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Fetal Echo

Anna I Blazejewska, Sharmishtaa Seshamani, Susan K McKown, Jason S Caucutt, Manjiri Dighe, Christopher Gatenby, Colin Studholme
PURPOSE: Maximization of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) contrast requires the echo time of the MR sequence to match the T2* value of the tissue of interest, which is expected to be higher in the fetal brain compared with the brain of a child or an adult. METHODS: T2* values of the cortical plate/cortical gray matter tissue in utero in healthy fetuses from mid-gestation onward (20-36 gestational weeks) were measured using 3D T2* maps calculated from 2D dual-echo T2*-weighted data corrected for between-slice motion and reconstructed in 1...
October 3, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Anupama Nair, S Radhakrishnan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the referral pattern for fetal echocardiography (FE) at our tertiary referral center for pediatric cardiac care in northern India. We also aimed to determine the incidence of CHD in each group and intend to highlight the need of identifying the various risk factors and appropriate timely referral of patients for detailed evaluation. METHODS: This is a prospective study including 201 consecutive patients referred for fetal echo to our center...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
T Zhu, J Li, Y Zhu, Y Wang, P Xu, Y Sun, Z Wang, S Pang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Bettina F Cuneo, Janette F Strasburger, Ronald T Wakai
INTRODUCTION: Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG), the magnetic analog of ECG, has provided invaluable insight into the mechanisms of fetal arrhythmias. In the past 15years, we have evaluated over 300 fetuses with arrhythmia by fMCG. We review the unique characteristics and natural history of the long QT syndrome (LQTS) rhythms. METHODS: We reviewed the fMCGs of subjects referred with suspected LQTS based on either a positive family history or echo diagnosis of the LQTS rhythms (sinus bradycardia, ventricular tachycardia, or 2:1 AV conduction) to the Biomagnetism laboratory in the Department of Medical Physics, UW-Madison...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Electrocardiology
David F A Lloyd, Joshua F P van Amerom, Kuberan Pushparajah, John M Simpson, Vita Zidere, Owen Miller, Gurleen Sharland, Joanna Allsop, Matthew Fox, Maelene Lohezic, Maria Murgasova, Christina Malamateniou, Jo V Hajnal, Mary Rutherford, Reza Razavi
OBJECTIVES: Fetal cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a potential alternative to echocardiography, although in practice, its use has been limited. We sought to explore the need for additional imaging in a tertiary fetal cardiology unit and the usefulness of standard MRI sequences. METHODS: Cases where the diagnosis was not fully resolved using echocardiography were referred for MRI. Following a three-plane localiser, fetal movement was assessed with a balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) cine...
October 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
Xu Li, Xue-Lei Li, Kefei Hu, Chuangao Yin
BACKGROUND: Here we report our preliminary experience of using fetal cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, particularly with transverse views at the level of the aortic arch, in the diagnosis of aortic arch anomalies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2013 and December 2015, routine prenatal obstetric ultrasound (US), echocardiography (Echo) and 1.5 T CMR were performed on approximately 600 pregnant women. CMR included balanced fast field echo and single-shot fast spin echo sequences...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Guoyan Liu, Xiaobin Shang, Bibo Yuan, Cha Han, Yingmei Wang
OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience with the diagnosis and management of acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP). STUDY DESIGN: The medical records of pregnant women with AFLP were reviewed for symptoms, laboratory findings, treatment, and maternal and fetal outcomes during a 10-year period between January 2003 and December 2013. RESULTS: During the study period 15 women had AFLP as their discharge diagnosis. The mean gestational age at onset was 36 ± 1 weeks...
