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Biofilm ear

Asim V Farooq, Joshua H Hou, Sarmad Jassim, Zeeshan Haq, Elmer Y Tu, Jose de la Cruz, Maria S Cortina
OBJECTIVES: To determine the rate of biofilm formation on bandage contact lenses worn by patients with the Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis (K-Pro) while on prophylactic topical vancomycin versus linezolid. METHODS: Patients wearing a bandage contact lens (BCL) with a K-Pro were eligible for enrollment. After irrigation of the ocular surface with 5% povidone-iodine solution, each patient was placed on either topical vancomycin 15 mg/mL or linezolid 0.2% BID for one month...
October 13, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Charlene Babra Waryah, Kelsi Wells, Dulantha Ulluwishewa, Nigel Chen-Tan, Jully Gogoi-Tiwari, Joshua Ravensdale, Paul Costantino, Anke Gökçen, Andreas Vilcinskas, Jochen Wiesner, Trilochan Mukkur
Staphylococcus aureus in biofilms is highly resistant to the treatment with antibiotics, to which the planktonic cells are susceptible. This is likely to be due to the biofilm creating a protective barrier that prevents antibiotics from accessing the live pathogens buried in the biofilm. S. aureus biofilms consist of an extracellular matrix comprising, but not limited to, extracellular bacterial DNA (eDNA) and poly-β-1, 6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG). Our study revealed that despite inferiority of dispersin B (an enzyme that degrades PNAG) to DNase I that cleaves eDNA, in dispersing the biofilm of S...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Janet Y Nale, Mahananda Chutia, Philippa Carr, Peter T Hickenbotham, Martha R J Clokie
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a global health threat associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Conventional antibiotic CDI therapy can result in treatment failure and recurrent infection. C. difficile produces biofilms which contribute to its virulence and impair antimicrobial activity. Some bacteriophages (phages) can penetrate biofilms and thus could be developed to either replace or supplement antibiotics. Here, we determined the impact of a previously optimized 4-phage cocktail on C...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Clarissa M L Schrekker, Yuri C A Sokolovicz, Maria G Raucci, Balaji S Selukar, Joice S Klitzke, William Lopes, Claudio A M Leal, Igor O P de Souza, Griselda B Galland, João Henrique Z Dos Santos, Raquel S Mauler, Moshe Kol, Samuel Dagorne, Luigi Ambrosio, Mário L Teixeira, Jonder Morais, Richard Landers, Alexandre M Fuentefria, Henri S Schrekker
Candida species have great ability to colonize and form biofilms on medical devices, causing infections in human hosts. In this study, poly(l-lactide) films with different imidazolium salt (1-n-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C16MImCl) and 1-n-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium methanesulfonate (C16MImMeS)) contents were prepared, using the solvent casting process. Poly(l-lactide)-imidazolium salt films were obtained with different surface morphologies (spherical and directional), and the presence of the imidazolium salt in the surface was confirmed...
August 24, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sedeek Abd El-Salam Tawfik, Ahmed Aly Ibrahim, Iman Mamdoh Talaat, Soliman Samy Abd El-Raouf El-Alkamy, Ahmed Youssef
Biofilms have been implicated in the development of several chronic upper respiratory tract infections. Role of bacterial biofilms has been well studied in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis. However, its impact on development of middle ear effusion is still a matter of debate. To study the extent of surface adenoid biofilm and evaluate its role in the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media with effusion in children. The study was carried out on 40 children in Alexandria Main University Hospital between 1 and 16 years of age without sex predilection, who were divided into two groups...
May 27, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Saba Rehman, Shahbaz Mujtaba Ghauri, Anjum Nasim Sabri
BACKGROUND: Otitis media can lead to severe health consequences, and is the most common reason for antibiotic prescriptions and biofilm-mediated infections. However, the increased pattern of drug resistance in biofilm forming bacteria complicates the treatment of such infections. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to estimate the biofilm formation potential of the clinical isolates of otitis media, and to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotics and plant extracts as alternative therapeutic agents in biofilm eradication...
