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Oxaloacetate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447751/deep-sea-water-improves-hypercholesterolemia-and-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-through-the-regulation-of-hepatic-lipid-metabolic-gene-expression
#1
Kyu-Shik Lee, So-Young Chun, Yun-Suk Kwon, Soyoung Kim, Kyung-Soo Nam
A high‑fat diet or high‑cholesterol diet (HCD) is a major cause of metabolic diseases, including obesity and diabetes; vascular diseases, including hypertension, stroke and arteriosclerosis; and liver diseases, including hepatic steatosis and cirrhosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of deep sea water (DSW) on rats fed a HCD. DSW decreased HCD‑induced increases in total cholesterol and low‑density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the blood, and recovered high‑density lipoprotein cholesterol...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431918/gender-dependent-effects-of-fasting-blood-glucose-levels-and-disease-duration-on-biochemical-markers-in-type-2-diabetics-a-pilot-study
#2
Abhijit A Ghadge, Arundhati G Diwan, Abhay M Harsulkar, Aniket A Kuvalekar
AIM: The impact of fasting blood glucose levels (FBG) and disease duration on type 2 diabetes in Indian population is still unclear. The present study examines gender-dependent effects of FBG and disease duration on lipid profile, adipocytokines and related biochemical parameters in diabetic individuals. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic individuals (n=100) were classified depending on FBG: patients with normal FBG (Glucose<126mg/dl) and patients with high FBG (Glucose≥126mg/dl); and disease duration: ≥0-≤3yr, >3-≤7yr, >7yr...
April 7, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419197/inhibition-of-sarcolemmal-fat-cd36-by-sulfo-n-succinimidyl-oleate-rapidly-corrects-metabolism-and-restores-function-in-the-diabetic-heart-following-hypoxia-reoxygenation
#3
Latt S Mansor, Maria da Luz Sousa Fialho, Georgina Yea, Will A Coumans, James A West, Matthew Kerr, Carolyn A Carr, Joost J F P Luiken, Jan F C Glatz, Rhys D Evans, Julian L Griffin, Damian J Tyler, Kieran Clarke, Lisa C Heather
Aims: The type 2 diabetic heart oxidizes more fat and less glucose, which can impair metabolic flexibility and function. Increased sarcolemmal fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) imports more fatty acid into the diabetic myocardium, feeding increased fatty acid oxidation and elevated lipid deposition. Unlike other metabolic modulators that target mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, we proposed that pharmacologically inhibiting fatty acid uptake, as the primary step in the pathway, would provide an alternative mechanism to rebalance metabolism and prevent lipid accumulation following hypoxic stress...
April 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413446/artificial-mirna-inhibition-of-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-increases-fatty-acid-production-in-a-green-microalga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#4
Chaogang Wang, Xi Chen, Hui Li, Jiangxin Wang, Zhangli Hu
BACKGROUND: Nutrient limitation, such as nitrogen depletion, is the most widely used method for improving microalgae fatty acid production; however, these harsh conditions also inhibit algal growth significantly and even kill cells at all. To avoid these problems, we used artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology as a useful tool to manipulate metabolic pathways to increase fatty acid contents effectively in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We down-regulated the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), which catalyzes the formation of oxaloacetate from phosphoenolpyruvate and regulates carbon flux...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390893/targeting-glutamatergic-and-cellular-prion-protein-mechanisms-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-mediated-persistent-synaptic-plasticity-disruption-longitudinal-studies
#5
Dainan Zhang, Yingjie Qi, Igor Klyubin, Tomas Ondrejcak, Claire J Sarell, A Claudio Cuello, John Collinge, Michael J Rowan
Alzheimer's disease amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers are synaptotoxic, inappropriately increasing extracellular glutamate concentration and glutamate receptor activation to thereby rapidly disrupt synaptic plasticity. Thus, acutely promoting brain glutamate homeostasis with a blood-based scavenging system, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), and blocking metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor or its co-receptor cellular prion protein (PrP), prevent the acute inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP) by exogenous Aβ...
