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Oxaloacetate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681682/effect-of-medium-ph-on-chemical-selectivity-of-oxalic-acid-biosynthesis-by-aspergillus-niger-w78c-in-submerged-batch-cultures-with-sucrose-as-a-carbon-source
#1
Ewa Walaszczyk, Waldemar Podgórski, Małgorzata Janczar-Smuga, Ewelina Dymarska
The pH of the medium is the key environmental parameter of chemical selectivity of oxalic acid biosynthesis by Aspergillus niger . The activity of the enzyme oxaloacetate hydrolase, which is responsible for decomposition of oxaloacetate to oxalate and acetate inside the cell of the fungus, is highest at pH 6. In the present study, the influence of pH in the range of 3-7 on oxalic acid secretion by A. niger W78C from sucrose was investigated. The highest oxalic acid concentration, 64.3 g dm-3 , was reached in the medium with pH 6...
2018: Chemické Zvesti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663832/therapeutic-role-of-calcium-and-vitamin-k3-in-chemically-induced-hepatocarcinogenesis-new-tools-for-cancer-treatment
#2
Firoz Anwar, Ruqaiyah Khan, Richa Sachan, Imran Kazmi, Alisha Rawat, Abdullah Sabih, Rajbala Singh, Muhammad Afzal, Aftab Ahmad, Abdulaziz S Al-Orab, F A Al-Abbasi, Prakash Chandra Bhatt, Vikas Kumar
HCC has been reported to be immensely occurring carcinoma worldwide. Recent days the mortality occurred due to liver cancer has also been found to be increased at an alarming speed affecting mostly the young patients. The aim of the current study was to decipher the role of calcium and vitamin K3 in the treatment of chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis in the male Wistar rats. Liver cancer was induced via a subnecrogenic dose of 160 mg/kg body weight, diethylnitrosamine (DENA) when associated with fasting/refeeding in male Wistar rats...
April 17, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661856/glutamine-utilizing-transaminases-are-a-metabolic-vulnerability-of-taz-yap-activated-cancer-cells
#3
Chih-Sheng Yang, Eleni Stampouloglou, Nathan M Kingston, Liye Zhang, Stefano Monti, Xaralabos Varelas
The transcriptional regulators TAZ and YAP (TAZ/YAP) have emerged as pro-tumorigenic factors that drive many oncogenic traits, including induction of cell growth, resistance to cell death, and activation of processes that promote migration and invasion. Here, we report that TAZ/YAP reprogram cellular energetics to promote the dependence of breast cancer cell growth on exogenous glutamine. Rescue experiments with glutamine-derived metabolites suggest an essential role for glutamate and α-ketoglutarate (AKG) in TAZ/YAP-driven cell growth in the absence of glutamine...
April 16, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658701/functional-annotation-of-ligu-as-a-1-3-allylic-isomerase-during-the-degradation-of-lignin-in-the-protocatechuate-4-5-cleavage-pathway-from-the-soil-bacterium-sphingobium-sp-syk-6
#4
Tessily N Hogancamp, Frank M Raushel
Sphingobium sp. SYK-6 is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that contributes to the degradation of lignin. Lignin provides structural support and protection to plants as a complex aromatic heteropolymer. The lignin degradation pathway of guaiacyl moieties leads to the intermediate, protocatechuate (PCA), which is further degraded via the 4,5-cleavage pathway where PCA is ultimately metabolized to pyruvate and oxaloacetate. In this pathway, LigI has been shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate (PDC) to (4E)-oxalomesaconate (OMA)...
April 16, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655770/a-high-throughput-screening-assay-for-pyruvate-carboxylase
#5
Brittney N Wyatt, Leggy A Arnold, Martin St Maurice
Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate (OAA), an important metabolic reaction in a wide range of organisms. Small molecules directed against PC would enable detailed studies on the metabolic role of this enzyme and would have the potential to be developed into pharmacological agents. Currently, specific and potent small molecule regulators of PC are unavailable. To assist in efforts to find, develop, and characterize small molecule effectors of PC, a novel fixed-time assay has been developed based on the reaction of OAA with the diazonium salt, Fast Violet B (FVB), which produces a colored adduct with an absorbance maximum at 530 nm...
