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Periaqueductal gray

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935440/effects-of-acute-restraint-and-unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-on-brain-corticotrophin-releasing-factor-mrna-in-the-elevated-t-maze
#1
José S de Andrade, Isabel C Céspedes, Renata O Abrão, Joelcimar M da Silva, Ricardo Ceneviva, Daniel Araki Ribeiro, Jackson C Bittencourt, Milena B Viana
Corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) modulates stress/anxiety-related responses. Previous studies showed that exposure to acute restraint and unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) facilitates elevated T-maze (ETM) avoidance responses, an anxiogenic-like effect. This study verified the role of CRF in the modulation of ETM avoidance and escape reactions, in unstressed rats and in animals exposed to acute restraint or to UCMS, by quantifying CRF mRNA concentrations in stress/anxiety-related brain regions, through semiquantitative in situ hybridization...
September 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926472/differential-sensitivity-of-presynaptic-and-postsynaptic-gabab-receptors-in-rat-ventrolateral-periaqueductal-gray
#2
Qian Chen, Caifeng Shao, Hui Zhou, Rui Ma, Ping Jiang, Kun Yang
The ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the midbrain plays a key role in the descending pain modulatory system. γ-Aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors belong to a metabotropic receptor subfamily and mediate both presynaptic and postsynaptic effects in PAG. It has been well documented that activation of GABAB receptors yields analgesia in some PAG subdivisions. In the present study, employing whole-cell patch-clamp recordings on acute rat PAG slices, we simultaneously monitored the responses of presynaptic and postsynaptic GABAB receptors...
September 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882474/postpartum-inhibition-of-ovarian-steroid-action-increases-aspects-of-maternal-caregiving-and-reduces-medial-preoptic-area-progesterone-receptor-expression-in-female-rats
#3
Z A Grieb, S M Tierney, J S Lonstein
The rapid peripartum onset of maternal caregiving involves progesterone synergizing with estradiol, but prolonging progesterone exposure past this time can prevent the emergence of mothering. Interestingly, there is a 7-10day-long rise in progesterone during mid-lactation, but its effects on mothering are unknown. Given progesterone's potential to inhibit mothering onset, this mid-lactational rise may contribute to the normal attenuation of caregiving behaviors across lactation. To evaluate this, recently-parturient rats were ovariectomized and caregiving observed from postpartum days (PPD) 7-18...
September 16, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875540/the-physiological-motor-patterns-produced-by-neurons-in-the-nucleus-retroambiguus-in-the-rat-and-their-modulation-by-vagal-peripheral-chemosensory-and-nociceptive-stimulation
#4
Hari H Subramanian, Zheng-Gui Huang, Peter A Silburn, Ron J Balnave, Gert Holstege
The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) is a neuronal cell group in the medullary ventrolateral tegmentum, rostrocaudally between the obex and the first cervical spinal segment. NRA neurons are premotor interneurons with direct projections to the motoneurons of soft palate, pharynx and larynx in the nucleus ambiguus in the lateral medulla as well as to the motoneurons in the spinal cord innervating diaphragm, abdominal, and pelvic floor muscles and the lumbosacral motoneurons generating sexual posture. These NRA premotor interneurons receive very strong projections from the periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the context of basic survival mechanisms as fight, flight, freezing, sound production and sexual behavior...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853438/periaqueductal-gray-glutamatergic-transmission-governs-chronic-stress-induced-depression
#5
Yu-Cheng Ho, Tzer-Bin Lin, Ming-Chun Hsieh, Cheng-Yuan Lai, Dylan Chou, Yat-Pang Chau, Gin-Den Chen, Hsien-Yu Peng
The mechanisms underlying chronic stress-induced dysfunction of glutamatergic transmission that contribute to helplessness-associated depressive disorder are unknown. We investigated the relationship of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors and stress, and the neuroplastic changes of stress-induced depression-like behavior in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). We conducted whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings in the vlPAG neurons. Depression-like behavior was assayed using tail suspension test and sucrose preference test...