April 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385612/inhibition-of-liver-alanine-aminotransferase-and-aspartate-aminotransferase-by-hesperidin-and-its-aglycone-hesperetin-an-in-vitro-and-in-silico-study
#6
Sara Zareei, Massoud M A Boojar, Massoud Amanlou
AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of two natural flavonoids, hesperetin (HT) and hesperidin (HD), on two gluconeogenesis enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and their possible mechanisms of action. MAIN METHODS: Rat liver incubated with different concentrations of HT and HD was used to measure enzyme activities spectrophotometrically, based on monitoring the oxidation of NADH to NAD(+) at 340nm...
April 3, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375190/a-new-chemical-pathway-yielding-a-type-vitisins-in-red-wines
#7
Paula Araújo, Ana Fernandes, Victor de Freitas, Joana Oliveira
A new chemical pathway yielding A-type vitisins in red wines is proposed herein from the reaction between anthocyanins and oxaloacetic acid (OAA). This new chemical path is thought to occur in the first stages of the wine production even during the fermentation process. This is due to the revealed high reactivity of OAA with anthocyanins compared with the already known precursor (pyruvic acid, PA). In model solutions at wine pH (3.5), when malvidin-3-O-glucoside (mv-3-glc) is in contact with OAA and PA a decrease in the OAA concentration is observed along with the formation of A-type vitisin...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361342/potential-use-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-leuconostoc-mesenteroides-as-a-probiotic-for-the-removal-of-pb-ii-toxicity
#8
Young-Joo Yi, Jeong-Muk Lim, Suna Gu, Wan-Kyu Lee, Eunyoung Oh, Sang-Myeong Lee, Byung-Taek Oh
It has been demonstrated that certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can sequester metal ions by binding them to their surfaces. In the present study, lead (Pb)-resistant LAB were isolated from kimchi, a Korean fermented food. A total of 96 different LAB strains were isolated, and 52 strains showed lead resistance. Among them, an LAB strain-96 (L-96) identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides showed remarkable Pb resistance and removal capacity. The maximum adsorption capacity of this strain calculated using the Langmuir isotherm was 60...
April 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346874/protective-effects-of-hepatocyte-specific-glycyrrhetic-derivatives-against-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-damage-in-mice
#9
Yifei Yang, Lingyun Yang, Yaodan Han, Zhenwei Wu, Pan Chen, Huibin Zhang, Jinpei Zhou
Glycyrrhetic acid (GA), the main hydrolysate of glycyrrhizic acid extracted from the roots of the Chinese herb Glycyrrhiza glabra, was reported to be accumulated in hepatocytes due to the extensive distribution of GA receptors in liver. A series of hepatocyte-specific derivatives on the basis of anetholtrithione and glycyrrhizic were designed and synthesized. The potential beneficial effect was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury model. In addition, the hepatoprotective activity of these derivatives was assessed by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes, including serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the ratio of GSH to GSSG...
March 20, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345895/asymmetric-anchoring-is-required-for-efficient-%C3%AE-loop-opening-and-closing-in-cytosolic-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase
#10
Danica S Cui, Aron Broom, Matthew J Mcleod, Elizabeth M Meiering, Todd Holyoak
Mobile Ω-loops play essential roles in the function of many enzymes. Here we investigated the importance of a residue lying outside of the mobile Ω-loop element in the catalytic function of an H477R variant of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase using crystallographic, kinetic, and computational analysis. The crystallographic data suggest that the efficient transition of the Ω-loop to the closed conformation requires stabilization of the N-terminus of the loop through contacts between R461 and E588...