April 12, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650157/rna-interference-of-ghpepc2-enhanced-seed-oil-accumulation-and-salt-tolerance-in-upland-cotton
#6
Yanpeng Zhao, Yi Huang, Yumei Wang, Yupeng Cui, Zhengjie Liu, Jinping Hua
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) mainly produces oxaloacetic acid for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Here we reported that GhPEPC2 silencing with PEPC2-RNAi vector could regulate oil and protein accumulation in cottonseeds. In GhPEPC2 transgenic plants, PEPCase activities in immature embryos were significantly reduced, and the oil content in seed kernel was increased 7.3 percentages, whereas total proteins decreased 5.65 percentages. Compared to wild type, agronomical traits of transgenic plant were obviously unaffected...
June 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643369/allosteric-regulation-alters-carrier-domain-translocation-in-pyruvate-carboxylase
#7
Yumeng Liu, Melissa M Budelier, Katelyn Stine, Martin St Maurice
Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate. The reaction occurs in two separate catalytic domains, coupled by the long-range translocation of a biotinylated carrier domain (BCCP). Here, we use a series of hybrid PC enzymes to examine multiple BCCP translocation pathways in PC. These studies reveal that the BCCP domain of PC adopts a wide range of translocation pathways during catalysis. Furthermore, the allosteric activator, acetyl CoA, promotes one specific intermolecular carrier domain translocation pathway...
April 11, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626092/identification-of-a-metabolic-disposal-route-for-the-oncometabolite-s-2-succino-cysteine-in-bacillus-subtilis
#8
Thomas D Niehaus, Jacob Folz, Donald R McCarty, Arthur J L Cooper, David Moraga Amador, Oliver Fiehn, Andrew D Hanson
Cellular thiols such as cysteine spontaneously and readily react with the respiratory intermediate fumarate, resulting in the formation of stable S -(2-succino)-adducts. Fumarate-mediated succination of thiols increases in certain tumors and in response to glucotoxicity associated with diabetes. Therefore, S -(2-succino)-adducts such as S -(2-succino)cysteine (2SC) are considered oncometabolites and biomarkers for human disease. No disposal routes for S -(2-succino) compounds have been reported prior to this study...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625945/structural-and-functional-annotation-of-citrate-synthase-from-aspergillus-niger-anj-120
#9
Ghulam Mustafa, Rawaba Arif, Shazia Anwer Bukhari, Muhammad Ali, Sumaira Sharif, Asia Atta
Citrate synthase (CS) is involved in citric acid biosynthesis which is a well-established metabolic pathway. The condensation of acetyl-CoA with oxaloacetate is catalyzed by CS. Citric acid (CA) has a number of applications in pharmaceutical industry. CA in combination with bicarbonates is used as an effervescent in the preparations of tablets and powders. It has also been used as an anticoagulant and acidulant to form mild astringent. In current study, detailed structural and functional analyses of CS protein were carried out using various bioinformatics tools...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617123/rerouting-of-metabolism-into-desired-cellular-products-by-nutrient-stress-fluxes-reveal-the-selected-pathways-in-cyanobacterial-photosynthesis
#10
Xiao Qian, Yuan Zhang, Desmond S Lun, G Charles Dismukes
Boosting cellular growth rates while redirecting metabolism to make desired products are the preeminent goals sought by gene engineering of photoautotrophs, yet so far has under achieved owing to lack of understanding of the functional pathways and their choke points. Here we apply a 13C mass isotopic method (INST-MFA) to quantify instantaneous fluxes of metabolites during photoautotrophic growth. INST-MFA determines the globally most accurate set of absolute fluxes for each metabolite from a finite set of measured 13C-isotopomer fluxes by minimizing the sum of squared residuals between experimental and predicted mass isotopomers...
