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Oxaloacetate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346874/protective-effects-of-hepatocyte-specific-glycyrrhetic-derivatives-against-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-damage-in-mice
#1
Yifei Yang, Lingyun Yang, Yaodan Han, Zhenwei Wu, Pan Chen, Huibin Zhang, Jinpei Zhou
Glycyrrhetic acid (GA), the main hydrolysate of glycyrrhizic acid extracted from the roots of the Chinese herb Glycyrrhiza glabra, was reported to be accumulated in hepatocytes due to the extensive distribution of GA receptors in liver. A series of hepatocyte-specific derivatives on the basis of anetholtrithione and glycyrrhizic were designed and synthesized. The potential beneficial effect was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury model. In addition, the hepatoprotective activity of these derivatives was assessed by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes, including serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the ratio of GSH to GSSG...
March 20, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345895/asymmetric-anchoring-is-required-for-efficient-%C3%AE-loop-opening-and-closing-in-cytosolic-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase
#2
Danica Cui, Aron Broom, Matthew J Mcleod, Elizabeth M Meiering, Todd Holyoak
Mobile Ω-loops play essential roles in the function of many enzymes. Here we investigated the importance of a residue lying outside of the mobile Ω-loop element in the catalytic function of an H477R variant of cPEPCK using crystallographic, kinetic, and computational analysis. The crystallographic data suggest that efficient transitioning of the Ω-loop to the closed conformation requires stabilization of the N-terminus of the loop through contacts between R461 and E588. In contrast, the C-terminal end of the Ω-loop undergoes changing interactions with the enzyme body through contacts between H477 at the C-terminus of the loop and E591 located on the enzyme body...
March 27, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344405/biochemical-components-of-seminal-plasma-and-their-correlation-to-the-fresh-seminal-characteristics-in-marwari-stallions-and-poitou-jacks
#3
Thirumala Rao Talluri, Gorakh Mal, Sanjay Kumar Ravi
AIM: To investigate various biochemical components of seminal plasma in Marwari stallions and Poitou Jacks and to find out their correlation with that of the seminal characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, semen was collected from six Marwari stallions and six Poitou jacks aged from 4 to 6 years and with known fertility status. The semen collection from the stallions were collected during the breeding season, i.e., between the months of April and June...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342313/the-glyoxylate-pathway-contributes-to-enhanced-extracellular-electron-transfer-in-yeast-based-biofuel-cell
#4
Yolina Hubenova, Eleonora Hubenova, Evelina Slavcheva, Mario Mitov
This study provides a new insight into our understanding of yeast response to starvation conditions (sole acetate as carbon source) and applied polarization and offers important information about the role of the glyoxylate cycle in the carbohydrate synthesis and extracellular charge transfer processes in biofuel cells. The biosynthetic capabilities of yeast C. melibiosica 2491 and the up/down-regulation of the glyoxylate cycle are evaluated by modifying the cellular metabolism by feedback inhibition or carbohydrate presence and establishing the malate dehydrogenase activity and carbohydrate content together with the electric charge passed through bioelectrochemical system...
March 14, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322963/the-effect-of-oxaloacetic-acid-on-tyrosinase-activity-and-structure-integration-of-inhibition-kinetics-with-docking-simulation
#5
Lin Gou, Jinhyuk Lee, Hao Hao, Yong-Doo Park, Yi Zhan, Zhi-Rong Lü
Oxaloacetic acid (OA) is naturally found in organisms and well known as an intermediate of citric acid cycle producing ATP. We evaluated the effects of OA on tyrosinase activity and structure via integrating methods of enzyme kinetics and computational simulations. OA was found to be a reversible inhibitor of tyrosinase and its induced mechanism was the parabolic non-competitive inhibition type (IC50=17.5±0.5mM and Ki=6.03±1.36mM). Kinetic measurements by real-time interval assay showed that OA induced multi-phasic inactivation process composing with fast (k1) and slow (k2) phases...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314989/inhibition-of-got1-sensitizes-colorectal-cancer-cells-to-5-fluorouracil
#6
Chengyu Hong, Jian Zheng, Xiaoling Li
PURPOSE: Almost all colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines are known to overexpress aspartate aminotransferase (GOT1), which potentially regulates the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the production of NADPH, and supports tumor growth. In our study, the role of GOT1 in the anticancer efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was examined. METHODS: HCT116, SW480, and HT-29 cells were transfected with lentiviral vectors expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against GOT1...