January 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Elaine M Mokrzan, Michael O Ward, Lauren O Bakaletz
UNLABELLED: Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI), a commensal of the human nasopharynx (hNP), is a common cause of biofilm-associated diseases of the respiratory tract. However, NTHI biofilm biology at the average hNP temperature, i.e., 34°C, has not been well studied. Here we grew NTHI biofilms at 34°C and 37°C, to evaluate relative biofilm growth, expression, and function of the type IV pilus (Tfp), a critical adhesin important for NTHI biofilm formation. The kinetics and regulation of Tfp expression in NTHI biofilms are unclear, especially at 34°C...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Christopher J Greene, Laura R Marks, John C Hu, Ryan Reddinger, Lorrie Mandell, Hazeline Roche-Hakansson, Natalie D King-Lyons, Terry D Connell, Anders P Hakansson
Streptococcus pneumoniae commonly inhabits the nasopharynx as a member of the commensal biofilm. Infection with respiratory viruses, such as influenza A virus, induces commensal S. pneumoniae to disseminate beyond the nasopharynx and to elicit severe infections of the middle ears, lungs, and blood that are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Current preventive strategies, including the polysaccharide conjugate vaccines, aim to eliminate asymptomatic carriage with vaccine-type pneumococci...
June 2016: Infection and Immunity
Tongtong Li, Lihai Zhang, L I Han, Guoqi Wang, Peng Yin, Zhirui Li, Licheng Zhang, Q I Guo, Daohong Liu, Peifu Tang
Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been demonstrated to be effective at preventing biofilm-associated infections; however, its role in biofilm prevention is unknown. The present study evaluated the effect of NPWT on biofilm prevention when rapidly initiated following wound contamination. Full-thickness dermal wounds (8 mm) were created in rabbit ears and inoculated with green fluorescent protein-labeled Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). At 6 h following inoculation, continuous NPWT at -125 mmHg was initiated, with the wounds on the contralateral ear left untreated in order to serve as self-controls...
March 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Helen Van Hoecke, Ann-Sophie De Paepe, Edward Lambert, Jonas D Van Belleghem, Piet Cools, Leen Van Simaey, Pieter Deschaght, Mario Vaneechoutte, Ingeborg Dhooge
Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a highly prevalent disease in children, but the exact pathogenesis and role of bacteria are still not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the presence of otopathogenic bacteria in the middle ear effusion (MEE) and adenoid of children with chronic OME (COME), and to investigate in vivo whether these bacteria, especially Haemophilus influenzae, are organized as a biofilm in the middle ear fluid. MEE and adenoid samples were collected from 21 patients with COME...
March 5, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
J Kankare, N C Lindfors
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bioactive glass S53P4 is an antibacterial bone substitute with bone-bonding and osteostimulative properties. The bone substitute has been successfully used clinically in spine; trauma; orthopedic; ear, nose, and throat; and cranio-maxillofacial surgeries. Bioactive glass S53P4 significantly reduces the amount of bacteria in vitro and possesses the capacity to kill both planktonic bacteria and bacteria in biofilm. Three patients with severe spondylodiscitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Candida tropicalis, or Staphylococcus aureus were operatively treated due to failed conservative treatment...
February 29, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Surgery: SJS
Diego Preciado, Marian Poley, Stephanie Tsai, Amarel Tomney, Kristy Brown, Stephanie Val
BACKGROUND: Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a ubiquitous bacterial pathogen which accounts for a majority of human upper respiratory tract infections. Laboratory lysate preparations from this bacterium are commonly utilized to investigate the promulgation of inflammatory responses in respiratory and middle ear epithelium both in vivo and in vitro. We undertook an unbiased proteomics based analysis of NTHi lysate preps to: (a) identify abundant bacterial proteins present in these lysates that could play a role in NTHi biological effects and (b) determine the protein content variability in different lysate prep batches from the same NTHI strain...
