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David Renault, Hesham Yousef, Amr A Mohamed
Antibiotics have been increasingly used over the past decades for human medicine, food-animal agriculture, aquaculture, and plant production. A significant part of the active molecules of antibiotics can be released into the environment, in turn affecting ecosystem functioning and biogeochemical processes. At lower organizational scales, these substances affect bacterial symbionts of insects, with negative consequences on growth and development of juveniles, and population dynamics. Yet, the multiple alterations of cellular physiology and metabolic processes have remained insufficiently explored in insects...
June 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Marcos A Tronconi, Carlos S Andreo, Maria F Drincovich
Malic enzyme (ME) comprises a family of proteins with multiple isoforms located in different compartments of eukaryotic cells. In plants, cytosolic and plastidic enzymes share several characteristics such as NADP specificity (NADP-ME), oxaloacetate decarboxylase (OAD) activity, and homo-oligomeric assembly. However, mitochondrial counterparts are NAD-dependent proteins (mNAD-ME) lacking OAD activity, which can be structured as homo- and hetero-oligomers of two different subunits. In this study, we examined the molecular basis of these differences using multiple sequence analysis, structural modeling, and phylogenetic approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ye Kuang, Xiaoyun Han, Mu Xu, Yue Wang, Yuxiang Zhao, Qing Yang
Chemical injury is partly due to free radical lipid peroxidation, which can induce oxidative stress and produce a large number of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxaloacetic acid is an important intermediary in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and participates in metabolism and energy production. In our study, we found that oxaloacetate (OA) effectively alleviated liver injury which was induced by hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) in vitro and carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) in vivo. OA scavenged ROS, prevented oxidative damage and maintained the normal structure of mitochondria...
May 31, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alexander T Eprintsev, Dmitry N Fedorin, Maria A Dobychina, Abir U Igamberdiev
Expression of genes encoding the mitochondrial and peroxisomal forms of citrate synthase (EC was studied in maize (Zea mays L.) in scutella during germination and in leaves depending on light regime. During germination, citrate synthase activity increased in scutella both in mitochondria and in fatty-acid metabolizing peroxisomes (glyoxysomes) by day 6 and then declined. This was preceded by the peak of expression of the genes encoding the mitochondrial (Csy1) and peroxisomal (Csy2) forms of citrate synthase occurring on the day 3 of germination, after which the expression of Csy1 gradually and of Csy2 sharply declined...
July 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Federica Ferrari, Antonella Gorini, Siegfried Hoyer, Roberto Federico Villa
Glutamate is involved in cerebral ischemic injury, but its role has not been completely clarified and studies are required to understand how minimize its detrimental effects, contemporarily boosting the positive ones. In fact, glutamate is not only a neurotransmitter, but primarily a key metabolite for brain bioenergetics. Thus, we investigated the relationships between glutamate and brain energy metabolism in an in vivo model of complete cerebral ischemia of 15 min and during post-ischemic recovery after 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs in 1 year- adult and 2 year-old aged rats...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Vishakha Pandey, Manoj Singh, Dinesh Pandey, Anil Kumar
Tilletia indica incites Karnal bunt (KB) disease in wheat. To date, no KB resistant wheat cultivar could be developed due to non-availability of potential biomarkers related to pathogenicity/virulence for screening of resistant wheat genotypes. The present study was carried out to compare the proteomes of T. indica highly (TiK) and low (TiP) virulent isolates. Twenty one protein spots consistently observed as up-regulated/differential in the TiK proteome were selected for identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Identified sequences showed homology with fungal proteins playing essential role in plant infection and pathogen survival, including stress response, adhesion, fungal penetration, invasion, colonization, degradation of host cell wall, signal transduction pathway...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alberto Tejero Rioseras, Kapil Dev Singh, Nora Nowak, Martin T Gaugg, Tobias Bruderer, Renato Zenobi, Pablo M-L Sinues
The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is one of the most important metabolic pathway for cellular respiration in aerobic organisms. It provides and collects intermediates for many other interconnecting pathways and acts as a hub connecting metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids. Alteration in intracellular levels of its intermediates has been linked with a wide range of illnesses ranging from cancer to cellular necrosis or liver cirrhosis. Therefore, there exists an intrinsic interest in monitoring such metabolites...