March 17, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314104/ginsenoside-re-ameliorates-brain-insulin-resistance-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-high-fat-diet-induced-c57bl-6-mice
#7
Jong Min Kim, Chang Hyeon Park, Seon Kyeong Park, Tae Wan Seung, Jin Yong Kang, Jeong Su Ha, Du Sang Lee, Uk Lee, Dae-Ok Kim, Ho Jin Heo
The ameliorating effects of ginsenoside Re (G Re) on high fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in C57BL/6 mice were investigated to assess its physiological function. In the results of behavioral tests, G Re improved cognitive dysfunction in diabetic mice using Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests. G Re also significantly recovered hyperglycemia and fasting blood glucose level. In the results of serum analysis, G Re decreased triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCHO), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and increased the ratio of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC)...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300753/krebs-cycle-intermediates-protective-against-oxidative-stress-by-modulating-the-level-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-neuronal-ht22-cells
#8
Kenta Sawa, Takumi Uematsu, Yusuke Korenaga, Ryuya Hirasawa, Masatoshi Kikuchi, Kyohei Murata, Jian Zhang, Xiaoqing Gai, Kazuichi Sakamoto, Tomoyuki Koyama, Takumi Satoh
Krebs cycle intermediates (KCIs) are reported to function as energy substrates in mitochondria and to exert antioxidants effects on the brain. The present study was designed to identify which KCIs are effective neuroprotective compounds against oxidative stress in neuronal cells. Here we found that pyruvate, oxaloacetate, and α-ketoglutarate, but not lactate, citrate, iso-citrate, succinate, fumarate, or malate, protected HT22 cells against hydrogen peroxide-mediated toxicity. These three intermediates reduced the production of hydrogen peroxide-activated reactive oxygen species, measured in terms of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate fluorescence...
March 16, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291683/a-pegylated-analog-of-short-length-neuromedin-u-with-potent-anorectic-and-anti-obesity-effects
#9
Hiroshi Inooka, Kotaro Sakamoto, Tokuyuki Shinohara, Yasushi Masuda, Michiko Terada, Satoshi Kumano, Kotaro Yokoyama, Jiro Noguchi, Naoki Nishizawa, Hidenori Kamiguchi, Hisashi Fujita, Taiji Asami, Shiro Takekawa, Tetsuya Ohtaki
Neuromedin U (NMU) is a neuropeptide known to regulate food intake and energy homeostasis that is widely distributed in the gastrointestinal tract, hypothalamus, and pituitary. A short form of NMU, porcine NMU-8 has potent agonist activity for the receptors NMUR1 and NMUR2; however, its short half-life precludes its effective use in vivo. To address this limitation, we designed and synthesized NMU-8 analogs modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 30kDa (PEG30k) via a variety of linkers (i...
February 21, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290777/isolation-and-amino-acid-sequence-of-a-dehydratase-acting-on-d-erythro-3-hydroxyaspartate-from-pseudomonas-sp-n99-and-its-application-in-the-production-of-optically-active-3-hydroxyaspartate
#10
Hiroyuki Nagano, Kana Shibano, Yu Matsumoto, Atsushi Yokota, Masaru Wada
An enzyme catalyzing the ammonia-lyase reaction for the conversion of d-erythro-3-hydroxyaspartate to oxaloacetate was purified from the cell-free extract of a soil-isolated bacterium Pseudomonas sp. N99. The enzyme exhibited ammonia-lyase activity toward l-threo-3-hydroxyaspartate and d-erythro-3-hydroxyaspartate, but not toward other 3-hydroxyaspartate isomers. The deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme, which belongs to the serine/threonine dehydratase family, shows similarity to the sequence of l-threo-3-hydroxyaspartate ammonia-lyase (EC 4...
