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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811348/a-critical-role-of-glutamine-and-asparagine-%C3%AE-nitrogen-in-nucleotide-biosynthesis-in-cancer-cells-hijacked-by-an-oncogenic-virus
#1
Ying Zhu, Tingting Li, Suzane Ramos da Silva, Jae-Jin Lee, Chun Lu, Hyungjin Eoh, Jae U Jung, Shou-Jiang Gao
While glutamine is a nonessential amino acid that can be synthesized from glucose, some cancer cells primarily depend on glutamine for their growth, proliferation, and survival. Numerous types of cancer also depend on asparagine for cell proliferation. The underlying mechanisms of the glutamine and asparagine requirement in cancer cells in different contexts remain unclear. In this study, we show that the oncogenic virus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) accelerates the glutamine metabolism of glucose-independent proliferation of cancer cells by upregulating the expression of numerous critical enzymes, including glutaminase 2 (GLS2), glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GLUD1), and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2 (GOT2), to support cell proliferation...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809118/glucose-limitation-alters-glutamine-metabolism-in-muc1-overexpressing-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#2
Teklab Gebregiworgis, Vinee Purohit, Surendra K Shukla, Saber Tadros, Nina V Chaika, Jaime Abrego, Scott E Mulder, Venugopal Gunda, Pankaj K Singh, Robert Powers
Pancreatic cancer cells overexpressing MUC1 rely on aerobic glycolysis and, correspondingly, are dependent on glucose for survival. Our NMR metabolomics comparative analysis of control (S2-013.Neo) and MUC1-overexpressing (S2-013.MUC1) cells demonstrate that MUC1 reprograms glutamine metabolism upon glucose limitation. The observed alteration in glutamine metabolism under glucose limitation accompanied with a relative decrease in the proliferation of MUC1-overexpressing cells compared to steady state conditions...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808393/evaluation-of-the-antidiabetic-properties-of-s-1708-mulberry-variety
#3
Brijesh Ranjan, Randhir Kumar, Neeraj Verma, Swati Mittal, Pranab Lal Pakrasi, R Venkatesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a metabolic disease prevalent worldwide in all age group of people. The source of diabetes is due to an oxidation process that can produce free radicals. An increase in oxidative free radicals in the body is reported to be one of the several causes of diabetes. The best remedy to combat oxidative stress is the use of antioxidants, which inhibit and scavenge free radicals. AIM: This study has been undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant activity and antidiabetic effect of mulberry leaf extract in diabetic mice...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781773/the-relationship-between-dietary-methionine-and-growth-digestion-absorption-and-antioxidant-status-in-intestinal-and-hepatopancreatic-tissues-of-sub-adult-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#4
Pei Wu, Ling Tang, Weidan Jiang, Kai Hu, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Shengyao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wuneng Tang, Yongan Zhang, Xiaoqiu Zhou, Lin Feng
BACKGROUND: Methionine is an essential amino acid for fish. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary methionine on growth performance, digestive and absorptive ability, as well as antioxidant capacity in the intestine and hepatopancreas of sub-adult grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). RESULTS: Dietary methionine deficiency significantly decreased percentage weight gain (PWG), feed intake, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio, as well as activities of hepatopancreatic glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and muscle glutamate-pyruvate transaminase in sub-adult grass carp (P < 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772139/understanding-and-mitigating-the-toxicity-of-cadmium-to-the-anaerobic-fermentation-of-waste-activated-sludge
#5
Qiuxiang Xu, Xiaoming Li, Rongrong Ding, Dongbo Wang, Yiwen Liu, Qilin Wang, Jianwei Zhao, Fei Chen, Guangming Zeng, Qi Yang, Hailong Li
Cadmium (Cd) is present in significant levels in waste activated sludge, but its potential toxicities on anaerobic fermentation of sludge remain largely unknown. This work therefore aims to provide such support. Experimental results showed that the impact of Cd on short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production from sludge anaerobic fermentation was dose-dependent. The presence of environmentally relevant level of Cd (e.g., 0.1 mg/g VSS) enhanced SCFA production by 10.6%, but 10 mg/g VSS of Cd caused 68.1% of inhibition...