April 4, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344405/biochemical-components-of-seminal-plasma-and-their-correlation-to-the-fresh-seminal-characteristics-in-marwari-stallions-and-poitou-jacks
#11
Thirumala Rao Talluri, Gorakh Mal, Sanjay Kumar Ravi
AIM: To investigate various biochemical components of seminal plasma in Marwari stallions and Poitou Jacks and to find out their correlation with that of the seminal characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, semen was collected from six Marwari stallions and six Poitou jacks aged from 4 to 6 years and with known fertility status. The semen collection from the stallions were collected during the breeding season, i.e., between the months of April and June...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342313/the-glyoxylate-pathway-contributes-to-enhanced-extracellular-electron-transfer-in-yeast-based-biofuel-cell
#12
Yolina Hubenova, Eleonora Hubenova, Evelina Slavcheva, Mario Mitov
This study provides a new insight into our understanding of yeast response to starvation conditions (sole acetate as carbon source) and applied polarization and offers important information about the role of the glyoxylate cycle in the carbohydrate synthesis and extracellular charge transfer processes in biofuel cells. The biosynthetic capabilities of yeast C. melibiosica 2491 and the up/down-regulation of the glyoxylate cycle are evaluated by modifying the cellular metabolism by feedback inhibition or carbohydrate presence and establishing the malate dehydrogenase activity and carbohydrate content together with the electric charge passed through bioelectrochemical system...
March 14, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322963/the-effect-of-oxaloacetic-acid-on-tyrosinase-activity-and-structure-integration-of-inhibition-kinetics-with-docking-simulation
#13
Lin Gou, Jinhyuk Lee, Hao Hao, Yong-Doo Park, Yi Zhan, Zhi-Rong Lü
Oxaloacetic acid (OA) is naturally found in organisms and well known as an intermediate of citric acid cycle producing ATP. We evaluated the effects of OA on tyrosinase activity and structure via integrating methods of enzyme kinetics and computational simulations. OA was found to be a reversible inhibitor of tyrosinase and its induced mechanism was the parabolic non-competitive inhibition type (IC50=17.5±0.5mM and Ki=6.03±1.36mM). Kinetic measurements by real-time interval assay showed that OA induced multi-phasic inactivation process composing with fast (k1) and slow (k2) phases...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314989/inhibition-of-got1-sensitizes-colorectal-cancer-cells-to-5-fluorouracil
#14
Chengyu Hong, Jian Zheng, Xiaoling Li
PURPOSE: Almost all colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines are known to overexpress aspartate aminotransferase (GOT1), which potentially regulates the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the production of NADPH, and supports tumor growth. In our study, the role of GOT1 in the anticancer efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was examined. METHODS: HCT116, SW480, and HT-29 cells were transfected with lentiviral vectors expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against GOT1...
March 17, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314104/ginsenoside-re-ameliorates-brain-insulin-resistance-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-high-fat-diet-induced-c57bl-6-mice
#15
Jong Min Kim, Chang Hyeon Park, Seon Kyeong Park, Tae Wan Seung, Jin Yong Kang, Jeong Su Ha, Du Sang Lee, Uk Lee, Dae-Ok Kim, Ho Jin Heo
The ameliorating effects of ginsenoside Re (G Re) on high fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in C57BL/6 mice were investigated to assess its physiological function. In the results of behavioral tests, G Re improved cognitive dysfunction in diabetic mice using Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests. G Re also significantly recovered hyperglycemia and fasting blood glucose level. In the results of serum analysis, G Re decreased triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCHO), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and increased the ratio of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC)...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300753/krebs-cycle-intermediates-protective-against-oxidative-stress-by-modulating-the-level-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-neuronal-ht22-cells
#16
Kenta Sawa, Takumi Uematsu, Yusuke Korenaga, Ryuya Hirasawa, Masatoshi Kikuchi, Kyohei Murata, Jian Zhang, Xiaoqing Gai, Kazuichi Sakamoto, Tomoyuki Koyama, Takumi Satoh
Krebs cycle intermediates (KCIs) are reported to function as energy substrates in mitochondria and to exert antioxidants effects on the brain. The present study was designed to identify which KCIs are effective neuroprotective compounds against oxidative stress in neuronal cells. Here we found that pyruvate, oxaloacetate, and α-ketoglutarate, but not lactate, citrate, iso-citrate, succinate, fumarate, or malate, protected HT22 cells against hydrogen peroxide-mediated toxicity. These three intermediates reduced the production of hydrogen peroxide-activated reactive oxygen species, measured in terms of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate fluorescence...