August 30, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851568/angiotensin-at1-receptors-modulate-the-anxiogenic-effects-of-angiotensin-5-8-injected-into-the-rat-ventrolateral-periaqueductal-gray
#6
Karina Genaro, Débora Fabris, Helene A Fachim, Wiliam A Prado
Losartan and PD 123,319 are non-peptide angiotensin (Ang) receptor antagonists for the AT1 and AT2 subtypes of Ang II receptors, respectively. The tetrapeptide Ang (5-8) is the smallest Ang-peptide that elicits anxiogenic effects on unconditioned and conditioned experimental models upon injection into the ventrolateral column of the periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), and Ang (5-8) can be synthesized (from Ang II or Ang III) and inactivated in this mesencephalic structure. The vlPAG is also known to play a central role in mechanisms of fear and anxiety...
August 26, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836726/dynamic-causal-modeling-in-ptsd-and-its-dissociative-subtype-bottom-up-versus-top-down-processing-within-fear-and-emotion-regulation-circuitry
#7
Andrew A Nicholson, Karl J Friston, Peter Zeidman, Sherain Harricharan, Margaret C McKinnon, Maria Densmore, Richard W J Neufeld, Jean Théberge, Frank Corrigan, Rakesh Jetly, David Spiegel, Ruth A Lanius
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with decreased top-down emotion modulation from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regions, a pathophysiology accompanied by hyperarousal and hyperactivation of the amygdala. By contrast, PTSD patients with the dissociative subtype (PTSD + DS) often exhibit increased mPFC top-down modulation and decreased amygdala activation associated with emotional detachment and hypoarousal. Crucially, PTSD and PTSD + DS display distinct functional connectivity within the PFC, amygdala complexes, and the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a region related to defensive responses/emotional coping...
August 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817416/nicotinic-modulation-of-descending-pain-control-circuitry
#8
Iboro C Umana, Claire A Daniele, Brooke A Miller, Keith Gallagher, Meghan A Brown, Chandrika Abburi, Peggy Mason, Daniel S McGehee
Along with the well-known rewarding effects, activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) can also relieve pain, and some nicotinic agonists have analgesic efficacy similar to opioids. A major target of analgesic drugs is the descending pain modulatory pathway, including the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) and the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). Although activating nAChRs within this circuitry can be analgesic, little is known about the subunit composition and cellular effects of these receptors, particularly within the vlPAG...
July 3, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808987/volume-expansion-of-periaqueductal-gray-in-episodic-migraine-a-pilot-mri-structural-imaging-study
#9
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Mengqi Liu, Shuangfeng Liu, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: The periaqueductal gray (PAG) dysfunction was recognized in migraine, and the nonspecific PAG lesions were also observed in episodic migraine (EM) recently. However, the PAG volume change was not totally detected in EM up to now. Herein, the aim of this study was to investigate altered PAG volume in EM patients based on high resolution brain structural image. METHODS: The brain structural images were obtained from 18 normal controls (NC), 18 EM patients and 16 chronic migraine (CM) on 3...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799955/a-serotonergic-deficit-in-the-dorsal-periaqueductal-gray-matter-may-underpin-enhanced-panic-like-behavior-in-diabetic-rats
#10
Eder Gambeta, Caio C Sestile, Manoela V Fogaça, Francisco S Guimarães, Elisabeth A Audi, Joice M da Cunha, Hélio Zangrossi, Paula Shimene de Melo Yamashita, Janaina M Zanoveli
It is known that diabetic (DBT) animals present dysregulation on the serotonergic system in several brain areas associated with anxiety-like responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of 5-HT1A receptors on dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) in the behavioral response related to panic disorder in type-1 DBT animals. For this, the escape response by electric stimulation (ES) of dPAG in DBT and normoglycemic (NGL) animals was assessed. Both NGL and DBT animals were exposed to an open-field test (OFT) 28 days after DBT confirmation...
