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Qin Wang, Hongjun Chen, Yong Li, Huixia Wang, Zhou Nie, Yufang Hu, Shouzhou Yao
We report here a label-free and sensitive electrochemical method for probing Citrate synthase (CS) activity based on detailed investigations into the nucleic acid-mimicking coordination polymer (CP) formed from the coenzyme A (CoA)-Ag(I) repeat units. Our biosensing approach provides an especial and significant detection mechanism: CS can catalyze the essential condensation reaction between acetyl-coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) and oxaloacetate (OAA) to form citrate and CoA; then, in the presence of Ag(I), CoA-Ag(I) CP can be in situ formed because of the strong complexation ability of thiol groups of CoA toward Ag(I)...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Charles Lekhya Priya, K V Bhaskara Rao
BACKGROUND: α-glucosidase inhibitors controls postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) by lowering sharp rise in blood glucose levels after ingestion of carbohydrate rich meal in type 2 diabetic (T2D) individuals. Acalypha indica commonly known as Indian copper leaf is used in traditional medicinal system to treat various diseases. In our previous in-vitro investigation, methanolic extract of A. indica stems (AIS) proved to be an effective a-glucosidase inhibitor, antioxidant, and well tolerated in acute and subchronic toxicity studies in albino wistar rats...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Kilambi Pundarikakshudu, Deepak H Shah, Aashish H Panchal, Gordhanbhai C Bhavsar
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of petroleum ether extract of fenugreek seeds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fenugreek seed powder was extracted in petroleum ether by cold maceration. This fenugreek seed petroleum ether extract (FSPEE) was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and tested on rats against carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced paw edema, complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis and cotton pellet-induced granuloma...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Jeong-Wook Choi, In-Hye Kim, Young-Min Kim, Min-Kyeong Lee, Youn-Hee Choi, Taek-Jeong Nam
The present study investigated the protective effect of Pyropia yezoensis glycoprotein (PYGP) against chronic ethanol consumption‑mediated hepatotoxicity in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=20; 6 weeks old) were randomly divided into four groups. The rats in each group were treated for 30 days with the following: i) CON group, distilled water only; ii) EtOH group, 20% ethanol 3.7 g/kg/BW; iii) EtOH+150 group, 20% ethanol 3.7 g/kg/BW+PYGP 150 mg/kg/BW; iv) EtOH+300 group, 20% ethanol 3.7 g/kg/BW+PYGP 300 mg/kg/BW...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Zi-Shan Zhang, Mei-Jun Liu, Renate Scheibe, Jennifer Selinski, Li-Tao Zhang, Cheng Yang, Xiang-Long Meng, Hui-Yuan Gao
The mechanism by which the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway contributes to PSII photoprotection is in dispute. The current consensus is that the AOX pathway protects photosystems by dissipating excess reducing equivalents that are exported from chloroplasts through the malate/oxaloacetate (Mal/OAA) shuttle, preventing the over-reduction of chloroplasts. Here, using the aox1a Arabidopsis mutant and nine other C3 and C4 species, an additional model of the AOX pathway in PSII photoprotection is proposed...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Plant
Stefan Christen, Doriane Lorendeau, Roberta Schmieder, Dorien Broekaert, Kristine Metzger, Koen Veys, Ilaria Elia, Joerg Martin Buescher, Martin Franz Orth, Shawn Michael Davidson, Thomas Georg Philipp Grünewald, Katrien De Bock, Sarah-Maria Fendt
Cellular proliferation depends on refilling the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to support biomass production (anaplerosis). The two major anaplerotic pathways in cells are pyruvate conversion to oxaloacetate via pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and glutamine conversion to α-ketoglutarate. Cancers often show an organ-specific reliance on either pathway. However, it remains unknown whether they adapt their mode of anaplerosis when metastasizing to a distant organ. We measured PC-dependent anaplerosis in breast-cancer-derived lung metastases compared to their primary cancers using in vivo (13)C tracer analysis...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
S Akhter, B A Rakha, M S Ansari, A U Husna, S Iqbal, M Khalid
Egg yolk is used as a cryoprotectant for semen in different mammalian species including buffalo. Egg yolk from different sources may affect freezability of buffalo bull semen. Quail egg yolk (QEY) and turkey egg yolk (TEY) in Tris-citric acid extender was evaluated for post-thaw quality and in vivo fertility rate of cryopreserved buffalo bull semen. Ejaculates were collected on weekly basis from six Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (12 ejaculates/bull) for a period of 6 weeks and diluted at 37 °C with tris-citric egg yolk extender (50 × 10(6) motile spermatozoa mL(-1)) containing different levels of QEY or TEY (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) or 20% chicken egg yolk (CEY; controls) and cryopreserved...