July 26, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771732/direct-assessment-of-the-metabolic-origin-of-carbon-atoms-in-glutamate-from-illuminated-leaves-using-13-c-nmr
#6
Cyril Abadie, Jérémy Lothier, Edouard Boex-Fontvieille, Adam Carroll, Guillaume Tcherkez
Glutamate (Glu) is the cornerstone of nitrogen assimilation and photorespiration in illuminated leaves. Despite this crucial role, our knowledge of the flux to Glu de novo synthesis is rather limited. Here, we used isotopic labelling with (13) CO2 and (13) C-NMR analyses to examine the labelling pattern and the appearance of multi-labelled species of Glu molecules to trace the origin of C-atoms found in Glu. We also compared this with (13) C-labelling patterns in Ala and Asp, which reflect citrate (and thus Glu) precursors, that is, pyruvate and oxaloacetate...
August 3, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731528/improving-succinate-productivity-by-engineering-a-cyanobacterial-co2-concentrating-system-ccm-in-escherichia-coli
#7
Mengyong Xiao, Xinna Zhu, Changhao Bi, Yanhe Ma, Xueli Zhang
Biologically fixation of CO2 has great potential as a significant carbon source for biosynthesis, which is also a major way to reduce CO2 accumulation in atmosphere. Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylation is the key step of anaerobic succinate production in Escherichia coli. In this reaction, one mole CO2 is assimilated with PEP to form oxaloacetate by PEP carboxykinase (PCK). The preferred substrate of PCK is CO2 , which is very limited in cytoplasm. In this study, the carbon concentration mechanism (CCM) of cyanobacteria was introduced into E...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731312/gentiana-kurroo-royle-attenuates-the-metabolic-aberrations-in-diabetic-rats-swertiamarin-swertisin-and-lupeol-being-the-possible-bioactive-principles
#8
Khalid Ghazanfar, Khan Mubashir, Showkat A Dar, Tazeen Nazir, Iqra Hameed, Bashir A Ganai, Seema Akbar, Akbar Masood
Background Gentiana kuroo Royle is a medicinally important plant of north-western Himalayas used for various ailments. In the present study, the plant extracts were investigated for the antidiabetic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods The impact of the extracts on serum glucose levels of diabetic rats was compared with reference drug - glibenclamide-treated diabetic rats. Streptozotocin injection was used to induce diabetes in fasted rats. Various biochemical, physiological and histopathological parameters in diabetic rats were observed for assessing the antidiabetic activity...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730830/preventive-effect-of-l-carnitine-on-the-disorder-of-lipid-metabolism-and-circadian-cclock-of-mice-subjected-to-chronic-jet-lag
#9
X Xie, A Guo, T Wu, Q Hu, L Huang, C Yao, B Zhao, W Zhang, B Chi, P Lu, Z Zhao, Z Fu
Circadian clock plays an essential role in orchestrating daily physiology, and its disruption can evoke metabolic diseases such as obesity. L-Carnitine can reduce blood lipid levels, and ameliorate fatty liver through regulating lipid metabolism. However, whether L-Carnitine administration may affect the disturbance of lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm of mice induced by prolonged circadian disruption is still unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of L-Carnitine on conditions of circadian clock and lipid metabolism through a chronic jet-lag mice model which was developed by reversing12 h light/12 h dark cycle every 4 days for a continuous 12 weeks...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728393/effects-of-dietary-supplementation-of-detoxified-rhus-verniciflua-sap-on-egg-production-yolk-lipid-and-intestinal-microflora-in-laying-hens
#10
Byoung-Ki An, Je-Hun Kim, Lan Zheng, Byung-Hern Moon, Kyung-Woo Lee
Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary detoxified Rhus verniciflua sap (RVS) on production performance, egg quality, lipid fractions of egg yolk, liver and serum, and the profile of cecal microflora in laying hens. Methods: Two hundred 52-week-old Hy-Line Brown layers were randomly divided into 4 groups with 5 replicates per group (2 hens per cage, 5 cages per replicate) and were provided with one of 4 experimental diets containing 0, 0...