August 9, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797641/b2-kinin-receptors-in-the-dorsal-periaqueductal-gray-are-implicated-in-the-panicolytic-like-effect-of-opiorphin
#11
Caio César Sestile, Jhonatan Christian Maraschin, Marcel Pereira Rangel, Rosangela Getirana Santana, Hélio Zangrossi, Frederico Guilherme Graeff, Elisabeth Aparecida Audi
Reported results have shown that the pentapeptide opiorphin inhibits oligopeptidases that degrade brain neuropeptides, and has analgesic and antidepressant effects in experimental animals, without either tolerance or dependency after chronic administration. In a previous study we showed that opiorphin has a panicolytic-like effect in the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) electrical stimulation test (EST), mediated by the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). This study further analyzes the mechanism of opiorphin panicolytic action, using the EST and drug injection inside the dPAG...
October 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776147/looming-threats-and-animacy-reduced-responsiveness-in-youth-with-disrupted-behavior-disorders
#12
Stuart F White, Laura C Thornton, Joseph Leshin, Roberta Clanton, Stephen Sinclair, Dionne Coker-Appiah, Harma Meffert, Soonjo Hwang, James R Blair
Theoretical models have implicated amygdala dysfunction in the development of Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs; Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder). Amygdala dysfunction impacts valence evaluation/response selection and emotion attention in youth with DBDs, particularly in those with elevated callous-unemotional (CU) traits. However, amygdala responsiveness during social cognition and the responsiveness of the acute threat circuitry (amygdala/periaqueductal gray) in youth with DBDs have been less well-examined, particularly with reference to CU traits...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765080/activation-of-extrasynaptic-%C3%AE-gabaa-receptors-globally-or-within-the-posterior-vta-has-estrous-dependent-effects-on-consumption-of-alcohol-and-estrous-independent-effects-on-locomotion
#13
Laverne C Melón, Zachary T Nolan, Delphine Colar, Eileen M Moore, Stephen L Boehm
Recent reports support higher than expected rates of binge alcohol consumption among women and girls. Unfortunately, few studies have assessed the mechanisms underlying this pattern of intake in females. Studies in males suggest that alcohol concentrations relevant to the beginning stages of binge intoxication may selectively target tonic GABAergic inhibition mediated by GABAA receptor subtypes expressing the δ-subunit protein (δ-GABAARs). Indeed, administration of agonists that interact with these δ-GABAARs prior to alcohol access can abolish binge drinking behavior in male mice...
August 15, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755808/potential-role-of-cxcl10-cxcr3-signaling-in-the-development-of-morphine-tolerance-in-periaqueductal-gray
#14
Wei Wang, Yawen Peng, Hui Yang, Huilian Bu, Genhua Guo, Daiqiang Liu, Bin Shu, Xuebi Tian, Ailin Luo, Xuming Zhang, Feng Gao
Tolerance to morphine antinociception hinders its long-term use in clinical practice. Interaction between neuron and microglia has been proved to play critical role in the mechanism of morphine tolerance, while CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling has been implicated in neuron-glia signaling and morphine analgesia. This study aims to investigate whether CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling in periaqueductal gray (PAG) contributes to the development of morphine tolerance by modulating neuron-microglia interaction. The results showed that the expressions of CXCR3 and CXCL10 were gradually increased in parallel with repeated morphine administration and activation of microglia...
