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Oxaloacetate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213265/lactobacillus-plantarum-mys6-ameliorates-fumonisin-b1-induced-hepatorenal-damage-in-broilers
#1
B V Deepthi, Rakesh Somashekaraiah, K Poornachandra Rao, N Deepa, N K Dharanesha, K S Girish, M Y Sreenivasa
Fumonisin B1 (FB1), a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species is a predominant Group 2B carcinogen occurring in maize and maize-based poultry feeds. It is shown to be nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, neurotoxic, and immunosuppressing in animals. In this study, we report the ameliorating effects of a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 on FB1-induced toxicity and oxidative damage in broilers. A 6-week dietary experiment consisting of 48 broilers was performed in six treatment groups. Probiotic treatment (109 cells/mL) involved pre-colonization of broilers with L...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208641/alternative-oxidase-isoforms-are-differentially-activated-by-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-intermediates
#2
Jennifer Selinski, Andreas Hartmann, Gabriele Deckers-Hebestreit, David A Day, James Whelan, Renate Scheibe
The cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX) is a non-proton-pumping ubiquinol oxidase that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water and is post-translationally regulated by redox mechanisms and 2-oxo acids. Arabidopsis thaliana possesses five AOX isoforms (AOX1A-D and AOX2). AOX1D expression is increased in aox1a knock-out mutants from A. thaliana (especially after restriction of the cytochrome c pathway), but cannot compensate for the lack of AOX1A, suggesting a difference in regulation of these isoforms...
December 5, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192676/gotcha-lncrna-acod1-targets-metabolism-during-viral-infection
#3
Marah C Runtsch, Luke Aj O'Neill
Long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators of cellular processes, but few have been functionally characterized in host-pathogen interactions. A recent report in Science demonstrates a mechanistic role for a novel lncRNA in directly binding an essential metabolic enzyme, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT2); this interaction benefits viral replication via alteration of host metabolism.
December 1, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181309/effect-of-mistletoe-combined-with-carboxymethyl-cellulose-on-dry-eye-in-postmenopausal-women
#4
Nan Jiang, Lin-Hong Ye, Lei Ye, Jing Yu, Qi-Chen Yang, Qing Yuan, Pei-Wen Zhu, Yi Shao
AIM: To investigate the protective effect of mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose eye drops on dry eye in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Sixty postmenopause female patients diagnosed of dry eye were assigned randomly to mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose eye drops treatment group (n=30) and control group treated with normal saline eye drops (n=30). The subjective symptoms of ocular surface, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), tear film function tests, tear protein and corneal morphology by confocal scanning microscopy were analyzed before treatment and at 1, 2, 4 and 8wk after treatment respectively...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175687/biouptake-toxicity-and-biotransformation-of-triclosan-in-diatom-cymbella-sp-and-the-influence-of-humic-acid
#5
Tengda Ding, Kunde Lin, Lianjun Bao, Mengting Yang, Juying Li, Bo Yang, Jay Gan
Triclosan is one of the most frequently detected emerging contaminants in aquatic environment. In this study, we investigated the biouptake, toxicity and biotransformation of triclosan in freshwater algae Cymbella sp. The influence of humic acid, as a representative of dissolved organic matter, was also explored. Results from this study showed that triclosan was toxic to Cymbella sp. with 72 h EC50 of 324.9 μg L-1. Humic acid significantly reduced the toxicity and accumulation of triclosan in Cymbella sp...
November 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164422/efficient-production-and-secretion-of-oxaloacetate-from-halomonas-sp-km-1-under-aerobic-conditions
#6
Asuka Hannya, Taku Nishimura, Isao Matsushita, Jun Tsubota, Yoshikazu Kawata
The alkaliphilic, halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. KM-1 can utilize glucose for the intracellular storage of the bioplastic poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and extracellular secretion of pyruvate under aerobic conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of sodium chloride concentration on PHB accumulation and pyruvate secretion in the KM-1 strain and, unexpectedly, observed that oxaloacetate, an important intermediate chemical in the TCA cycle, glycogenesis, and aspartic acid biosynthesis, was secreted...
November 21, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155635/case-248-cystic-duodenal-dystrophy-with-groove-pancreatitis
#7
Aruna R Patil, Shrivalli Nandikoor, Govindarajan Mallarajapatna, Swarna Shivakumar
History A 59-year-old man presented to the gastroenterology outpatient department with acute abdominal pain centered in the epigastrium. He had experienced similar episodes of abdominal pain in the past that had been treated with surgery. He reported multiple failed attempts at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Laboratory tests were performed at the time of admission and revealed a serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase level of 9 U/L [0.15 μkat/L] (normal range, 5-40 U/L [0.08-0.67 μkat/L]), a serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase level of 34 U/L [0...
