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Oxaloacetate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929535/dual-targeting-of-glutaminase-1-and-thymidylate-synthase-elicits-death-synergistically-in-nsclc
#1
Jae-Seon Lee, Joon H Kang, Seon-Hyeong Lee, Dongwan Hong, Jaekyoung Son, Kyeong M Hong, Jaewhan Song, Soo-Youl Kim
Glutaminase 1 (GLS1) expression is increased in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). GLS1 knockdown using siRNA or inhibition using bis-2-(5-phenylacetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide (BPTES) induced cell cycle arrest with significant reduction of ATP level while levels of reactive oxygen species or glutathione were not affected in NSCLC cell lines. Recently we found that NSCLC significantly depends on cytosol NADH for ATP production. GLS1 remarkably contributes to ATP production through transferring cytosolic NADH into mitochondria via malate-aspartate shuttle by supply of glutamate in NSCLC...
December 8, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917251/droplet-millifluidics-for-kinetic-study-of-transketolase
#2
A Pinsolle, F Charmantray, L Hecquet, F Sarrazin
We present a continuous-flow reactor at the millifluidic scale coupled with an online, non-intrusive spectroscopic monitoring method for determining the kinetic parameters of an enzyme, transketolase (TK) used in biocatalysis for the synthesis of polyols by carboligation. The millifluidic system used is based on droplet flow, a well-established method for kinetic chemical data acquisition. The TK assay is based on the direct quantitative measurement of bicarbonate ions released during the transketolase-catalysed reaction in the presence of hydroxypyruvic acid as the donor, thanks to an irreversible reaction: bicarbonate ions react with phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) in the presence of PEP carboxylase as the first auxiliary enzyme...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914869/glycolysis-without-pyruvate-kinase-in-clostridium-thermocellum
#3
Daniel G Olson, Manuel Hörl, Tobias Fuhrer, Jingxuan Cui, Jilai Zhou, Marybeth I Maloney, Daniel Amador-Noguez, Liang Tian, Uwe Sauer, Lee R Lynd
The metabolism of Clostridium thermocellum is notable in that it assimilates sugar via the EMP pathway but does not possess a pyruvate kinase enzyme. In the wild type organism, there are three proposed pathways for conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to pyruvate, which differ in their cofactor usage. One path uses pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), another pathway uses the combined activities of PEP carboxykinase (PEPCK) and oxaloacetate decarboxylase (ODC). Yet another pathway, the malate shunt, uses the combined activities of PEPCK, malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme...
November 30, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910779/amelioration-of-doxorubicin-induced-cardiac-and-renal-toxicity-by-oxycarotenoid-lutein-and-its-mechanism-of-action
#4
Edakkadath Raghavan Sindhu, Thattaruparambil Raveendran Nithya, Ponnamparambil Purushothaman Binitha, Ramadasan Kuttan
We set out to determine the effect of oxycarotenoid lutein on reducing cardiac and renal toxicity induced by doxorubicin (DXR). We started with oral administration in rats of lutein for 15 d before administering DXR (30 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally, in a single dose). Animals in all groups were sacrificed 24 h after DXR administration. Serum markers of cardiac injury lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase increased drastically after DXR but decreased after lutein treatment (p < 0...