September 9, 2016: Theriogenology
Veeran Srinivasan, Periyakali Saravana Bhavan, Gopalan Rajkumar, Thangavelu Satgurunathan, Thirunavukkarasu Muralisankar
This study was performed to assess the growth-promoting potential of dietary magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii post-larvae (PL). MgO NPs were supplemented at 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg kg(-1) with the basal diet (containing 0.95 g Mg kg(-1)); the concentrations of Mg in MgO NP-supplemented diets were increased correspondingly (1.07, 1.15, 1.24, 1.37 and 1.46 g Mg kg(-1) respectively). MgO NP-supplemented diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL (initial weight 0.11 ± 0...
October 5, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Man-Young Jung, Jong-Geol Kim, Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté, W Irene C Rijpstra, Eugene L Madsen, So-Jeong Kim, Heeji Hong, Ok-Ja Si, Melina Kerou, Christa Schleper, Sung-Keun Rhee
A wide diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) within the phylum Thaumarchaeota exists and plays a key role in the N cycle in a variety of habitats. In this study, we isolated and characterized an ammonia-oxidizing archaeon, strain MY3, from a coal tar-contaminated sediment. Phylogenetically, strain MY3 falls in clade 'Nitrosocosmicus' of the thaumarchaeotal group I.1b. The cells of strain MY3 are large "walnut-like" cocci, divide by binary fission along a central cingulum, and form aggregates. Strain MY3 is mesophilic and neutrophilic...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Bai-Yu Su, Chun-Feng Tian, Bu-Lang Gao, Yu-Hong Tong, Xu-Hong Zhao, Ying Zheng
OBJECTIVES: To investigate correlation of the white blood cell (WBC) and its subtype count with the traditional and non-traditional components of the metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Between January 2012 and December 2013, 18222 people were enrolled in this study. The height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were measured, and blood samples were tested for all subjects after an overnight fast. The count of WBC and its subtypes, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein, aminotransferases, fibrinogen, uric acid, and fasting blood glucose were all assessed...
October 2, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Francesca M Simonte, Andreas Dötsch, Lisete Galego, Cecilia Arraiano, Johannes Gescher
Propionate is an abundant carboxylic acid in nature. Microorganisms metabolize propionate aerobically via the 2-methylcitrate pathway. This pathway depends on a series of three reactions in the citric acid cycle that leads to the conversion of succinate to oxaloacetate. Interestingly, the γ-proteobacterium Escherichia coli can use propionate as a carbon and electron source under oxic but not under anoxic conditions. RT-PCR and transcriptomic analysis revealed a posttranscriptional regulation of the prpBCDE-gene cluster encoding the necessary enzymes for propionate metabolism...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Benonio T Villalba, Francine R Ianiski, Ane G Vogt, Mikaela P Pinz, Angélica S Reis, Rodrigo A Vaucher, Mauro P Soares, Ethel A Wilhelm, Cristiane Luchese
This study determined whether meloxicam in nanocapsules modifies stomach and liver damage caused by free meloxicam in mice. Male Swiss mice were treated with blank nanocapsules or meloxicam in nanocapsules or free meloxicam (10 mg/kg, intragastrically, daily for five days). On the seventh day, blood was collected to determine biochemical markers (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, total bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin, albumin and alkaline phosphatase). Stomachs and livers were removed for histological analysis...
September 21, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Fernando G de Macedo, Joana D Bresolin, Elcio F Santos, Felipe Furlan, Wilson T Lopes da Silva, Joe C Polacco, José Lavres
Nickel (Ni) availability in soil varies as a function of pH. Plants require Ni in small quantities for normal development, especially in legumes due its role in nitrogen (N) metabolism. This study investigated the effect of soil base saturation, and Ni amendments on Ni uptake, N accumulation in the leaves and grains, as well as to evaluate organic acids changes in soybean. In addition, two N assimilation enzymes were assayed: nitrate reductase (NR) and Ni-dependent urease. Soybean plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum were cultivated in soil-filled pots under two base-cation saturation (BCS) ratios (50 and 70%) and five Ni rates - 0...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Prasannkumar R Vasava, R G Jani, H V Goswami, S D Rathwa, F B Tandel
AIM: This study was planned to reveal the clinical signs and biochemical alterations in pregnancy toxemic goats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 20 healthy pregnant and 45 pregnancy toxemic goats and analyzed biochemically. RESULTS: The most significant clinical findings were observed in naturally affected goats with pregnancy toxemia included anorexia, recumbency, lethargy, opisthotonos, dropped head, periodic convulsion, sweetish fruity odor from breath, apparent blindness, bloat, grinding of teeth, and frothy salivation...