March 14, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287318/therapeutic-potential-of-nigella-sativa-oil-against-cyclophosphamide-induced-dna-damage-and-hepatotoxicity
#11
Muobarak J Tuorkey
Cyclophosphamide (Cy), a chemotherapeutic agent, is of great interest in the clinic due to its relatively high oncotoxic specificity. However, its usage is restricted due to its severe side effects, particularly hepatotoxicity. This study investigates the potential cytoprotective effect of Nigella sativa oil against the high toxic dose of Cy. 40 albino rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, Cy group that received a single intraperitoneal dose of Cy (200 mg/kg), and Cy-treated groups with 50 and 200 mg/kg of Nigella sativa oil (NSO), for 15 days...
April 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286170/depletion-of-oxaloacetate-decarboxylase-fahd1-inhibits-mitochondrial-electron-transport-and-induces-cellular-senescence-in-human-endothelial-cells
#12
Michele Petit, Rafal Koziel, Solmaz Etemad, Haymo Pircher, Pidder Jansen-Dürr
In this study we report the identification of FAH domain containing protein 1 (FAHD1), a recently described member of the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) superfamily of metabolic enzymes, as a novel player in the regulation of cellular senescence. FAHD1 was found in a proteomic screen searching for mitochondrial proteins, which are differentially regulated in mitochondria from young and senescent human endothelial cells, and subsequently identified as oxaloacetate decarboxylase. We report here that depletion of FAHD1 from human endothelial cells inhibited mitochondrial energy metabolism and subsequently induced premature senescence...
March 8, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276560/development-of-a-dye-molecule-biocatalyst-hybrid-system-with-visible-light-induced-carbon-carbon-bond-formation-from-co2-as-a-feedstock
#13
Yutaka Amao, Shusaku Ikeyama, Takayuki Katagiri, Kohei Fujita
Recently, CO2 utilization technology, including artificial photosynthesis, has received much attention. In this field, CO2 is used as a feedstock for fuels, polymers and in other chemical processes. Of note are malic enzymes (MEs) which catalyze the reaction of malic acid to pyruvic acid and CO2 with the co-enzyme NADP(+), and catalyze the reverse reaction of pyruvic acid and CO2 to malic acid with the co-enzyme NADPH. Thus, MEs are also an attractive biocatalyst for carbon-carbon bond formation from CO2. Studies of the visible light-induced malic acid production from pyruvic acid and CO2 using an electron donor, a photosensitizer, an electron mediator, ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase, NADP(+), and ME have been reported...
March 9, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274159/effect-of-spirulina-platensis-ingestion-on-the-abnormal-biochemical-and-oxidative-stress-parameters-in-the-pancreas-and-liver-of-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rats
#14
Ourida Aissaoui, Malek Amiali, Nora Bouzid, Khaled Belkacemi, Arezki Bitam
CONTEXT: Previous studies have shown that Spirulina platensis Gomont (Phormidiaceae) (SP) extract has beneficial effects on many disease conditions. The putative protective effects of SP were investigated in diabetic rats. OBJECTIVE: The current study investigates the antioxidant effects of SP in diabetic Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg body weight) was intraperitoneally administrated to induce diabetes...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271481/-pyruvate-carboxylase-structure-and-function
#15
Mikel Valle
Pyruvate carboxylase is a metabolic enzyme that fuels the tricarboxylic acid cycle with one of its intermediates and also participates in the first step of gluconeogenesis. This large enzyme is multifunctional, and each subunit contains two active sites that catalyze two consecutive reactions that lead to the carboxylation of pyruvate into oxaloacetate, and a binding site for acetyl-CoA, an allosteric regulator of the enzyme. Pyruvate carboxylase oligomers arrange in tetramers and covalently attached biotins mediate the transfer of carboxyl groups between distant active sites...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265055/glyoxylate-detoxification-is-an-essential-function-of-malate-synthase-required-for-carbon-assimilation-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#16
Susan Puckett, Carolina Trujillo, Zhe Wang, Hyungjin Eoh, Thomas R Ioerger, Inna Krieger, James Sacchettini, Dirk Schnappinger, Kyu Y Rhee, Sabine Ehrt
The glyoxylate shunt is a metabolic pathway of bacteria, fungi, and plants used to assimilate even-chain fatty acids (FAs) and has been implicated in persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Recent work, however, showed that the first enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, isocitrate lyase (ICL), may mediate survival of Mtb during the acute and chronic phases of infection in mice through physiologic functions apart from fatty acid metabolism. Here, we report that malate synthase (MS), the second enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, is essential for in vitro growth and survival of Mtb on even-chain fatty acids, in part, for a previously unrecognized activity: mitigating the toxicity of glyoxylate excess arising from metabolism of even-chain fatty acids...