May 2016: Journal of Reproductive Medicine
Anil N Shetty, Robia Pautler, Ketan Ghagahda, David Rendon, Haijun Gao, Zbigniew Starosolski, Rohan Bhavane, Chandreshkumar Patel, Ananth Annapragada, Chandrasekhar Yallampalli, Wesley Lee
The trans-placental permeability of liposomal Gadolinium (Gd) nanoparticle contrast agents was evaluated in a pregnant mouse model. Pregnant Balb/c mice at 16.5 (±1) days of gestation were imaged using a 3D Spoiled Gradient Echo method at 9.4 T using two contrast agents: a clinically approved Gd chelate, Multihance(®) (gadobenate dimeglumine), and a novel experimental liposomal Gd agent. A Dynamic Contrast Enhancement (DCE) protocol was used to capture the dynamics of contrast entry and distribution in the placenta, and clearance from circulation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Lasya Gaur, Lauren Talemal, Dorothy Bulas, Mary T Donofrio
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal cardiac axis and/or malposition prompts evaluation of congenital heart disease; however, etiology may be difficult to clarify using obstetrical ultrasound or fetal echocardiography (echo) alone. We aimed to use fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a complementary tool to identify causes of cardiac malposition. METHODS: Review of fetuses diagnosed with cardiac malposition by fetal ultrasound and echo was performed. Etiology was classified as either because of heterotaxy syndrome or extracardiac masses...
August 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
Gabriele Barella, Stefano Faverzani, Massimo Faustini, Debora Groppetti, Alessandro Pecile
AIM: To define the prognostic value of Doppler ultrasonographic morphology of ductus venosus (DV) waveform on canine neonatal mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-four healthy pregnant bitches underwent fetal ultrasonographic assessment. The DV waveforms were classified as diphasic (dDVw) or triphasic (tDVw) and compared with neonatal mortality. RESULTS: Ninety-three fetuses were evaluated. Twenty fetuses belonged to litters with neonatal mortality, in which tDVw was observed...
April 2016: Veterinary World
Sha-Sha Wang, Xue-Ye Tian, Hong-Wei Yan, Ting Yuan, Xiao-Ye Zheng, Zhen Han
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and accuracy of 3-D ultrasound indices to evaluate fetal lung maturity, and to establish a normal reference for fetal lung volume (FLV) and fetal lung-to-liver intensity ratio (FLLIR) in a Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 1022 pregnant women with singleton pregnancy were prospectively studied between June 2008 to June 2011. Ultrasound examination was performed. The breathing-related nasal fluid flow (BRNFF) spectrum, FLV, pulmonary artery blood flow parameters, and echo intensity of the lung were calculated...
September 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Onur Afacan, Ali Gholipour, Robert V Mulkern, Carol E Barnewolt, Judy A Estroff, Susan A Connolly, Richard B Parad, Sigrid Bairdain, Simon K Warfield
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) to assess the fetal lung apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) at 3 Tesla (T). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one pregnant women (32 second trimester, 39 third trimester) were scanned with a twice-refocused Echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging sequence with 6 different b-values in 3 orthogonal diffusion orientations at 3T. After each scan, a region-of-interest (ROI) mask was drawn to select a region in the fetal lung and an automated robust maximum likelihood estimation algorithm was used to compute the ADC parameter...
May 9, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Naser Ramadani, Kreshnike Dedushi Kreshnike, Sefedin Muçaj, Serbeze Kabashi, Astrit Hoxhaj, Naim Jerliu, Ramush Bejiçi
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac rhabdomyoma is type of benign myocardial tumor that is the most common fetal cardiac tumor. Cardiac rhabdomyomas are usually detected before birth or during the first year of life. They account for over 60% of all primary cardiac tumors. CASE REPORT: A 6 month old child with coughing and obstruction in breathing, was hospitalized in the Pediatric Clinic in UCCK, Pristine. The difficulty of breathing was heard and the pathological noise of the heart was noticed from the pediatrician...
April 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
L Mf Tee, E Yl Kan, J Cy Cheung, W C Leung
INTRODUCTION: This review covers the recent literature on fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging, with emphasis on techniques, advances, common indications, and safety. METHODS: We conducted a search of MEDLINE for articles published after 2010. The search terms used were "(fetal OR foetal OR fetus OR foetus) AND (MR OR MRI OR [magnetic resonance]) AND (brain OR cerebral)". Consensus statements from major authorities were also included. As a result, 44 relevant articles were included and formed the basis of this review...
