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Oxaloacetate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521864/insulin-induced-inhibition-of-gluconeogenesis-genes-including-glutamic-pyruvic-transaminase-2-is-associated-with-reduced-histone-acetylation-in-a-human-liver-cell-line
#1
Kazue Honma, Michiko Kamikubo, Kazuki Mochizuki, Toshinao Goda
OBJECTIVES: Hepatic glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT; also known as alanine aminotransferase) is a gluconeogenesis enzyme that catalyzes conversions between alanine and pyruvic acid. It is also used as a blood biomarker for hepatic damage. In this study, we investigated whether insulin regulates GPT expression, as it does for other gluconeogenesis genes, and if this involves the epigenetic modification of histone acetylation. METHODS: Human liver-derived HepG2 cells were cultured with 0...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520815/metabolic-profiling-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-of-energy-metabolism-in-high-fat-diet-fed-obese-mice
#2
Daxesh P Patel, Kristopher W Krausz, Cen Xie, Diren Beyoğlu, Frank J Gonzalez, Jeffrey R Idle
A novel, selective and sensitive single-ion monitoring (SIM) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) method was developed and validated for the determination of energy metabolites related to glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, glutaminolysis, and fatty acid β-oxidation. This assay used N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) containing 1% tert-butyldimethylchlorosilane (TBDMCS) as derivatizing reagent and was highly reproducible, sensitive, specific and robust. The assay was used to analyze liver tissue and serum from C57BL/6N obese mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and C57BL/6N mice fed normal chow for 8 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515956/effects-of-phosalone-consumption-via-feeding-with-or-without-sodium-bentonite-on-performance-blood-metabolites-and-its-transition-to-milk-of-iranian-baluchi-sheep
#3
Mohsen Kazemi, Ameneh Eskandary Torbaghan, Abdoul Mansour Tahmasbi, Reza Valizadeh, Abbas Ali Naserian
BACKGROUND: Transfer of pesticides from environment to animal products is inevitable, so the purpose of the present work was to evaluate phosalone consumption via feeding with or without sodium bentonite (SB) on performance, blood metabolites and its transition to milk of Iranian Baluchi sheep. METHODS: Twenty Baluchi ewes were divided into four treatments (P1 as control, P2, P3, and P4) of five animals in which phosalone, an organophosphate pesticide, was given via diet (only for P2 and P3) at a dose of 280 mg/sheep/day for 63 consecutive days...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513770/association-between-mfn2-gene-polymorphisms-and-the-risk-and-prognosis-of-acute-liver-failure-a-case-control-study-in-a-chinese-population
#4
Y-L Wei, Q Tian, X-X Zhao, G-Z Qiu, Y Xu
This study aimed to determine the role of mitofusin 2 (MFN2) gene polymorphisms in the risk and prognosis of acute liver failure (ALF). A total of 298 blood samples were collected from 138 ALF patients (case group) and 160 healthy participants (control group). Coagulation function, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), total bilirubin (TB), blood ammonia and lactic acid (LA) were measured. The predictive evaluation of MFN2 gene polymorphisms in the risk and prognosis of ALF patients was estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, haplotype analysis, binary logistic regression analysis and Cox regression analysis...