March 16, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291683/a-pegylated-analog-of-short-length-neuromedin-u-with-potent-anorectic-and-anti-obesity-effects
#17
Hiroshi Inooka, Kotaro Sakamoto, Tokuyuki Shinohara, Yasushi Masuda, Michiko Terada, Satoshi Kumano, Kotaro Yokoyama, Jiro Noguchi, Naoki Nishizawa, Hidenori Kamiguchi, Hisashi Fujita, Taiji Asami, Shiro Takekawa, Tetsuya Ohtaki
Neuromedin U (NMU) is a neuropeptide known to regulate food intake and energy homeostasis that is widely distributed in the gastrointestinal tract, hypothalamus, and pituitary. A short form of NMU, porcine NMU-8 has potent agonist activity for the receptors NMUR1 and NMUR2; however, its short half-life precludes its effective use in vivo. To address this limitation, we designed and synthesized NMU-8 analogs modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 30kDa (PEG30k) via a variety of linkers (i...
February 21, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290777/isolation-and-amino-acid-sequence-of-a-dehydratase-acting-on-d-erythro-3-hydroxyaspartate-from-pseudomonas-sp-n99-and-its-application-in-the-production-of-optically-active-3-hydroxyaspartate
#18
Hiroyuki Nagano, Kana Shibano, Yu Matsumoto, Atsushi Yokota, Masaru Wada
An enzyme catalyzing the ammonia-lyase reaction for the conversion of d-erythro-3-hydroxyaspartate to oxaloacetate was purified from the cell-free extract of a soil-isolated bacterium Pseudomonas sp. N99. The enzyme exhibited ammonia-lyase activity toward l-threo-3-hydroxyaspartate and d-erythro-3-hydroxyaspartate, but not toward other 3-hydroxyaspartate isomers. The deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme, which belongs to the serine/threonine dehydratase family, shows similarity to the sequence of l-threo-3-hydroxyaspartate ammonia-lyase (EC 4...
March 14, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287318/therapeutic-potential-of-nigella-sativa-oil-against-cyclophosphamide-induced-dna-damage-and-hepatotoxicity
#19
Muobarak J Tuorkey
Cyclophosphamide (Cy), a chemotherapeutic agent, is of great interest in the clinic due to its relatively high oncotoxic specificity. However, its usage is restricted due to its severe side effects, particularly hepatotoxicity. This study investigates the potential cytoprotective effect of Nigella sativa oil against the high toxic dose of Cy. 40 albino rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, Cy group that received a single intraperitoneal dose of Cy (200 mg/kg), and Cy-treated groups with 50 and 200 mg/kg of Nigella sativa oil (NSO), for 15 days...
April 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286170/depletion-of-oxaloacetate-decarboxylase-fahd1-inhibits-mitochondrial-electron-transport-and-induces-cellular-senescence-in-human-endothelial-cells
#20
Michele Petit, Rafal Koziel, Solmaz Etemad, Haymo Pircher, Pidder Jansen-Dürr
In this study we report the identification of FAH domain containing protein 1 (FAHD1), a recently described member of the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) superfamily of metabolic enzymes, as a novel player in the regulation of cellular senescence. FAHD1 was found in a proteomic screen searching for mitochondrial proteins, which are differentially regulated in mitochondria from young and senescent human endothelial cells, and subsequently identified as oxaloacetate decarboxylase. We report here that depletion of FAHD1 from human endothelial cells inhibited mitochondrial energy metabolism and subsequently induced premature senescence...
June 2017: Experimental Gerontology
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