May 14, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716744/a-heterozygous-mutation-in-got1-is-associated-with-familial-macro-aspartate-aminotransferase
#11
Maria Kulecka, Aldona Wierzbicka, Agnieszka Paziewska, Michal Mikula, Andrzej Habior, Wojciech Janczyk, Michalina Dabrowska, Jakub Karczmarski, Michal Lazniewski, Krzysztof Ginalski, Anna Czlonkowska, Piotr Socha, Jerzy Ostrowski
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Macro-aspartate aminotransferase (macro-AST) manifests as persistent elevation of AST levels, due to association of the protein with immunoglobulins in the circulation macro-AST is a rare, benign condition without a previously confirmed genetic basis. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing (WES)-based screening was performed on 32 participants with suspected familial macro-AST, while variants validation was performed on an extended cohort of 90 probands and 1644 healthy controls using Taqman genotyping...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715746/pfoa-induced-metabolism-disturbance-and-multi-generational-reproductive-toxicity-in-oryzias-latipes
#12
Jin Wuk Lee, Jae-Woo Lee, Kyungtae Kim, Yu-Jin Shin, Jieun Kim, Suhkmann Kim, Heejung Kim, Pilje Kim, Kyunghwa Park
The aims of this study were to examine multi-generational reproductive toxicity and metabolism disturbances in Oryzias latipes exposed to 0.3, 3, and 30mg/L PFOA for 259-day. The highest concentration of PFOA suppressed fecundity over three generations from F0 to F2 and sac-fry survival rate in F2 generation, indicating that PFOA resulted in multi-generational reproductive toxicity (p<0.05). Histologically, in F1 and F2 generations, O. latipes exposed to 30mg/L PFOA revealed accelerated gonad development, and the atrophy and degeneration of thyroid follicular cell...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712602/anaplerotic-therapy-in-propionic-acidemia
#13
Nicola Longo, Leisa B Price, Eduard Gappmaier, Nancy L Cantor, Sharon L Ernst, Carrie Bailey, Marzia Pasquali
BACKGROUND: Propionic acidemia is a rare metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of propionyl- CoA carboxylase, the enzyme converting propionyl-CoA to methylmalonyl-CoA that subsequently enters the citric acid cycle as succinyl-CoA. Patients with propionic acidemia cannot metabolize propionic acid, which combines with oxaloacetate to form methylcitric acid. This, with the defective supply of succinyl-CoA, may lead to a deficiency in citric acid cycle intermediates. PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine whether supplements with glutamine (400mg/kg per day), citrate (7...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706006/integration-of-flux-measurements-to-resolve-changes-in-anabolic-and-catabolic-metabolism-in-cardiac-myocytes
#14
Andrew A Gibb, Pawel K Lorkiewicz, Yu-Ting Zheng, Xiang Zhang, Aruni Bhatnagar, Steven P Jones, Bradford G Hill
Although ancillary pathways of glucose metabolism are critical for synthesizing cellular building blocks and modulating stress responses, how they are regulated remains unclear. In the present study, we used radiometric glycolysis assays, [(13)C6]-glucose isotope tracing, and extracellular flux analysis to understand how phosphofructokinase (PFK)-mediated changes in glycolysis regulate glucose carbon partitioning into catabolic and anabolic pathways. Expression of kinase-deficient or phosphatase-deficient 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes co-ordinately regulated glycolytic rate and lactate production...