2016: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908774/increased-incorporation-of-gaseous-co2-into-succinate-by-escherichia-coli-overexpressing-carbonic-anhydrase-and-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-genes
#5
Soohyun Park, Jae-Ung Lee, Sukhyeong Cho, Hyeonsoo Kim, Han Bin Oh, Seung Pil Pack, Jinwon Lee
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an abundant and cheap carbon source that is partly responsible for global warming in the atmosphere. The objective of this study was to construct a recombinant E. coli strain that can show enhanced production of succinate derived from CO2. In this study, we confirmed the enhancement of utilization by analyzing succinate containing one carbon-13 ((13)C) derived from (13)CO2. Firstly, the carbonic anhydrase gene (SP(-)HCCA) derived from Hahella chejuensis KCTC 2396 was over-expressed to enhance carbon flux toward bicarbonate ion (HCO3(-)) synthesis in E...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890529/mass-spectrometry-analysis-shows-the-biosynthetic-pathways-supported-by-pyruvate-carboxylase-in-highly-invasive-breast-cancer-cells
#6
Phatchariya Phannasil, Israr-Ul H Ansari, Mahmoud El Azzouny, Melissa J Longacre, Khanti Rattanapornsompong, Charles F Burant, Sarawut Jitrapakdee, Michael J MacDonald
We recently showed that the anaplerotic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is up-regulated in human breast cancer tissue and its expression is correlated with the late stages of breast cancer and tumor size [Phannasil et al., PloS One 10, e0129848, 2015]. In the current study we showed that PC enzyme activity is much higher in the highly invasive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 than in less invasive breast cancer cell lines. We generated multiple stable PC knockdown cell lines from the MDA-MB-231 cell line and used mass spectrometry with (13)C6-glucose and (13)C5-glutamine to discern the pathways that use PC in support of cell growth...
November 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885626/anaplerosis-for-glutamate-synthesis-in-the-neonate-and-in-adulthood
#7
Eva Brekke, Tora Sund Morken, Anne B Walls, Helle Waagepetersen, Arne Schousboe, Ursula Sonnewald
A central task of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA, Krebs, citric acid) cycle in brain is to provide precursors for biosynthesis of glutamate, GABA, aspartate and glutamine. Three of these amino acids are the partners in the intricate interaction between astrocytes and neurons and form the so-called glutamine-glutamate (GABA) cycle. The ketoacids α-ketoglutarate and oxaloacetate are removed from the cycle for this process. When something is removed from the TCA cycle it must be replaced to permit the continued function of this essential pathway, a process termed anaplerosis...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882225/carbonated-soft-drinks-alter-hepatic-cytochrome-p450-isoform-expression-in-wistar-rats
#8
Adel Alkhedaide, Mohamed Mohamed Soliman, Zein Shaban Ibrahim
The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic consumption of soft drinks (SDs) on hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) expression in the livers of Wistar rats. For 3 consecutive months, the rats had free access to three different soft drinks, Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola and 7-UP. The rats were subsequently compared with control group rats that had consumed water. Blood and hepatic tissue samples were assayed for the changes in antioxidants, liver function biomarkers and hepatic gene expression for different isoforms of hepatic CYP...
November 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878924/differences-in-rumen-fermentation-characteristics-between-low-yield-and-high-yield-dairy-cows-in-early-lactation
#9
Ahmad Sofyan, Makoto Mitsumori, Hideyuki Ohmori, Yutaka Uyeno, Toshiya Hasunuma, Kiyoshi Akiyama, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Hiroaki Yokokawa, Tsuneko Yamaguchi, Takumi Shinkai, Makoto Hirako, Shiro Kushibiki
Relationship between rumen fermentation parameters, blood biochemical profiles and milk production traits in different yielding dairy cows during early lactation was investigated. Twelve dairy cows were divided into two groups based on their milk yield, that is low-yield (LY) and high-yield (HY) groups. Rumen fluid and blood were collected at 3 weeks prepartum and 4, 8 and 12 weeks postpartum. Results showed that proportions of acetate, propionate to total short chain fatty acids and acetate : propionate ratio were changed (P < 0...