April 4, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607219/lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-japanese-fermented-fish-funa-sushi-inhibit-mesangial-proliferative-glomerulonephritis-by-alcohol-intake-with-stress
#11
Yumiko Yamada, Masumi Endou, Shunichi Morikawa, Jun Shima, Noriko Komatshzaki
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus paracasei NFRI 7415 on kidney and bone in mice fed an ethanol-containing diet with stress. Eight-week-old Cril  :  CD1 mice were fed a control diet (CD), an alcohol diet (AD) (35.8% of total energy from ethanol), or an alcohol diet containing 20% heat-killed Lb. paracasei NFRI 7415 (107  CFU/g) (LD) for 4 weeks. Mice in the AD and LD groups also underwent restraint stress for two weeks from 13 days. The mice were placed in a 50 mL plastic tube, which had a small hole drilled around its base to allow ventilation, and restrained for 1 h every day...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581744/protective-effect-of-atriplex-suberecta-extract-against-oxidative-and-apoptotic-hepatotoxicity
#12
Mohammad K Parvez, Ahmad H Arbab, Mohammed S Al-Dosari, Adnan J Al-Rehaily, Perwez Alam, Khalid E Ibrahim, Mansour S Alsaid, Syed Rafatullah
Atriplex suberecta I. Verd is a known phytomedicinal species of Atriplex ; however, studies into its bioactivity remain inconclusive. The in vitro and in vivo antioxidative and hepatoprotective potential of A. suberecta ethanol-extract (ASEE) was assessed in the present study. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays revealed that ASEE possesses free radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidative activities. These results were supported by the in vitro protection of HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells via abating 2,7-dichlorofluorescein-activated oxidative and apoptotic molecules (caspase-3/-7)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579846/combined-flush-with-histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate-and-university-of-wisconsin-solutions-in-liver-transplantation-preliminary-results
#13
F J León Díaz, J L Fernández Aguilar, S Nicolás de Cabo, M Pérez Reyes, B Sánchez Pérez, C Montiel Casado, J A Pérez Daga, J M Aranda Narváez, M A Suárez Muñoz, F Arenas González, M M Florez Rías, J L Pelaez Angulo, J Santoyo Santoyo
INTRODUCTION: Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is the main cause of early allograft dysfunction (EAD) and subsequent primary allograft failure (PAF). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to compare IRI, EAD, and PAF in liver transplantation in a cohort of patients perfused with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution and University of Wisconsin (UW) solution versus HTK alone. METHODS: A randomized trial was performed to compare outcomes in liver recipients who underwent transplantation surgery in the University Regional Hospital of Malaga, Spain...
March 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568493/validation-of-a-yeast-malate-dehydrogenase-2-mdh2-antibody-tested-for-use-in-western-blots
#14
Shiran Gabay-Maskit, Maya Schuldiner, Einat Zalckvar
Malate dehydrogenases (Mdhs) reversibly convert malate to oxaloacetate and serve as important enzymes in several metabolic pathways. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae there are three Mdh isozymes, localized to different compartments in the cell. In order to identify specifically the Mdh2 isozyme, GenScript USA produced three different antibodies that we further tested by western blot. All three antibodies recognized the S. cerevisiae Mdh2 with different background and specificity properties. One of the antibodies had a relatively low background and high specificity and thus can be used for specific identification of Mdh2 in various experimental settings...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533007/oxaloacetate-induces-apoptosis-in-hepg2-cells-via-inhibition-of-glycolysis
#15
Ye Kuang, Xiaoyun Han, Mu Xu, Qing Yang
Most cancer cells perform glycolysis despite having sufficient oxygen. The specific metabolic pathways of cancer cells have become the focus of cancer treatment. Recently, accumulating evidence indicates oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis can be regulated with each other. Thus, we suggest that the glycolysis of cancer cells is inhibited by restoring or improving OXPHOS in cancer cells. In our study, we found that oxaloacetate (OA) induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells in vivo and in vitro. Meanwhile, we found that OA induced a decrease in the energy metabolism of HepG2 cells...
