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Periaqueductal gray

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211789/the-cortical-connectivity-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-and-the-conditioned-response-to-the-threat-of-breathlessness
#1
Olivia K Faull, Kyle Ts Pattinson
Previously we observed differential activation in individual columns of the periaqueductal grey (PAG) during breathlessness and its conditioned anticipation (Faull et al., 2016). Here, we have extended this work by determining how the individual columns of the PAG interact with higher cortical centres, both at rest and in the context of breathlessness threat. Activation was observed in ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG) and lateral PAG (lPAG), where activity scaled with breathlessness intensity ratings, revealing a potential interface between sensation and cognition during breathlessness...
February 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206989/il-4-mediated-by-hsv-vector-suppresses-morphine-withdrawal-response-through-decreasing-tnf%C3%AE-nr2b-and-pc-ebp%C3%AE-in-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-rats
#2
H Yi, T Iida, S Liu, D Ikegami, Q Liu, A Iida, D A Lubarsky, S Hao
Chronic opiates induce the development of physical dependence. Opioid physical dependence characterized by withdrawal symptoms, may have very long-lasting effects on the motivation for reward, including the incubation of cue-induced drug-seeking behavior. Elucidation of the mechanisms involved in physical dependence is crucial to developing more effective treatment strategies for opioid dependence. Chronic morphine induces production of proinflammatory cytokines in regional-specific sites of the brain. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a prototypical anti-inflammatory cytokine that globally suppresses proinflammatory cytokines...
February 16, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194646/nanoemulsion-thermoreversible-pluronic-f127-based-hydrogel-containing-hyptis-pectinata-lamiaceae-leaf-essential-oil-produced-a-lasting-anti-hyperalgesic-effect-in-chronic-noninflammatory-widespread-pain-in-mice
#3
Lucindo J Quintans-Júnior, Renan G Brito, Jullyana S S Quintans, Priscila L Santos, Zaine T Camargo, Péricles A Barreto, Maria F Arrigoni-Blank, Waldecy Lucca-Júnior, Luciana Scotti, Marcus T Scotti, Sandra J Kolker, Kathleen A Sluka
We evaluated if a nanostructured thermoreversible Pluronic F127-based hydrogel incorporated with Hyptis pectinata leaf essential oil (NE-EOH) produces a long-lasting anti-hyperalgesic effect on chronic muscle pain in an animal model. We induced chronic muscle pain by injecting the gastrocnemius with saline injections. Paw and muscle withdrawal thresholds and motor performance were evaluated after treatment and compared with morphine, diazepam, or vehicle. Naloxone and methysergide administration tested the involvement of opioid and serotonin receptors, respectively...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185007/the-rostromedial-zona-incerta-is-involved-in-attentional-processes-while-adjacent-lha-responds-to-arousal-c-fos-and-anatomical-evidence
#4
S Chometton, K Charrière, L Bayer, C Houdayer, G Franchi, F Poncet, D Fellmann, P Y Risold
Neurons producing melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) are located in the tuberal lateral hypothalamus (LHA) and in the rostromedial part of the zona incerta (ZI). This distribution suggests that rostromedial ZI shares some common features with the LHA. However, its functions with regard to arousal or feeding, which are often associated with the LHA, have not been thoroughly investigated. This study analyses the responses in the tuberal LHA and adjacent rostromedial ZI after experiments related to arousal, exploration, food teasing and ingestive behavior...