March 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260654/toxic-effects-on-bioaccumulation-and-hematological-parameters-of-juvenile-rockfish-sebastes-schlegelii-exposed-to-dietary-lead-pb-and-ascorbic-acid
#17
Jun-Hwan Kim, Ju-Chan Kang
Juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii (mean length 11.3 ± 1.2 cm, and mean weight 32.5 ± 4.1 g) were exposed for four weeks to dietary lead (Pb(2+)) at 0, 120, and 240 mg/L and ascorbic acid (AsA) at 100, 200, and 400 mg/L. The exposure concentrations and duration of significant Pb-induced accumulations in specific tissues of S. schlegelii were assessed. High levels of ascorbic acid significantly attenuated accumulations following exposure to dietary Pb. Dietary Pb exposure caused a significant increase in blood Pb concentrations, whereas red blood cell (RBC) count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were significantly decreased...
February 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256782/characterization-of-lysine-acetylation-of-a-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-involved-in-glutamate-overproduction-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#18
Megumi Nagano-Shoji, Yuma Hamamoto, Yuta Mizuno, Ayuka Yamada, Masaki Kikuchi, Mikako Shirouzu, Takashi Umehara, Minoru Yoshida, Makoto Nishiyama, Saori Kosono
Protein Nε-acylation is emerging as a ubiquitous post-translational modification. In Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is utilized for industrial production of L-glutamate, the levels of protein acetylation and succinylation change drastically under the conditions that induce glutamate overproduction. Here, we characterized the acylation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), an anaplerotic enzyme that supplies oxaloacetate for glutamate overproduction. We showed that acetylation of PEPC at lysine 653 decreased enzymatic activity, leading to reduced glutamate production...
March 3, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250620/clinical-score-to-differentiate-scrub-typhus-and-dengue-a-tool-to-differentiate-scrub-typhus-and-dengue
#19
Shubhanker Mitra, Ira Gautam, Mohan Jambugulam, Kundavaram Paul Prabhakar Abhilash, Vishalakshi Jayaseeelan
BACKGROUND: Dengue and scrub typhus share similar clinical and epidemiological features, and are difficult to differentiate at initial presentation. Many places are endemic to both these infections where they comprise the majority of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We aimed to develop a score that can differentiate scrub typhus from dengue. In this cross-sectional study, 188 cases of scrub typhus and 201 cases of dengue infection who presented to the emergency department or medicine outpatient clinic from September 2012 to April 2013 were included...
January 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245795/in-search-of-druggable-targets-for-gbm-amino-acid-metabolism
#20
Eduard H Panosyan, Henry J Lin, Jan Koster, Joseph L Lasky
BACKGROUND: Amino acid (AA) pathways may contain druggable targets for glioblastoma (GBM). Literature reviews and GBM database ( http://r2.amc.nl ) analyses were carried out to screen for such targets among 95 AA related enzymes. METHODS: First, we identified the genes that were differentially expressed in GBMs (3 datasets) compared to non-GBM brain tissues (5 datasets), or were associated with survival differences. Further, protein expression for these enzymes was also analyzed in high grade gliomas (HGGs) (proteinatlas...
February 28, 2017: BMC Cancer
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