May 15, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506930/rewiring-the-reductive-tricarboxylic-acid-pathway-and-l-malate-transport-pathway-of-aspergillus-oryzae-for-overproduction-of-l-malate
#5
Jingjing Liu, Zhipeng Xie, Hyun-Dong Shin, Jianghua Li, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen, Long Liu
Aspergillus oryzae finds wide application in the food, feed, and wine industries, and is an excellent cell factory platform for production of organic acids. In this work, we achieved the overproduction of L-malate by rewiring the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) pathway and L-malate transport pathway of A. oryzae NRRL 3488. First, overexpression of native pyruvate carboxylase and malate dehydrogenase in the rTCA pathway improved the L-malate titer from 26.1gL(-1) to 42.3gL(-1) in shake flask culture. Then, the oxaloacetate anaplerotic reaction was constructed by heterologous expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from Escherichia coli, increasing the L-malate titer to 58...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500387/thermal-adaptation-strategies-of-the-extremophile-bacterium-thermus-filiformis-based-on-multi-omics-analysis
#6
F Mandelli, M B Couger, D A A Paixão, C B Machado, C M Carnielli, J A Aricetti, I Polikarpov, R Prade, C Caldana, A F Paes Leme, A Z Mercadante, D M Riaño-Pachón, Fabio Marcio Squina
Thermus filiformis is an aerobic thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring in New Zealand. The experimental study of the mechanisms of thermal adaptation is important to unveil response strategies of the microorganism to stress. In this study, the main pathways involved on T. filiformis thermoadaptation, as well as, thermozymes with potential biotechnological applications were revealed based on omics approaches. The strategy adopted in this study disclosed that pathways related to the carbohydrate metabolism were affected in response to thermoadaptation...
May 12, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498352/encapsulation-of-16-hydroxycleroda-3-13-dine-16-15-olide-in-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-as-a-natural-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-potentiated-hypoglycemia-in-diabetic-mice
#7
Po-Kai Huang, Shi-Xiang Lin, May-Jywan Tsai, Max K Leong, Shian-Ren Lin, Ranjith Kumar Kankala, Chia-Hung Lee, Ching-Feng Weng
Natural supplements comprise good efficacy with less adverse effects as against diabetic therapy, but their advancement as anti-diabetic agents is unsatisfactory with regard to the delivery system. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4)/CD26) can degrade glucagon-like pepetide-1 (GLP-1) which renders a decrease of blood glucose levels. 16-hydroxycleroda-3,13-dine-16,15-olide (HCD) extracted from Polyalthia longifolia, exhibits numerous medicinal potentials including hypoglycemic potential. On consideration of HCD application, the bioavailability is affected by low solubility...
May 12, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493911/long-term-fertilization-determines-different-metabolomic-profiles-and-responses-in-saplings-of-three-rainforest-tree-species-with-different-adult-canopy-position
#8
Albert Gargallo-Garriga, S Joseph Wright, Jordi Sardans, Míriam Pérez-Trujillo, Michal Oravec, Kristýna Večeřová, Otmar Urban, Marcos Fernández-Martínez, Teodor Parella, Josep Peñuelas
BACKGROUND: Tropical rainforests are frequently limited by soil nutrient availability. However, the response of the metabolic phenotypic plasticity of trees to an increase of soil nutrient availabilities is poorly understood. We expected that increases in the ability of a nutrient that limits some plant processes should be detected by corresponding changes in plant metabolome profile related to such processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the foliar metabolome of saplings of three abundant tree species in a 15 year field NPK fertilization experiment in a Panamanian rainforest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485262/biological-significance-of-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase-in-a-cestode-parasite-raillietina-echinobothrida-and-effect-of-phytoestrogens-on-the-enzyme-from-the-parasite-and-its-host-gallus-domesticus
#9
Ramnath, Asim Kumar Dutta, Barilin Dkhar, Veena Tandon, Bidyadhar DAS
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is involved in glycolysis in the cestode parasite, Raillietina echinobothrida; whereas, it executes a gluconeogenic role in its host, Gallus domesticus. Because of its differing primary function in the cestode parasite and its host, this enzyme is regarded as a plausible anthelmintic target. Hence, the biological significance of PEPCK in the parasite was analysed using siRNA against PEPCK from R. echinobothrida (RePEPCK). In order to find out the functional differences between RePEPCK and GdPEPCK (PEPCK from its host, G...