February 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176938/unilateral-occipital-nerve-stimulation-for-bilateral-occipital-neuralgia-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Aijun Liu, Yongcheng Jiao, Huijun Ji, Zhiwen Zhang
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to present a case of successful relief of bilateral occipital neuralgia (ON) using unilateral occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) and to discuss the possible underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present the case of a 59-year-old female patient with severe bilateral ON treated with unilateral ONS. We systematically reviewed previous studies of ONS for ON, discussing the possible mechanisms of ONS in the relief of ON...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162605/-364-morphine-tolerance-during-inflammatory-pain-role-of-delta-opioid-receptors-in-the-midbrain-periaqueductal-gray
#6
A Wilson-Poe, J Moron Concepcion
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155029/texture-features-of-periaqueductal-gray-in-the-patients-with-medication-overuse-headache
#7
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Mengqi Liu, Shuangfeng Liu, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: Periaqueductal gray (PAG) is the descending pain modulatory center, and PAG dysfunction had been recognized in migraine. Here we propose to investigate altered PAG texture features (quantitative approach for extracting texture descriptors for images) in the patients with medication-overuse headache (MOH) based on high resolution brain structural image to understand the MOH pathogenesis. METHODS: The brain structural images were obtained from 32 normal controls (NC) and 44 MOH patients on 3...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148494/upregulation-of-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-faah-in-the-dorsal-periaqueductal-gray-is-associated-with-neuropathic-pain-and-reduced-heart-rate-in-rats
#8
Caron Dean, Cecilia J Hillard, Jeanne L Seagard, Francis A Hopp, Quinn H Hogan
Nerve damage can induce a heightened pain response to noxious stimulation, which is termed hyperalgesia. Pain itself acts as a stressor, initiating autonomic and sensory effects through the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) to induce both sympathoexcitation and analgesia, which prior studies have shown to be affected by endocannabinoid signaling. The present study addressed the hypothesis that neuropathic pain disrupts autonomic and analgesic regulation by endocannabinoid signaling in the dPAG. Endocannabinoid contents, transcript levels of endocannabinoid signaling components, and catabolic enzyme activity were analyzed in the dPAG of rats at 21 days after painful nerve injury...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147243/song-associated-reward-correlates-with-endocannabinoid-related-gene-expression-in-male-european-starlings-sturnus-vulgaris
#9
Allison H Hahn, Devin P Merullo, Jeremy A Spool, Caroline S Angyal, Sharon A Stevenson, Lauren V Riters
Vocal communication is required for successful social interactions in numerous species. During the breeding season, songbirds produce songs that are reinforced by behavioral consequences (e.g., copulation). However, some songbirds also produce songs not obviously directed at other individuals. The consequences maintaining or reinforcing these songs are less obvious and the neural mechanisms associated with undirected communication are not well-understood. Previous studies indicate that undirected singing is intrinsically rewarding and mediated by opioid or dopaminergic systems; however, endocannabinoids are also involved in regulating reward and singing behavior...
January 29, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144808/volume-gain-of-periaqueductal-gray-in-medication-overuse-headache
#10
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Mengqi Liu, Shuangfeng Liu, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: Periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a substantial descending pain modulatory center, and previous voxel-based morphometry study confirmed the clusters with increased volume in PAG region in medication-overuse headache (MOH). The aim of this study is to investigate altered PAG volume in MOH using an automated PAG segment method to measure the true PAG volume. METHODS: High resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo MR images were obtained from 22 patients with MOH and 22 normal controls (NC)...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116239/characterization-of-functional-brain-activity-and-connectivity-using-eeg-and-fmri-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#11
Michelle Case, Huishi Zhang, John Mundahl, Yvonne Datta, Stephen Nelson, Kalpna Gupta, Bin He
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a red blood cell disorder that causes many complications including life-long pain. Treatment of pain remains challenging due to a poor understanding of the mechanisms and limitations to characterize and quantify pain. In the present study, we examined simultaneously recording functional MRI (fMRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG) to better understand neural connectivity as a consequence of chronic pain in SCD patients. We performed independent component analysis and seed-based connectivity on fMRI data...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096471/resolving-the-brainstem-contributions-to-attentional-analgesia-in-man
#12
Jonathan C W Brooks, Wendy-Elizabeth Davies, Anthony E Pickering
: Previous human imaging studies manipulating attention or expectancy have identified the periaqueductal gray (PAG) as a key brainstem structure implicated in endogenous analgesia. However, animal studies indicate that PAG analgesia is mediated largely via caudal brainstem structures like the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and locus coeruleus (LC). To identify their involvement in endogenous analgesia, we used brainstem optimised, whole-brain imaging to record responses to concurrent thermal stimulation (left forearm) and visual attention tasks of titrated difficulty in 20 healthy subjects...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092323/brain-substrates-of-reward-processing-and-the-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-a-pathway-into-pain
#13
Frauke Nees, Susanne Becker, Sabina Millenet, Tobias Banaschewski, Luise Poustka, Arun Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Patricia J Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Vincent Frouin, Jürgen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Rob Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Herta Flor
The processing of reward and reinforcement learning seems to be important determinants of pain chronicity. However, reward processing is already altered early in life and if this is related to the development of pain symptoms later on is not known. The aim of this study was first to examine whether behavioural and brain-related indicators of reward processing at the age of 14 to 15 years are significant predictors of pain complaints 2 years later, at 16 to 17 years. Second, we investigated the contribution of genetic variations in the opioidergic system, which is linked to the processing of both, reward and pain, to this prediction...
February 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088038/evidence-of-functional-duplicity-of-nestin-expression-in-the-adult-mouse-midbrain
#14
Parisa Farzanehfar, Shi Sheng Lu, Anupa Dey, Dharshani Musiienko, Hamzah Baagil, Malcolm K Horne, Tim D Aumann
Whether or not neurogenesis occurs in the adult substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is an important question relevant for developing better treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although controversial, it is generally believed that dividing cells here remain undifferentiated or differentiate into glia, not neurons. However, there is a suggestion that Nestin-expressing neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the adult SNc have a propensity to differentiate into neurons, which we sought to confirm in the present study...