March 13, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530824/toxicological-effects-of-trichlorfon-on-hematological-and-biochemical-parameters-in-cyprinus-carpio-l-following-thermal-stress
#16
Soo Ji Woo, Na Young Kim, Shin Hu Kim, Sang Jung Ahn, Jung Soo Seo, Sung Hee Jung, Joon Ki Chung
Trichlorfon is a moderately toxic organophosphate pesticide that is widely used in aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of trichlorfon on hematological parameters, biochemical factors, and stress reaction in Cyprinus carpio L. The fish were exposed to acute concentrations of trichlorfon (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg L-1 ) at 25 °C and 15 °C for 1 and 2 weeks, after which several parameters were evaluated to assess the effects of the pesticide. Significant decreases were observed in red blood cell (RBC) Count, hemoglobin (Hb) level, hematocrit (Ht), and plasma protein levels after each exposure period...
March 9, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523936/streptomyces-clavuligerus-shows-a-strong-association-between-tca-cycle-intermediate-accumulation-and-clavulanic-acid-biosynthesis
#17
Howard Ramirez-Malule, Stefan Junne, Mariano Nicolás Cruz-Bournazou, Peter Neubauer, Rigoberto Ríos-Estepa
Clavulanic acid (CA) is produced by Streptomyces clavuligerus (S. clavuligerus) as a secondary metabolite. Knowledge about the carbon flux distribution along the various routes that supply CA precursors would certainly provide insights about metabolic performance. In order to evaluate metabolic patterns and the possible accumulation of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates during CA biosynthesis, batch and subsequent continuous cultures with steadily declining feed rates were performed with glycerol as the main substrate...
March 9, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522826/metabolic-engineering-to-guide-evolution-creating-a-novel-mode-for-l-valine-production-with-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#18
Andreas Schwentner, André Feith, Eugenia Münch, Tobias Busche, Christian Rückert, Jörn Kalinowski, Ralf Takors, Bastian Blombach
Evolutionary approaches are often undirected and mutagen-based yielding numerous mutations, which need elaborate screenings to identify relevant targets. We here apply Metabolic engineering to Guide Evolution (MGE), an evolutionary approach evolving and identifying new targets to improve microbial producer strains. MGE is based on the idea to impair the cell's metabolism by metabolic engineering, thereby generating guided evolutionary pressure. It consists of three distinct phases: (i) metabolic engineering to create the evolutionary pressure on the applied strain followed by (ii) a cultivation phase with growth as straightforward screening indicator for the evolutionary event, and (iii) comparative whole genome sequencing (WGS), to identify mutations in the evolved strains, which are eventually re-engineered for verification...
March 6, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501694/effects-on-haematological-and-serum-biochemical-parameters-of-pangasianodon-hypophthalmus-to-an-experimental-infection-of-thaparocleidus-sp-monogenea-dactylogyridae
#19
Saurav Kumar, R P Raman, K Pani Prasad, P P Srivastava, Sanath Kumar, K V Rajendran
Monogenea (gill parasite) is a major problem in aquaculture that reduces the growth of cultured fish and adversely affects the economy. The present study was performed to evaluate the impact of various degrees of Thaparocleidus sp. (dactylogyrids, monogenean) infestation on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. A standard cohabitation study, following complete randomized design in triplicate, was conducted to obtain low, moderate and high degrees of infestation in P...
March 1, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495919/blood-glutamate-scavenger-as-a-novel-neuroprotective-treatment-in-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Yona Goldshmit, Ghil Jona, Eran Schmukler, Shira Solomon, Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski, Angela Ruban
Neurotrauma causes immediate elevation of extracellular glutamate levels, which creates excitotoxicity and facilitates inflammation, glial scar formation and consequently neuronal death. Finding factors that reduce the inflammatory response, glial scar formation and increase neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth, are of major importance for improving the outcome after spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present study, we evaluated a new treatment aiming to remove CNS glutamate into the systemic blood circulation by intravenous administration of blood glutamate scavengers (BGS) such as recombinant enzyme glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (rGOT1) and its co-substrate...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
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