May 16, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Simone C Vitor, Luciano do Amarante, Ladaslav Sodek
A substantial increase in malate in the xylem sap of soybean subjected to mineral N starvation originates mainly from aspartate, a prominent amino acid of the phloem. A substantial increase in xylem malate was found when non-nodulated soybean plants were transferred to a N-free medium. Nodulated plants growing in the absence of mineral N and, therefore, dependent on symbiotic N2 fixation also contained elevated concentrations of malate in the xylem sap. When either nitrate or ammonium was supplied, malate concentrations in the xylem sap were low, both for nodulated and non-nodulated plants...
May 16, 2018: Planta
Tongxin Wang, Weilei Yao, Ji Li, Qiongyu He, Yafei Shao, Feiruo Huang
Hepatic metabolic syndrome is associated with inflammation, as it stimulates the reprogramming of nutrient metabolism and hepatic mitochondria-generated acetyl-CoA. But how acetyl-CoA affects the reprogramming of nutrient metabolism, especially glucose and fatty acids, in the condition of inflammation is still unclear. Here, we used an acute inflammation model in which pigs were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and found that hepatic glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation are both promoted. Acetyl-proteome profiling of LPS-infected pigs liver showed that inflammatory stress exacerbates the acetylation of mitochondrial proteins...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Valentina Guarnotta, Enrica Vigneri, Giuseppe Pillitteri, Alessandro Ciresi, Giuseppe Pizzolanti, Carla Giordano
Background: Idiopathic type 1 diabetes mellitus (IDM) is characterized by an onset with insulinopenia and ketoacidosis with negative β-cell autoimmunity markers and lack of association with HLA. The aim of the study is to compare the clinical and metabolic parameters, the macro and microvascular complications, the adipose tissue dysfunction and the insulin secretion and sensitivity indexes in patients with IDM and autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus (ADM) at clinical onset. Methods: Thirty patients with IDM and 30 with ADM, matched for age and gender, were retrospectively analyzed...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Xiaoshan Zhou, Sophie Curbo, Fuqiang Li, Shuba Krishnan, Anna Karlsson
BACKGROUND: Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1 (GOT1) regulates cellular metabolism through coordinating the utilization of carbohydrates and amino acids to meet nutrient requirements. KRAS mutated cancer cells were recently shown to rely on GOT1 to support long-term cell proliferation. The aim of the present study was to address the role of GOT1 in the metabolic adaption of cancer cells. METHODS: GOT1-null and knockdown cell lines were established through CRISPR/Cas9 and shRNA techniques...
May 11, 2018: BMC Cancer
Kyung-Hyun Cho, Dhananjay Yadav, Suk-Jeong Kim, Jae-Ryong Kim
We investigated the antihypertensive effect of policosanol on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). For this, we analyzed blood pressure, blood lipid, and lipoprotein properties in male SHR after consumption of Cuban policosanol (PCO). The experimental groups were as follows: normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) control, SHR group fed normal diet (ND), SHR group fed 20 mg of PCO, SHR group fed 100 mg of PCO, and SHR group fed 200 mg of PCO per kg of body weight. After eight weeks, the SHR control group showed gradual increases up to 21% in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) compared with values at week 0...
May 3, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Vittoria Infantino, Ciro Leonardo Pierri, Vito Iacobazzi
Significant metabolic changes occur in inflammation to respond to the new energetic needs of cells. Mitochondria are addressed not only to produce ATP, but also to supply substrates, such citrate, to produce pro-inflammatory molecules. In this context most of citrate is diverted from Krebs cycle and channeled into the "citrate pathway" consisting in the increase of the export of citrate into cytosol by the mitochondrial citrate carrier followed by its cleavage into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate by ATP citrate lyase...
May 10, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Justin Anglin, Reza Beheshti Zavareh, Philipp N Sander, Daniel Haldar, Edouard Mullarky, Lewis C Cantley, Alec C Kimmelman, Costas A Lyssiotis, Luke L Lairson
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal malignancy that is extremely refractory to the therapeutic approaches that have been evaluated to date. Recently, it has been demonstrated that PDAC tumors are dependent upon a metabolic pathway involving aspartate aminotransferase 1, also known as glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase 1 (GOT1), for the maintenance of redox homeostasis and sustained proliferation. As such, small molecule inhibitors targeting this metabolic pathway may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of this devastating disease...