November 23, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874251/simultaneous-analysis-of-ten-low-molecular-mass-organic-acids-in-the-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-and-photorespiration-pathway-in-thalassiosira-pseudonana-at-different-growth-stages
#10
Mengwei Ye, Lijing Zhang, Panpan Xu, Runtao Zhang, Jilin Xu, Xiaokai Wu, Juanjuan Chen, Chengxu Zhou, Xiaojun Yan
A method using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for simultaneous determination of organic acids in microalgae. o-Benzylhydroxylamine was used to derivatize the analytes, and stable isotope-labeled compounds were used as internal standards for precise quantification. The proposed method was evaluated in terms of linearity, recovery, matrix effect, sensitivity, and precision. Linear calibration curves with correlation coefficients of >0.99 were obtained over the concentration range of 0...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872961/boosting-anaplerotic-reactions-by-pyruvate-kinase-gene-deletion-and-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-desensitization-for-glutamic-acid-and-lysine-production-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#11
Atsushi Yokota, Kazunori Sawada, Masaru Wada
In the 1980s, Shiio and coworkers demonstrated using random mutagenesis that the following three phenotypes were effective for boosting lysine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum: (1) low-activity-level citrate synthase (CS(L)), (2) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) resistant to feedback inhibition by aspartic acid (PEPC(R)), and (3) pyruvate kinase (PYK) deficiency. Here, we reevaluated these phenotypes and their interrelationship in lysine production using recombinant DNA techniques.The pyk deletion and PEPC(R) (D299N in ppc) independently showed marginal effects on lysine production, but both phenotypes synergistically increased lysine yield, demonstrating the importance of PEPC as an anaplerotic enzyme in lysine production...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847425/impact-of-therapeutic-and-high-doses-of-florfenicol-on-kidney-and-liver-functional-indicators-in-goat
#12
Jan Muhammad Shah, Toufique Ahmed Qureshi, Tahmina Shah, Qurban Ali Shah, Muhammad Asif Arain, Zohaib Ahmed Bhutto, Muhammad Saeed, Farman Ali Siyal
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of therapeutic and high doses of florfenicol on kidney and liver functional indicators in goat species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six mature, healthy goats (combine breed and sex) with average weight 25 kg were selected for this study. The therapeutic (20 mg/kg b.w.) and high doses (40 and 60 mg) of florfenicol were administered for 3 days with 24 h interval. Blood samples were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h following the each administered dose...
October 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842889/limitations-of-gd-eob-dtpa-enhanced-mri-can-clinical-parameters-predict-suboptimal-hepatobiliary-phase
#13
M Kobi, V Paroder, M Flusberg, A M Rozenblit, V Chernyak
AIM: To establish cut-off levels of the clinical parameters, which would predict suboptimal 30 minutes delayed hepatobiliary phase (HBP) with high specificity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included patients with chronic liver disease who underwent hepatocellular carcinoma screening with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between 1 January 2011 and 30 November 2014. For each case, HBP was graded as adequate or suboptimal, based on Liver Image Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) criteria...
November 11, 2016: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825779/glutamine-is-required-for-red-spotted-grouper-nervous-necrosis-virus-replication-via-replenishing-the-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle
#14
Muhammad Asim, Sanjie Jiang, Lizhu Yi, Wenjie Chen, Lindan Sun, Lijuan Zhao, Muhammad Nasir Khan Khattak, Jiagang Tu, Li Lin
Glutamine, one of the most important nutrients, plays a vital role in carbon metabolic pathway and has been reported to be required for the replication of several human DNA viruses. However, whether glutamine is required for RNA virus replication and the related mechanism remains elusive. Nervous necrosis virus (NNV), a positive-stranded RNA virus, can infect a number of important aquatic species and has caused great economic losses in aquaculture industry worldwide. In this study, the effects of glutamine on red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) replication were investigated...
January 2, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816553/oxaloacetate-and-adipose-stromal-cells-conditional-medium-synergistically-protected-potassium-serum-deprivation-induced-neuronal-apoptosis
#15
Qingpeng Liu, Gang Zhao, Changwei Zhou, Martin R Farlow, Yansheng Du, Guangxu Xu, Huiying Gu
Adipose stromal cells conditioned media (ASC-CM) protect neurons in a variety of neuronal death models including potassium/serum deprivation-induced neuronal apoptosis. In this study, we found that ASC-CM contained glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and its substrate, oxaloacetate (OAA) directly protected cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) from apoptosis induced by serum and potassium deprivation. Additionally, OAA inhibited serum and potassium deprivation-induced caspase 3 activation. ASC-CM and OAA in combination had a synergistic neuroprotective effect...