December 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143095/areca-nut-chewing-is-associated-with-common-mental-disorders-a-population-based-study
#8
Tzu-Yu Lin, Huan-Cheng Chang, Kuang-Hung Hsu
INTRODUCTION: Forms of habitual substance use including cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have been documented as risk factors of common mental disorders (CMDs). The effects of areca nut chewing on biophysiological tests, metabolic syndromes, and liver function have been reported previously; however, the relationship between areca nut chewing and CMDs remains unclear. This study examined the association between areca nut chewing and CMDs and explored the relationships between areca nut chewing and biophysiological indicators...
November 15, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142429/antioxidant-and-hepatoprotective-potential-of-swaras-and-hima-extracts-of-tinospora-cordifolia-and-boerhavia-diffusa-in-swiss-albino-mice
#9
Amit Kaushik, Athar Husain, Harshika Awasthi, Dewasya Pratap Singh, Raziuddin Khan, Dayanandan Mani
Background: In Ayurveda, five basic extraction procedures are mentioned in order of their decreasing potency. Swaras is considered as the most potent followed by, kalka, kwatha, fanta and hima. Objective: Present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of swaras and hima extracts of T.cordifolia and B. diffusa. Materials and Methods: Swaras and hima extracts of T. cordifolia and B. diffusa were prepared...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118438/substrate-specificity-and-allosteric-regulation-of-a-d-lactate-dehydrogenase-from-a-unicellular-cyanobacterium-are-altered-by-an-amino-acid-substitution
#10
Shoki Ito, Masahiro Takeya, Takashi Osanai
Lactate/lactic acid is an important chemical compound for the manufacturing of bioplastics. The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can produce lactate from carbon dioxide and possesses D-lactate dehydrogenase (Ddh). Here, we performed a biochemical analysis of the Ddh from this cyanobacterium (SyDdh) using recombinant proteins. SyDdh was classified into a cyanobacterial clade similar to those from Gram-negative bacteria, although it was distinct from them. SyDdh can use both pyruvate and oxaloacetate as a substrate and is activated by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and repressed by divalent cations...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107957/febuxostat-ameliorates-secondary-progressive-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-restoring-mitochondrial-energy-production-in-a-got2-dependent-manner
#11
Josephe A Honorat, Yuji Nakatsuji, Mikito Shimizu, Makoto Kinoshita, Hisae Sumi-Akamaru, Tsutomu Sasaki, Kazushiro Takata, Toru Koda, Akiko Namba, Kazuya Yamashita, Eri Sanda, Manabu Sakaguchi, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Takashi Shirakura, Mizuho Tamura, Saburo Sakoda, Hideki Mochizuki, Tatsusada Okuno
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are important determinants of neurodegeneration in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). We previously showed that febuxostat, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, ameliorated both relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by preventing neurodegeneration in mice. In this study, we investigated how febuxostat protects neuron in secondary progressive EAE. A DNA microarray analysis revealed that febuxostat treatment increased the CNS expression of several mitochondria-related genes in EAE mice, most notably including GOT2, which encodes glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 2 (GOT2)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101809/evaluation-of-diphenhydramine-in-talc-induced-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-wistar-rats
#12
Muhammad Afzal, Shakir Saleem, Nalini Singh, Imran Kazmi, Ruqaiyah Khan, Mohammed Shahid Nadeem, Mazin A Zamzami, Fahad A Al-Abbasi, Firoz Anwar
Evaluation of diphenhydramine in talc induced type 2 diabetes mellitus was done in Wistar rats. Oral administration of Talc (10mg/kg)carried out for 21days increased the levels of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum creatinine, blood glucose, urea, uric acid and triglycerides (TGs), but when the animals were treated with diphenhydramine (DPH), the levels of the aforementioned biochemical parameters decreased significantly (p<0.0001). The level of serum cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was found to be reduced in Diabetes Mellitus (DM) control and when it was treated with DPH control animals, these makers increased significantly...
November 1, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094409/brownian-dynamic-study-of-an-enzyme-metabolon-in-the-tca-cycle-substrate-kinetics-and-channeling
#13
Yu-Ming M Huang, Gary A Huber, Nuo Wang, Shelley D Minteer, J Andrew McCammon
Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and citrate synthase (CS) are two pacemaking enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Oxaloacetate (OAA) molecules are the intermediate substrates that are transferred from the MDH to CS to carry out sequential catalysis. It is known that, to achieve a high flux of intermediate transport and reduce the probability of substrate leaking, a MDH-CS metabolon forms to enhance the OAA substrate channeling. In this study, we aim to understand the OAA channeling within possible MDH-CS metabolons that have different structural orientations in their complexes...
November 2, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091735/biosynthesis-of-an-opine-metallophore-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#14
Jeffrey S McFarlane, Audrey L Lamb
Bacterial pathogenesis frequently requires metal acquisition by specialized, small-molecule metallophores. We hypothesized that the Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes the enzymes nicotianamine synthase (NAS) and opine dehydrogenase (ODH), biosynthesizing a new class of opine metallophore, previously characterized only in the unrelated Gram-positive organism Staphylococcus aureus. The identity of this metallophore, herein named pseudopaline, was determined through measurements of binding affinity, the in vitro reconstitution of the biosynthetic pathway to screen potential substrates, and the confirmation of product formation by mass spectrometry...