June 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Xin Liu, Meihua Zhu, Cole Streiff, David J Sahn, Muhammad Ashraf
OBJECTIVES: This study tested the accuracy of new 4-dimensional fetal echocardiography to evaluate left ventricular (LV) mass in an experimental model of fetal myocardial hypertrophy. METHODS: Ten fresh rabbit hearts were studied. Fetal myocardial hypertrophy was simulated by fixing different amounts of myocardial tissue to the LV epicardium. A small latex balloon was mounted on vinyl tubing and fixed within each LV cavity. The proximal end of the tube was attached to a pulsatile pump apparatus...
May 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Yuki Himoto, Aki Kido, Haruta Mogami, Yusaku Moribata, Sachiko Minamiguchi, Fuki Shitano, Kayo Kiguchi, Yasuhisa Kurata, Ikuo Konishi, Kaori Togashi
INTRODUCTION: To investigate a simple visual assessment method of placental function using half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study of fetal MRI in 48 singleton pregnant women for whom placentas had undergone clinical pathological examinations. Two readers independently assessed the placentas using the HASTE scoring system, particularly emphasizing the visualization of the regular two-tone pattern inside and signal intensity (SI) of placental parenchyma referring to SI of the fetal kidney and liver...
March 2016: Placenta
Reut Avni, Ofra Golani, Ayelet Akselrod-Ballin, Yonni Cohen, Inbal Biton, Joel R Garbow, Michal Neeman
Purpose To generate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-derived, oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves and to map fetal-placental oxygen-hemoglobin affinity in pregnant mice noninvasively by combining blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) T2* and oxygen-weighted T1 contrast mechanisms under different respiration challenges. Materials and Methods All procedures were approved by the Weizmann Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Pregnant mice were analyzed with MR imaging at 9.4 T on embryonic days 14.5 (eight dams and 58 fetuses; imprinting control region ICR strain) and 17...
July 2016: Radiology
Giulio Ferrazzi, Rita G Nunes, Tomoki Arichi, Andreia S Gaspar, Giovanni Barone, Alessandro Allievi, Serge Vasylechko, Maryam Abaei, Emer Hughes, Daniel Rueckert, Anthony N Price, Joseph V Hajnal
Optimal contrast to noise ratio of the BOLD signal in neonatal and foetal fMRI has been hard to achieve because of the much longer T2(⁎) values in developing brain tissue in comparison to those in the mature adult brain. The conventional approach of optimizing fMRI sequences would suggest matching the echo time (TE) and the T2(⁎) of the neonatal and foetal brain. However, the use of a long echo time would typically increase the minimum repetition time (TR) resulting in inefficient sampling. Here we apply the concept of echo shifting to task based neonatal fMRI in order to achieve an improved contrast to noise ratio and efficient data sampling at the same time...
February 15, 2016: NeuroImage
Teresa Victoria, Ann M Johnson, J Christopher Edgar, Deborah M Zarnow, Arastoo Vossough, Diego Jaramillo
OBJECTIVE: Fetal MRI at 3 T is emerging as a promising modality for evaluating fetal anatomy. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of images obtained with commonly used fetal imaging sequences at 1.5 T and 3 T. We hypothesized that the visualization and anatomic detail of fetal structures would be better at 3 T than at 1.5 T. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective search of the radiology department database at our institution identified 58 fetal MRI examinations performed at 3 T to evaluate body abnormalities during the period from July 2012 to February 2014...
January 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
David Saul, Karl Degenhardt, Suzanne D Iyoob, Lea F Surrey, Ann M Johnson, Mark P Johnson, Jack Rychik, Teresa Victoria
BACKGROUND: Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is the third most common cause of critical congenital heart disease in newborns, and one of the most challenging forms to treat. Secondary pulmonary lymphangiectasia has been recognized in association with HLHS, an appearance described on fetal MRI as the "nutmeg lung." OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of fetal nutmeg lung with HLHS survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective search of the fetal MRI database was performed...
April 2016: Pediatric Radiology
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