April 27, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Tae-Il Kim, Dong-Hyun Lim, Sun-Sik Jang, Sang-Bum Kim, Seong-Min Park, Ji-Hoo Park, Kwang-Seok Ki, Vijayakumar Mayakrishnan
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing feed additives of Barodon®, effective microorganism® (Bacillus (B.) subtilis), and Ampbio® on the growth performance, blood metabolites, stress, and reproductive hormone levels of Korean native heifers. A total of 48 Korean native heifers were assigned to four groups with 6 heifers in each group. The groups were control, Barodon (0.2%), beneficial microorganism (1%), and Ampbio (1%). Animals in all groups were fed a basal diet composed of selected feed additives and water ad libitum for 99 days...
May 2, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Yung-Luen Shih, Shu-Ching Hsueh, Yung-Liang Chen, Jiann-Shang Chou, Hsueh-Yu Chung, Ko-Lin Liu, Herng-Woei Jair, Ying-Ying Chuang, Hsu-Feng Lu, Jia-You Liu, Jing-Gung Chung
BACKGROUND/AIM: Laminarin, a typical component of fungal cell walls, has been shown to induce immune responses in both adult and larval locusts. We investigated the effects of laminarin on immune response and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in normal mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six normal BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups and treatments were provided by gavage...
May 2018: In Vivo
Wei Bai, Ping Li, Ya-Lei Ning, Yu-Lin Jiang, Nan Yang, Xing Chen, Yuan-Guo Zhou
Traumatic brain injury-induced acute lung injury (TBI-ALI) is a serious complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Our previous clinical study found that high levels of blood glutamate after TBI were closely related to the occurrence and severity of TBI-ALI, while it remains unknown whether a high concentration of blood glutamate directly causes or aggravates TBI-ALI. We found that inhibition of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) after brain injury alleviated the TBI-ALI; however, it is unknown whether lowering blood glutamate levels in combination with inhibiting the A2AR would lead to better effects...
April 23, 2018: Shock
Ewa Walaszczyk, Waldemar Podgórski, Małgorzata Janczar-Smuga, Ewelina Dymarska
The pH of the medium is the key environmental parameter of chemical selectivity of oxalic acid biosynthesis by Aspergillus niger . The activity of the enzyme oxaloacetate hydrolase, which is responsible for decomposition of oxaloacetate to oxalate and acetate inside the cell of the fungus, is highest at pH 6. In the present study, the influence of pH in the range of 3-7 on oxalic acid secretion by A. niger W78C from sucrose was investigated. The highest oxalic acid concentration, 64.3 g dm-3 , was reached in the medium with pH 6...
2018: Chemické Zvesti
Firoz Anwar, Ruqaiyah Khan, Richa Sachan, Imran Kazmi, Alisha Rawat, Abdullah Sabih, Rajbala Singh, Muhammad Afzal, Aftab Ahmad, Abdulaziz S Al-Orab, F A Al-Abbasi, Prakash Chandra Bhatt, Vikas Kumar
HCC has been reported to be immensely occurring carcinoma worldwide. Recent days the mortality occurred due to liver cancer has also been found to be increased at an alarming speed affecting mostly the young patients. The aim of the current study was to decipher the role of calcium and vitamin K3 in the treatment of chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis in the male Wistar rats. Liver cancer was induced via a subnecrogenic dose of 160 mg/kg body weight, diethylnitrosamine (DENA) when associated with fasting/refeeding in male Wistar rats...
April 17, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Chih-Sheng Yang, Eleni Stampouloglou, Nathan M Kingston, Liye Zhang, Stefano Monti, Xaralabos Varelas
The transcriptional regulators TAZ and YAP (TAZ/YAP) have emerged as pro-tumorigenic factors that drive many oncogenic traits, including induction of cell growth, resistance to cell death, and activation of processes that promote migration and invasion. Here, we report that TAZ/YAP reprogram cellular energetics to promote the dependence of breast cancer cell growth on exogenous glutamine. Rescue experiments with glutamine-derived metabolites suggest an essential role for glutamate and α-ketoglutarate (AKG) in TAZ/YAP-driven cell growth in the absence of glutamine...
June 2018: EMBO Reports
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