November 14, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080994/regenerative-potential-metabolic-profile-and-genetic-stability-of-brachypodium-distachyon-embryogenic-calli-as-affected-by-successive-subcultures
#15
T C Mamedes-Rodrigues, D S Batista, N M Vieira, E M Matos, D Fernandes, A Nunes-Nesi, C D Cruz, L F Viccini, F T S Nogueira, W C Otoni
Brachypodium distachyon, a model species for forage grasses and cereal crops, has been used in studies seeking improved biomass production and increased crop yield for biofuel production purposes. Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is the morphogenetic pathway that supports in vitro regeneration of such species. However, there are gaps in terms of studies on the metabolic profile and genetic stability along successive subcultures. The physiological variables and the metabolic profile of embryogenic callus (EC) and embryogenic structures (ES) from successive subcultures (30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, and 360-day-old subcultures) were analyzed...
October 28, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078126/differential-diagnosis-of-scrub-typhus-meningitis-from-tuberculous-meningitis-using-clinical-and-laboratory-features
#16
Ashraf V Valappil, Sohanlal Thiruvoth, Jabir M Peedikayil, Praveenkumar Raghunath, Manojan Thekkedath
OBJECTIVES: The involvement of the central nervous system in the form of meningitis or meningoencephalitis is common in scrub typhus and is an important differential diagnosis of other lymphocytic meningitis like tuberculous meningitis (TBM). The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and laboratory parameters that may be helpful in differentiating scrub typhus meningitis from TBM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared of the clinical and laboratory features of 57 patients admitted with scrub typhus meningitis or TBM during a 3-year period...
December 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074580/an-interferon-independent-lncrna-promotes-viral-replication-by-modulating-cellular-metabolism
#17
Pin Wang, Junfang Xu, Yujia Wang, Xuetao Cao
Viruses regulate host metabolic networks to improve their survival. Hardly known are molecules responsive to viral infection that regulate such metabolic changes, which is essential for understanding viral infection. Here we identify a lncRNA induced by multiple viruses, but not by type I interferon (IFN-I), that facilitates viral replication in mouse and human cells. In vivo deficiency of lncRNA-ACOD1 significantly attenuates viral infection through IFN-I/IRF3-independent pathways. Cytoplasmic lncRNA-ACOD1 directly binds the metabolic enzyme glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT2) near the substrate niche, enhancing its catalytic activity...
October 26, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055942/interaction-of-excitatory-amino-acid-transporters-1-3-eaat1-eaat2-eaat3-with-n-carbamoylglutamate-and-n-acetylglutamate
#18
Birgitta C Burckhardt, Gerhard Burckhardt
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Inborn deficiency of the N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) impairs the urea cycle and causes neurotoxic hyperammonemia. Oral administration of N-carbamoylglutamate (NCG), a synthetic analog of N-acetylglutamate (NAG), successfully decreases plasma ammonia levels in the affected children. Due to structural similarities to glutamate, NCG may be absorbed in the intestine and taken up into the liver by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). METHODS: Using Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing either human EAAT1, 2, or 3, or human sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter 3 (NaDC3), transport-associated currents of NAG, NCG, and related dicarboxylates were assayed...
October 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027436/-protective-effect-of-earthworm-active-ingredients-against-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-acute-liver-injury-in-mice
#19
Ya-Fei Zhao, Yang Gao, Xin-Fang Wu, Jian-Gang Wang, Leng-Xin Duan
To study the protective effect of earthworm active ingredients(EWAs) against endoplasmic reticulum stress(ERS)-induced acute liver injury in mice. The model of liver injury was induced through intraperitoneal injection of 10%CCl4. Serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase(ALT), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase(AST), superoxide dismutase(SOD) and glutathione peroxidase(GSH-PX) activity and malondialdehyde(MDA) concentration were detected by colorimetric method. Histological examination was performed through hematoxylin-eosin staining and light microscopy, and apoptosis was detected using terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990224/evaluation-of-haematological-serum-biochemical-and-histopathological-parameters-of-growing-rabbits-fed-amaranthus-dubius
#20
E Molina, P González-Redondo, R Moreno-Rojas, K Montero-Quintero, N Chirinos-Quintero, A Sánchez-Urdaneta
Amaranthus dubius is an alternative source of fibre and protein for the feed formulation for growing rabbits, although its effects on their health status are yet unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of three dietary levels (0, 160 and 320 g/kg) of A. dubius on haematological, serum biochemical and histopathological parameters of fattening rabbits. One hundred and thirteen New Zealand White rabbits were fed ad libitum from weaning (35 days) to slaughter (87 days). The health status of the animals was monitored, and mortality was recorded...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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