November 2, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816289/haematological-and-immune-upshots-in-clarias-batrachus-exposed-to-dimethoate-and-defying-response-of-dietary-ascorbic-acid
#16
Madhusudan Reddy Narra
Dimethoate (DM) is an organophosphate insecticide used worldwide in agriculture, household practices. It has resulted in a series of environmental and toxicological impacts on non-target aquatic organisms. The present study investigated the potential ameliorative effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) against dimethoate toxicity in the haematological and immune parameters in Clarias batrachus. The experiment included group A (basal diet), group B (basal diet with 1.245 mg L(-1) DM) and group C (200 mg kg(-1) AA with 1...
November 2, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812119/daesiho-tang-is-an-effective-herbal-formulation-in-attenuation-of-obesity-in-mice-through-alteration-of-gene-expression-and-modulation-of-intestinal-microbiota
#17
Ahtesham Hussain, Mukesh Kumar Yadav, Shambhunath Bose, Jing-Hua Wang, Dongwoo Lim, Yun-Kyung Song, Seong-Gyu Ko, Hojun Kim
BACKGROUND: Obesity has become a major global health challenge due to its increasing prevalence, and the associated health risk. It is the main cause of various metabolic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke and certain forms of cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study we evaluated the anti-obesity property of Daesiho-tang (DSHT), an herbal medicine, using high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice as a model. Our results showed that DSHT ameliorated body weight gain, decreased total body fat, regulated expression of leptin and adiponectin genes of adipose tissue and exerted an anti-diabetic effect by attenuating fasting glucose level and serum insulin level in HFD-fed animals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802861/financial-impact-of-a-targeted-reduction-in-cardiac-enzyme-testing-at-a-community-hospital
#18
Li Zhang, Anne M Sill, Ilene Young, Sabreen Ahmed, Maria Morales, Sapna Kuehl
OBJECTIVES: Nearly one-third of healthcare costs are potentially avoidable and would not compromise medical care if eliminated. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the financial impact of reduction in use of creatinine kinase (CK)-MB and myoglobin tests after removing them from the cardiac enzyme order set at a community hospital. METHODS: Grand rounds were held, and an email notification was sent to de-emphasize the use of CK, CK-MB, myoglobin, SGOT (glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase), and SGPT (serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) work up...
2016: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780757/heterologous-expression-of-the-human-phosphoenol-pyruvate-carboxykinase-hpepck-m-improves-hydrogen-and-ethanol-synthesis-in-the-escherichia-coli-dcud-mutant-when-grown-in-a-glycerol-based-medium
#19
Antonio Valle, Gema Cabrera, Domingo Cantero, Jorge Bolivar
The production of biodiesel has emerged as an alternative to fossil fuels. However, this industry generates glycerol as a by-product in such large quantities that it has become an environmental problem. The biotransformation of this excess glycerol into other renewable bio-energy sources, like H2 and ethanol, by microorganisms such as Escherichia coli is an interesting possibility that warrants investigation. In this work we hypothesized that the conversion of oxaloacetate (OAA) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) could be improved by a controlled expression of the human mitochondrial GTP-dependent PEP carboxykinase...
October 22, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769451/signal-on-coa-dependent-electrochemical-biosensor-for-highly-sensitive-and-label-free-detection-of-citrate-synthase-activity
#20
Qin Wang, Hongjun Chen, Yong Li, Huixia Wang, Zhou Nie, Yufang Hu, Shouzhou Yao
We report here a label-free and sensitive electrochemical method for probing Citrate synthase (CS) activity based on detailed investigations into the nucleic acid-mimicking coordination polymer (CP) formed from the coenzyme A (CoA)-Ag(I) repeat units. Our biosensing approach provides an especial and significant detection mechanism: CS can catalyze the essential condensation reaction between acetyl-coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) and oxaloacetate (OAA) to form citrate and CoA; then, in the presence of Ag(I), CoA-Ag(I) CP can be in situ formed because of the strong complexation ability of thiol groups of CoA toward Ag(I)...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
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