May 9, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477296/analysis-of-complexes-of-metabolites-with-europium-tetracycline-using-capillary-electrophoresis-coupled-with-laser-induced-luminescence-detection
#10
Douglas B Craig, Zachery Hiebert
Glycolysis and Krebs cycle intermediates were incubated with Eu(3+)-tetracycline and separated using capillary electrophoresis utilizing post-column laser-induced luminescence detection in a sheath flow cuvette. 3-phopshoglycerate, phosphoenolpyruvate, adenosine diphosphate, phosphate, citrate and oxaloacetate were detected at a concentration of 100 μM or lower. When all these detected metabolites were contained within the same sample it was found that they interfered with one another. Of all the metabolites, oxaloacetate showed the highest detectability...
June 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471121/zingiber-officinale-roscoe-ameliorates-anticancer-antibiotic-doxorubicin-induced-acute-cardiotoxicity-in-rat
#11
Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan Ajith, Unnikrishnan Hema, Sreedharan Aswathi
Oxidative stress (OS) has been suggested in the cardiotoxicity induced by anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin (DXN). The cardioprotective effects of aqueous ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale was evaluated against DXN-induced acute cardiac damage in rat. The results of the study demonstrated that Z. officinale significantly and dose dependently protected the cardiotoxicity induced by DXN. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum lactate dehydrogenase activity in the DXN alone treated group of animals were significantly (p<0...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470848/iron-catalysis-at-the-origin-of-life
#12
Eloi Camprubi, Sean F Jordan, Rafaela Vasiliadou, Nick Lane
Iron-sulphur proteins are ancient and drive fundamental processes in cells, notably electron transfer and CO2 fixation. Iron-sulphur minerals with equivalent structures could have played a key role in the origin of life. However, the 'iron-sulphur world' hypothesis has had a mixed reception, with questions raised especially about the feasibility of a pyrites-pulled reverse Krebs cycle. Phylogenetics suggests that the earliest cells drove carbon and energy metabolism via the acetyl CoA pathway, which is also replete in Fe(Ni)S proteins...
May 3, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462143/ethanolic-extract-of-amaranthus-paniculatus-linn-ameliorates-diabetes-associated-complications-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rats
#13
Rajesh B Nawale, Ganesh S Mate, Balaji S Wakure
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-inflammatory potentials of ethanolic extract of leaves of Amaranthus paniculatus linn. (EEAP) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats scientifically. Hyperglycemia induces the generation of free radicals which can affect antioxidant defenses, thus leading to the disruption of beta cellular functions, oxidative damage to membranes, leading to the release of C-reactive protein and altered lipid metabolism...
March 2017: Integr Med Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447751/deep-sea-water-improves-hypercholesterolemia-and-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-through-the-regulation-of-hepatic-lipid-metabolic-gene-expression
#14
Kyu-Shik Lee, So-Young Chun, Yun-Suk Kwon, Soyoung Kim, Kyung-Soo Nam
A high‑fat diet or high‑cholesterol diet (HCD) is a major cause of metabolic diseases, including obesity and diabetes; vascular diseases, including hypertension, stroke and arteriosclerosis; and liver diseases, including hepatic steatosis and cirrhosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of deep sea water (DSW) on rats fed a HCD. DSW decreased HCD‑induced increases in total cholesterol and low‑density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the blood, and recovered high‑density lipoprotein cholesterol...
May 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431918/gender-dependent-effects-of-fasting-blood-glucose-levels-and-disease-duration-on-biochemical-markers-in-type-2-diabetics-a-pilot-study
#15
Abhijit A Ghadge, Arundhati G Diwan, Abhay M Harsulkar, Aniket A Kuvalekar
AIM: The impact of fasting blood glucose levels (FBG) and disease duration on type 2 diabetes in Indian population is still unclear. The present study examines gender-dependent effects of FBG and disease duration on lipid profile, adipocytokines and related biochemical parameters in diabetic individuals. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic individuals (n=100) were classified depending on FBG: patients with normal FBG (Glucose<126mg/dl) and patients with high FBG (Glucose≥126mg/dl); and disease duration: ≥0-≤3yr, >3-≤7yr, >7yr...