January 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073587/translational-approach-to-the-pathophysiology-of-panic-disorder-focus-on-serotonin-and-endogenous-opioids
#15
REVIEW
Frederico G Graeff
Panic patients experience recurrent panic attacks. Two main neurochemical hypotheses have been proposed to explain this vulnerability. The first suggests that panic patients have deficient serotonergic inhibition of neurons localized in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain that organizes defensive reactions to cope with proximal threats as well as of sympathomotor control areas of the rostral ventrolateral medulla that generate neurovegetative symptoms of the panic attack. The second proposes that endogenous opioids buffer panic attacks in normal subjects, and their deficit results in heightened sensitivity to suffocation and separation anxiety in panic patients...
January 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071216/disinhibition-of-the-rat-prelimbic-cortex-promotes-serotonergic-activation-of-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-and-panicolytic-like-behavioral-effects
#16
Paula Sm Yamashita, Ailton Spiacci, James E Hassel, Christopher A Lowry, Helio Zangrossi
Several studies have shown that serotonin plays a dual role in the modulation of defensive behaviors related to anxiety and panic. A major source of serotonergic projections to limbic structures responsible for this modulation is the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR). Anatomical studies indicate that the prelimbic (PL) cortex sends dense glutamatergic projections to the DR, leading to stimulation or inhibition of serotonin release in structures innervated by the DR. The objective of the present study was to investigate if GABAergic disinhibition of the PL by means of local administration of picrotoxin (PIC), a chloride channel blocker, can affect serotonergic tone and the expression of defensive behaviors related to anxiety and panic...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067904/prefrontal-cortical-control-of-a-brainstem-social-behavior-circuit
#17
Tamara B Franklin, Bianca A Silva, Zinaida Perova, Livia Marrone, Maria E Masferrer, Yang Zhan, Angie Kaplan, Louise Greetham, Violaine Verrechia, Andreas Halman, Sara Pagella, Alexei L Vyssotski, Anna Illarionova, Valery Grinevich, Tiago Branco, Cornelius T Gross
The prefrontal cortex helps adjust an organism's behavior to its environment. In particular, numerous studies have implicated the prefrontal cortex in the control of social behavior, but the neural circuits that mediate these effects remain unknown. Here we investigated behavioral adaptation to social defeat in mice and uncovered a critical contribution of neural projections from the medial prefrontal cortex to the dorsal periaqueductal gray, a brainstem area vital for defensive responses. Social defeat caused a weakening of functional connectivity between these two areas, and selective inhibition of these projections mimicked the behavioral effects of social defeat...
February 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061971/the-endocannabinoid-system-and-anxiety
#18
S F Lisboa, F V Gomes, A L B Terzian, D C Aguiar, F A Moreira, L B M Resstel, F S Guimarães
The medical properties of Cannabis sativa is known for centuries. Since the discovery and characterization of the endogenous cannabinoid system, several studies have evaluated how cannabinoid compounds and, particularly, how the modulation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system influences a wide range of functions, from metabolic to mental disorders. Cannabinoids and eCB system often exert opposite effects on several functions, such as anxiety. Although the mechanisms are not completely understood, evidence points to different factors influencing those effects...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057931/the-oprm1-a118g-polymorphism-modulates-the-descending-pain-modulatory-system-for-individual-pain-experience-in-young-women-with-primary-dysmenorrhea
#19
Shyh-Yuh Wei, Li-Fen Chen, Ming-Wei Lin, Wei-Chi Li, Intan Low, Ching-Ju Yang, Hsiang-Tai Chao, Jen-Chuen Hsieh
The mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) A118G polymorphism underpins different pain sensitivity and opioid-analgesic outcome with unclear effect on the descending pain modulatory system (DPMS). Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), the most prevalent gynecological problem with clear painful and pain free conditions, serves as a good clinical model of spontaneous pain. The objective of this imaging genetics study was therefore to explore if differences in functional connectivity (FC) of the DPMS between the OPRM1 A118G polymorphisms could provide a possible explanation for the differences in pain experience...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032002/fmri-functional-connectivity-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-ptsd-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#20
Sherain Harricharan, Daniela Rabellino, Paul A Frewen, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Allan N Schore, Ruth A Lanius
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with hyperarousal and active fight or flight defensive responses. By contrast, the dissociative subtype of PTSD, characterized by depersonalization and derealization symptoms, is frequently accompanied by additional passive or submissive defensive responses associated with autonomic blunting. Here, the periaqueductal gray (PAG) plays a central role in defensive responses, where the dorsolateral (DL-PAG) and ventrolateral PAG (VL-PAG) are thought to mediate active and passive defensive responses, respectively...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
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