August 7, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695065/-13-c-based-proteinogenic-amino-acid-paa-and-metabolic-flux-ratio-analysis-of-lactococcus-lactis-reveals-changes-in-pentose-phosphate-pp-pathway-in-response-to-agitation-and-temperature-related-stresses
#15
Kamalrul Azlan Azizan, Habtom W Ressom, Eduardo R Mendoza, Syarul Nataqain Baharum
Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 is an important starter culture for dairy fermentation. During industrial fermentations, L. lactis is constantly exposed to stresses that affect the growth and performance of the bacterium. Although the response of L. lactis to several stresses has been described, the adaptation mechanisms at the level of in vivo fluxes have seldom been described. To gain insights into cellular metabolism, (13)C metabolic flux analysis and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to measure the flux ratios of active pathways in the central metabolism of L...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677783/chitosan-promotes-immune-responses-ameliorating-total-mature-white-blood-cell-numbers-but-increases-glutamic-oxaloacetic-transaminase-and-glutamic-pyruvic-transaminase-and-ameliorates-lactate-dehydrogenase-levels-in-leukemia-mice-in-vivo
#16
Ming-Yang Yeh, Yung-Luen Shih, Hsueh-Yu Chung, Jason Chou, Hsu-Feng Lu, Chia-Hui Liu, Jia-You Liu, Wen-Wen Huang, Shu-Fen Peng, Lung-Yuan Wu, Jing-Gung Chung
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chitosan (a naturally derived polymer) on the immune responses and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in WEHI‑3 cell‑generated leukemia mice. Mice were divided into control, WEHI‑3 control, acetic acid (vehicle)‑treated, and 5 and 20 mg/kg chitosan‑treated groups. Mice were subsequently weighed, blood was collected, and liver and spleen samples were isolated and weighed...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656090/the-effects-of-ethanol-extract-of-berberis-vulgaris-fruit-on-histopathological-changes-and-biochemical-markers-of-the-liver-damage-in-diabetic-rats
#17
Mohammad Rahimi-Madiseh, Paridokht Karimian, Marzieh Kafeshani, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
OBJECTIVES: Various studies have shown that the diabetes is associated with liver failure. The objective of this study was determining the effects of Berberis vulgaris fruit on histopathological and biochemical markers of liver in diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, 60 male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g with free access to water and ad libitum were randomly divided to five twelve-membered groups including healthy control (group 1), diabetic control (group 2, this two groups received distilled water), treated diabetic positive control (group 3) using dose 150 mg/kg/day metformin, and two groups treated with doses 200 (group 4) and 600 (group 5) mg/kg/BW of B...
May 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655710/phytoestrogen-isoflavone-intervention-to-engage-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-glutamate-oxaloacetate-transaminase-against-stroke
#18
Savita Khanna, Richard Stewart, Surya Gnyawali, Hallie Harris, Maria Balch, James Spieldenner, Chandan K Sen, Cameron Rink
In the pathophysiologic setting of cerebral ischemia, excitotoxic levels of glutamate contribute to neuronal cell death. Our previous work demonstrated the ability of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) to metabolize neurotoxic glutamate in the stroke-affected brain. Here, we seek to identify small-molecule inducers of GOT expression to mitigate ischemic stroke injury. From a panel of phytoestrogen isoflavones, biochanin A (BCA) was identified as the most potent inducer of GOT gene expression in neural cells...
June 27, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643888/combination-of-citrus-polymethoxyflavones-green-tea-polyphenols-and-lychee-extracts-suppresses-obesity-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#19
Min-Hsiung Pan, Guliang Yang, Shiming Li, Ming-Yi Li, Mei-Ling Tsai, Jia-Ching Wu, Vladimir Badmaev, Chi-Tang Ho, Ching-Shu Lai
SCOPE: SlimTrym(®) is a formulated product composed of citrus polymethoxyflavones (PMFs), green tea extract and lychee extract. We investigated the effect of dietary SlimTrym(®) on diet-induced obesity and associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND), high fat diet (HFD) or HFD containing 0.1% or 0.5% SlimTrym(®) for sixteen weeks. Dietary SlimTrym(®) significantly reduced weight gain and relative perigonadal, retroperitoneal, mesenteric fat weight as well as the size of adipocyte in HFD-fed mice...
June 23, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625041/energy-regulation-in-newly-diagnosed-tb-with-chronic-energy-deficiency-free-fatty-acids-and-rbp4
#20
Nurpudji A Taslim, Devintha Virani, Ni Ketut Sumartini, Karmila, Agussalim Bukhari, Aminuddin, Suryani As'ad, Raden Satriono, Haerani Rasyid, Irawaty Djaharuddin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Energy metabolism may be dysfunctionally integral between host and infective agent in active tuberculosis, mediated by adipocytokines and free fatty acids (FFA) as the products of triglyceride lipolysis in fat, blood or other tissues. Retinol Binding Protein 4 (RBP4) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are candidate adipocytokines. The possibility of a deleterious metabolic nexus in chronic energy deficiency (CED) (BMI <18.5 kg/m2) is explored. METHODS AND DESIGN: Newly diagnosed patients with tuberculosis (n=63) were selected using consecutive random sampling at a Centre for the Care and Treatment of Lung Diseases in Makassar, Indonesia...
June 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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