August 2016: Veterinary World
Viqar Showkat Banday, Kristina Lejon
Although Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is T cell mediated disease in the effector stage, the mechanism behind the initial β cell assault less understood. Metabolomic differences, including elevated levels of glutamic acid, have been observed in T1D patients prior to disease onset, as well as in pre-diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Increased levels of glutamic acid damage both neurons and beta cells, implying that this could contribute to the initial events of T1D pathogenesis. We investigated the underlying genetic factors and consequences of the increased levels of glutamic acid in NOD...
September 21, 2016: Immunology
Peter M Lambert, Paul A Nakata
Oxalic acid is produced by a variety of organisms ranging from simple microbes to complex animals. This acid has been proposed to fulfill various physiological and pathological functions which vary between organisms. In bacteria from the Burkholderia genus, oxalate secretion has been shown to be quorum sensing dependent and to support pathogenicity and cell viability. In light of the critical roles of oxalate in Burkholderia as well as other organisms, it is surprising that our understanding of how this simple dicarboxylate is biosynthesized remains incomplete...
2016: PloS One
X Y Zhang, M Y Zhou, L L Li, Y J Jiang, X T Zou
1. The primary objective of this experiment was to estimate the toxic effects of arsenic (As) supplementation in feed on laying performance, As retention of eggs and organs, serum biochemical indices and endocrine hormones in laying hens. 2. A total of 320 "Jinghong Number 1" hens, 56-week-old, were randomly allocated into four treatments of four replicates with 20 layers. Graded arsenical was added to the basal diet at As levels of 0, 17, 34 and 51 mg/kg, respectively, in the experimental diets. The trial lasted for 9 weeks including a 1 week for acclimatization...
September 16, 2016: British Poultry Science
Arul M Varman, Lian He, Rhiannon Follenfant, Weihua Wu, Sarah Wemmer, Steven A Wrobel, Yinjie J Tang, Seema Singh
Sphingobium sp. SYK-6 is a soil bacterium boasting a well-studied ligninolytic pathway and the potential for development into a microbial chassis for lignin valorization. An improved understanding of its metabolism will help researchers in the engineering of SYK-6 for the production of value-added chemicals through lignin valorization. We used (13)C-fingerprinting, (13)C metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA), and RNA-sequencing differential expression analysis to uncover the following metabolic traits: (i) SYK-6 prefers alkaline conditions, making it an efficient host for the consolidated bioprocessing of lignin, and it also lacks the ability to metabolize sugars or organic acids; (ii) the CO2 release (i...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Seon-A Jang, SungRyul Lee, Eun-Hwa Sohn, Jaehyuk Yang, Dae Won Park, Yong Joon Jeong, Inhye Kim, Jung Eun Kwon, Hae Seong Song, Young Mi Cho, Xue Meng, Hyun Jung Koo, Se Chan Kang
Excessive consumption of fat and fructose augments the pathological progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through hepatic fibrosis, inflammation, and hepatic de novo lipogenesis. We hypothesized that supplementation with Cynanchum wilfordii extract (CWE) decreases fat accumulation in the liver by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The beneficial effect of CWE was evaluated in a murine model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Misato Ohtani, Keiko Morisaki, Yuji Sawada, Ryosuke Sano, Abigail Loren Tung Uy, Atsushi Yamamoto, Tetsuya Kurata, Yoshimi Nakano, Shiro Suzuki, Mami Matsuda, Tomohisa Hasunuma, Masami Yokota Hirai, Taku Demura
Xylem vessels, the water-conducting cells in vascular plants, undergo characteristic secondary wall deposition and programmed cell death. These processes are regulated by the VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN (VND) transcription factors. Here, to identify changes in metabolism that occur during protoxylem vessel element differentiation, we subjected tobacco BY-2 suspension culture cells carrying an inducible VND7 system to LC/MS-based wide-target metabolome analysis and transcriptome analysis. Time-course data for 128 metabolites showed dynamic changes in metabolites related to amino acid biosynthesis...
September 6, 2016: Plant Physiology
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