-dependent manner...
March 2018: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559622/inhibitory-gain-modulation-of-defense-behaviors-by-zona-incerta
#18
Xiao-Lin Chou, Xiyue Wang, Zheng-Gang Zhang, Li Shen, Brian Zingg, Junxiang Huang, Wen Zhong, Lukas Mesik, Li I Zhang, Huizhong Whit Tao
Zona incerta (ZI) is a functionally mysterious subthalamic nucleus containing mostly inhibitory neurons. Here, we discover that GABAergic neurons in the rostral sector of ZI (ZIr) directly innervate excitatory but not inhibitory neurons in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral compartments of periaqueductal gray (PAG), which can drive flight and freezing behaviors respectively. Optogenetic activation of ZIr neurons or their projections to PAG reduces both sound-induced innate flight response and conditioned freezing response, while optogenetic suppression of these neurons enhances these defensive behaviors, likely through a mechanism of gain modulation...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555019/the-periaqueductal-gray-and-bayesian-integration-in-placebo-analgesia
#19
Arvina Grahl, Selim Onat, Christian Büchel
In placebo hypoalgesia research, the strength of treatment expectations and experiences are key components. However, the reliability or precision of expectations had been mostly ignored although being a likely source for interindividual differences. In the present study, we adopted a Bayesian framework, naturally combining expectation magnitudes and precisions. This postulates that expectations (prior) are integrated with incoming nociceptive information (likelihood) and both are weighted by their relative precision to form the pain percept and placebo effect...
March 20, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548885/activation-of-5-ht-2c-but-not-5-ht-1a-receptors-in-the-amygdala-enhances-fear-induced-antinociception-blockade-with-local-5-ht-2c-antagonist-or-systemic-fluoxetine
#20
Lígia Renata Rodrigues Tavares, Daniela Baptista-de-Souza, Azair Canto-de-Souza
It is well-known that the exposure of rodents to threatening environments [e.g., the open arm of the elevated-plus maze (EPM)] elicits pain inhibition. Systemic and/or intracerebral [e.g., periaqueductal gray matter, amygdala) injections of antiaversive drugs [e.g., serotonin (5-HT) ligands, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)] have been used to change EPM-open arm confinement induced antinociception (OAA). Here, we investigated (i) the role of the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C receptors located in the amygdaloid complex on OAA as well as (ii) the effects of systemic pretreatment with fluoxetine (an SSRI) on the effects of intra-amygdala injections of 8-OH-DPAT (a 5-HT1A agonist) or MK-212 (a 5-HT2C agonist) on nociception in mice confined to the open arm or enclosed arm of the EPM...
March 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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