July 24, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740423/antinociceptive-tolerance-to-nsaids-in-the-agranular-insular-cortex-is-mediated-by-opioid-mechanism
#15
Natia Pirkulashvili, Nana Tsiklauri, Marina Nebieridze, Merab G Tsagareli
Several lines of investigations have shown that in some brain areas, in particular, in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter, rostral ventromedial medulla, central nucleus of amygdala, nucleus raphe magnus, and dorsal hippocampus, microinjections of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induce antinociception with distinct development of tolerance. The agranular insular cortex (AIC) is a small region of the cerebral cortex located on the lateral area of the rat's cerebral hemisphere that is involved in the perception and response to pain...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734870/elucidation-of-the-neural-circuits-activated-by-a-gabab-receptor-positive-modulator-relevance-to-anxiety
#16
Riccardo Pizzo, Olivia F O'Leary, John F Cryan
Although there is much evidence for a role of GABAB receptors in the pathophysiology of anxiety, the underlying neuronal mechanisms are largely unclear. The GABAB receptor allosteric positive modulator, GS39783, exerts anxiolytic effects without interfering with GABAB-mediated modulation of body temperature, cognitive performance and locomotor activity thus offering advantages over GABAB receptor agonists. However, the precise neural circuits underlying the anxiolytic effects of GS39783 are unknown. The aim of the present study was to identify brain structures and associated neuronal circuits that are modulated by GS39783 under either basal or mild stress conditions...
July 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725185/reticular-formation-and-pain-the-past-and-the-future
#17
REVIEW
Isabel Martins, Isaura Tavares
The involvement of the reticular formation (RF) in the transmission and modulation of nociceptive information has been extensively studied. The brainstem RF contains several areas which are targeted by spinal cord afferents conveying nociceptive input. The arrival of nociceptive input to the RF may trigger alert reactions which generate a protective/defense reaction to pain. RF neurons located at the medulla oblongata and targeted by ascending nociceptive information are also involved in the control of vital functions that can be affected by pain, namely cardiovascular control...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716712/effects-of-chemogenetic-excitation-or-inhibition-of-the-ventrolateral-periaqueductal-gray-on-the-acquisition-and-extinction-of-pavlovian-fear-conditioning
#18
Carolyn Arico, Elena E Bagley, Pascal Carrive, Neda Assareh, Gavan P McNally
The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been implicated in the generation and transmission of a prediction error signal that instructs amygdala-based fear and extinction learning. However, the PAG also plays a key role in the expression of conditioned fear responses. The evidence for a role of the PAG in fear learning and extinction learning has been obtained almost exclusively using PAG-dependent fear responses. It is less clear whether the PAG regulates fear learning when other measures of learned fear are used...
July 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714862/a-leptin-regulated-circuit-controls-glucose-mobilization-during-noxious-stimuli
#19
Jonathan N Flak, Deanna Arble, Warren Pan, Christa Patterson, Thomas Lanigan, Paulette B Goforth, Jamie Sacksner, Maja Joosten, Donald A Morgan, Margaret B Allison, John Hayes, Eva Feldman, Randy J Seeley, David P Olson, Kamal Rahmouni, Martin G Myers
Adipocytes secrete the hormone leptin to signal the sufficiency of energy stores. Reductions in circulating leptin concentrations reflect a negative energy balance, which augments sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation in response to metabolically demanding emergencies. This process ensures adequate glucose mobilization despite low energy stores. We report that leptin receptor-expressing neurons (LepRb neurons) in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), the largest population of LepRb neurons in the brain stem, mediate this process...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708877/median-raphe-region-stimulation-alone-generates-remote-but-not-recent-fear-memory-traces
#20
Diána G Balázsfi, Dóra Zelena, Lívia Farkas, Kornél Demeter, István Barna, Csaba Cserép, Virág T Takács, Gábor Nyíri, Flóra Gölöncsér, Beáta Sperlágh, Tamás F Freund, József Haller
The median raphe region (MRR) is believed to control the fear circuitry indirectly, by influencing the encoding and retrieval of fear memories by amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Here we show that in addition to this established role, MRR stimulation may alone elicit the emergence of remote but not recent fear memories. We substituted electric shocks with optic stimulation of MRR in C57BL/6N male mice in an optogenetic conditioning paradigm and found that stimulations produced agitation, but not fear, during the conditioning trial...
2017: PloS One
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