April 7, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419197/inhibition-of-sarcolemmal-fat-cd36-by-sulfo-n-succinimidyl-oleate-rapidly-corrects-metabolism-and-restores-function-in-the-diabetic-heart-following-hypoxia-reoxygenation
#16
Latt S Mansor, Maria da Luz Sousa Fialho, Georgina Yea, Will A Coumans, James A West, Matthew Kerr, Carolyn A Carr, Joost J F P Luiken, Jan F C Glatz, Rhys D Evans, Julian L Griffin, Damian J Tyler, Kieran Clarke, Lisa C Heather
Aims: The type 2 diabetic heart oxidizes more fat and less glucose, which can impair metabolic flexibility and function. Increased sarcolemmal fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) imports more fatty acid into the diabetic myocardium, feeding increased fatty acid oxidation and elevated lipid deposition. Unlike other metabolic modulators that target mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, we proposed that pharmacologically inhibiting fatty acid uptake, as the primary step in the pathway, would provide an alternative mechanism to rebalance metabolism and prevent lipid accumulation following hypoxic stress...
June 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413446/artificial-mirna-inhibition-of-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-increases-fatty-acid-production-in-a-green-microalga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#17
Chaogang Wang, Xi Chen, Hui Li, Jiangxin Wang, Zhangli Hu
BACKGROUND: Nutrient limitation, such as nitrogen depletion, is the most widely used method for improving microalgae fatty acid production; however, these harsh conditions also inhibit algal growth significantly and even kill cells at all. To avoid these problems, we used artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology as a useful tool to manipulate metabolic pathways to increase fatty acid contents effectively in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We down-regulated the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), which catalyzes the formation of oxaloacetate from phosphoenolpyruvate and regulates carbon flux...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390893/targeting-glutamatergic-and-cellular-prion-protein-mechanisms-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-mediated-persistent-synaptic-plasticity-disruption-longitudinal-studies
#18
Dainan Zhang, Yingjie Qi, Igor Klyubin, Tomas Ondrejcak, Claire J Sarell, A Claudio Cuello, John Collinge, Michael J Rowan
Alzheimer's disease amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers are synaptotoxic, inappropriately increasing extracellular glutamate concentration and glutamate receptor activation to thereby rapidly disrupt synaptic plasticity. Thus, acutely promoting brain glutamate homeostasis with a blood-based scavenging system, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), and blocking metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor or its co-receptor cellular prion protein (PrP), prevent the acute inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP) by exogenous Aβ...
April 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385612/inhibition-of-liver-alanine-aminotransferase-and-aspartate-aminotransferase-by-hesperidin-and-its-aglycone-hesperetin-an-in-vitro-and-in-silico-study
#19
Sara Zareei, Massoud M A Boojar, Massoud Amanlou
AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of two natural flavonoids, hesperetin (HT) and hesperidin (HD), on two gluconeogenesis enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and their possible mechanisms of action. MAIN METHODS: Rat liver incubated with different concentrations of HT and HD was used to measure enzyme activities spectrophotometrically, based on monitoring the oxidation of NADH to NAD(+) at 340nm...
June 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375190/a-new-chemical-pathway-yielding-a-type-vitisins-in-red-wines
#20
Paula Araújo, Ana Fernandes, Victor de Freitas, Joana Oliveira
A new chemical pathway yielding A-type vitisins in red wines is proposed herein from the reaction between anthocyanins and oxaloacetic acid (OAA). This new chemical path is thought to occur in the first stages of the wine production even during the fermentation process. This is due to the revealed high reactivity of OAA with anthocyanins compared with the already known precursor (pyruvic acid, PA). In model solutions at wine pH (3.5), when malvidin-3-O-glucoside (mv-3-glc) is in contact with OAA and PA a decrease in the OAA concentration is observed along with the formation of A-type vitisin...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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