January 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Xiaoyan Tian, Yuehui Liu, Hongbing Liu
Otitis media with effusion (OME), a kind of inflammatory disease of the middle ear, is characterized by the retention of middle ear effusions and hearing loss. There are many factors involved in the development of OME including bacterial infection, formation of bacterial biofilms, eustachian tube dysfunction, adenoid hypertrophy, immune system disorders. Recently, some studies showed that gastroesophageal reflux has correlation with OME.
July 2015: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Eugene Park, Sarah A Long, Akhil K Seth, Matthew Geringer, Wei Xu, Claudia Chavez-Munoz, Kai Leung, Seok Jong Hong, Robert D Galiano, Thomas A Mustoe
Chronic wounds colonized with biofilm present a major burden to our healthcare system. While the current paradigm for wound healing is to maintain a moist environment, we sought to evaluate the effects of desiccation, and the ability of honey to desiccate wounds, on wound healing characteristics in Staphylococcus aureus biofilm wounds. In vivo biofilm wound healing after exposure to open-air desiccation, honey, molasses, and saline was analyzed using a rabbit ear model of S. aureus biofilm wounds previously developed by our group...
March 2016: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Mukesh Kumar Yadav, Yoon Young Go, Sung-Won Chae, Jae-Jun Song
Streptococcus pneumoniae persist in the human nasopharynx within organized biofilms. However, expansion to other tissues may cause severe infections such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia, and meningitis, especially in children and the elderly. Bacteria within biofilms possess increased tolerance to antibiotics and are able to resist host defense systems. Bacteria within biofilms exhibit different physiology, metabolism, and gene expression profiles than planktonic cells. These differences underscore the need to identify alternative therapeutic targets and novel antimicrobial compounds that are effective against pneumococcal biofilms...
2015: PloS One
R Pérez-Tanoira, M García-Pedrazuela, T Hyyrynen, A Soininen, A Aarnisalo, Mikko T Nieminen, V-M Tiainen, Y T Konttinen, T J Kinnari
To study the effect of bioactive glass bone substitute granules (S53P4) on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on other simultaneously used implant materials and the role of the hypoxic conditions to the adhesion. Bacterial and biofilm formation were studied on materials used both in middle ear prostheses and in fracture fixtures (titanium, polytetrafluoroethylene, polydimethylsiloxane and bioactive glass plates) in the presence or absence of S53P4 granules. The experiments were done either in normal atmosphere or in hypoxia simulating atmospheric conditions of middle ear, mastoid cavity and sinuses...
September 2015: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Teemu J Kinnari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The importance of bacterial biofilm in the human body, both when associated in chronic infections and as the default mode of microbial growth in the normal flora, has been understood during the last two decades. The word biofilm has recently entered into clinical vocabulary especially in dentistry, and oral hygienists have begun to talk of oral or dental biofilm instead of oral plaque. Biofilm presence has been demonstrated widely in otorhinolaryngology, related to chronic infections of middle ear, paranasal sinuses and lymphoid tissue of adenoids and tonsils and to implanted materials; however, less literature exists considering the implication of biofilm to laryngeal infections or head and neck cancer...
December 2015: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
J Christopher Post
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Laryngoscope
Myles L Pensak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Laryngoscope
John M Atack, Yogitha N Srikhanta, Kate L Fox, Joseph A Jurcisek, Kenneth L Brockman, Tyson A Clark, Matthew Boitano, Peter M Power, Freda E-C Jen, Alastair G McEwan, Sean M Grimmond, Arnold L Smith, Stephen J Barenkamp, Jonas Korlach, Lauren O Bakaletz, Michael P Jennings
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae contains an N(6)-adenine DNA-methyltransferase (ModA) that is subject to phase-variable expression (random ON/OFF switching). Five modA alleles, modA2, modA4, modA5, modA9 and modA10, account for over two-thirds of clinical otitis media isolates surveyed. Here, we use single molecule, real-time (SMRT) methylome analysis to identify the DNA-recognition motifs for all five of these modA alleles. Phase variation of these alleles regulates multiple proteins including vaccine candidates, and key virulence phenotypes such as antibiotic resistance (modA2, modA5, modA10), biofilm formation (modA2) and immunoevasion (modA4)...
2015: Nature Communications
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