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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929415/pediatric-neurocysticercosis
#1
REVIEW
Pratibha Singhi, Arushi Gahlot Saini
Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminth infection of nervous system in humans caused by the encysted larvae of Taenia solium. It is a major cause of epilepsy in tropical areas and the most common cause of focal-onset seizures in North Indian children. Children with neurocysticercosis have pleomorphic manifestations depending on the location, number and viability of the cysts and host response. In endemic areas, neurocysticercosis should be clinically suspected in any child with recent-onset seizures, headache or focal motor deficits where there is no other suggestion of an underlying neurological disorder...
September 20, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928544/role-of-anesthesiologist-in-the-management-of-a-child-with-cerebral-palsy
#2
REVIEW
Safiya Imtiaz Shaikh, Ganapati Hegade
Cerebral palsy (CP) refers to a spectrum of nonprogressive neurological disorders with disturbances in posture and movement, resulting from perinatal intrauterine insult to developing infant brain. Many conditions associated with CP require surgery. Such cases pose important gastrointestinal, respiratory, and other perioperative considerations. Anesthetic management in these cases is delicate. Intraoperative complications including hypovolemia, hypothermia, muscle spasms, seizures, and delayed recovery might complicate the anesthetic management...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927775/-pasteurella-multocida-meningoencephalitis-in-a-14-year-old-child
#3
L Kuoch, F Villedieu, G Favaretto, J Toulouse, L Mignot, M Jokic
Pasteurella multocida is generally responsible for local infections through animal bites. It can be a cause of meningitis, which tends to affect people at the extreme ages of life or suffering from immunodeficiency. A 14-year-old teenager was hospitalized with typical signs of bacterial meningitis. P. multocida was evidenced in the cerebrospinal fluid. Progression was marked by a degradation on the 4th day of treatment, despite intravenous antibiotic therapy with third-generation cephalosporin, followed by a single seizure on the 7th day of treatment...
September 15, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916534/pretreatment-behavior-and-subsequent-medication-effects-in-childhood-absence-epilepsy
#4
Ruth C Shinnar, Shlomo Shinnar, Avital Cnaan, Peggy Clark, Dennis Dlugos, Deborah G Hirtz, Fengming Hu, Chunyan Liu, David Masur, Erica F Weiss, Tracy A Glauser
OBJECTIVE: To characterize pretreatment behavioral problems and differential effects of initial therapy in children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). METHODS: The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was administered at baseline, week 16-20, and month 12 visits of a randomized double-blind trial of ethosuximide, lamotrigine, and valproate. Total problems score was the primary outcome measure. RESULTS: A total of 382 participants at baseline, 310 participants at the week 16-20 visit, and 168 participants at the month 12 visit had CBCL data...
September 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914199/clinical-applications-of-intravenous-immunoglobulins-in-child-neurology
#5
Maria Gogou, Efimia Papadopoulou-Alataki, Martha Spilioti, Sofia Alataki, Athanasios Evangeliou
BACKGROUND: While there are guidelines for the use of intravenous immunoglobulins in children with Guillain-Barre syndrome and myasthenia gravis based on high-level evidence studies, data is fewer for the majority of neurologic disorders in this age group. Neuronal antibodies are detected in children with seizures of autoimmune etiology. Intravenous immunoglobulins with their broad immunomodulatory mechanism of action could be ideally effective in different forms of immune-dysregulated intractable epilepsies such as autoimmune epilepsy and autoimmune Rasmussen encephalitis...
September 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901536/validation-of-the-pedsql-epilepsy-module-a-pediatric-epilepsy-specific-health-related-quality-of-life-measure
#6
Avani C Modi, Katherine F Junger, Constance A Mara, Tanja Kellermann, Lauren Barrett, Janelle Wagner, Grace A Mucci, Laurie Bailey, Dace Almane, Shanna M Guilfoyle, Lauryn Urso, Brooke Hater, Heather Hustzi, Gigi Smith, Bruce Herrmann, M Scott Perry, Mary Zupanc, James W Varni
OBJECTIVE: To validate a brief and reliable epilepsy-specific, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measure in children with various seizure types, treatments, and demographic characteristics. METHODS: This national validation study was conducted across five epilepsy centers in the United States. Youth 5-18 years and caregivers of youth 2-18 years diagnosed with epilepsy completed the PedsQL Epilepsy Module and additional questionnaires to establish reliability and validity of the epilepsy-specific HRQOL instrument...
September 13, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901405/genotype-phenotype-analysis-in-a-male-patient-with-partial-trisomy-4p-and-monosomy-20q-due-to-maternal-reciprocal-translocation%C3%A2-4-20-a-case-report
#7
Dong Wu, Hui Zhang, Qiaofang Hou, Hongdan Wang, Tao Wang, Shixiu Liao
Translocations are the most frequent structural aberration in the human genome. Carriers of balanced chromosome rearrangement exhibit an increased risk of abortion and/or a chromosomally‑unbalanced child. The present study reported a clinical and cytogenetic analysis of a child who exhibited typical trisomy 4p and monosomy 20q features, including intellectual disability, delayed speech, tall stature, seizures and facial dysmorphism. The karyotype of the proband exhibited 46, XY, add(20) (q13.3). The karyotype of the mother indicated a balanced translocation karyotype: 46, XX, t(4;20) (p15...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898323/-pontocerebellar-hypoplasia-secondary-to-cask-gene-deletion-case-report
#8
Lucía Rivas, Óscar Blanco, Cristina Torreira, Alfredo Repáraz, Cristina Melcón, Alfonso Amado
INTRODUCTION: Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) is a reduction of the size of the cerebellum and pons secondary to an alteration in its development, and can be caused by neurodegenerative diseases of genetic origin, of which there are known 10 subtypes (PCH 1-10), cortical malformations, metabolic and genetic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To present the case of a child with microcephaly, PCH and West syndrome, in which the genetic study allowed to make the diagnosis of a deletion on chromosome X...
2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898171/febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-fires-a-literature-review-and-case-study
#9
Kristy Fox, Mary Ellen Wells, Michael Tennison, Bradley Vaughn
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a catastrophic epileptic syndrome that strikes previously healthy children aged 3-15 years and has an unknown pathogenesis and few treatments. These children experience a nonspecific febrile illness that is followed by prolonged refractory status epilepticus. Although the etiology is unknown, FIRES has a biphasic presentation, with the acute phase beginning as seizure activity lasting 1-12 weeks, then followed by the chronic phase, which is characterized by refractory seizures that cluster every 2-4 weeks, and may continue to be multifocal and independent...
2017: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881321/health-related-quality-of-life-and-emotional-wellbeing-improve-in-parents-after-their-children-have-undergone-epilepsy-surgery-a-prospective-population-based-study
#10
Colin Reilly, Charles Taft, Anna Edelvik, Ingrid Olsson, Kristina Malmgren
The objective was to compare parental health-related quality of life (HRQoL), anxiety, and depression at baseline and 2years after epilepsy surgery in a population-based series of children and young people who underwent surgery between 1995 and 1999 and to compare with population norms. Fifty mothers and 44 fathers of 50 children and young people (age: 1-20years) completed the Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale at baseline and at follow-up...
September 4, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881122/traumatic-brain-injury-in-children-under-age-24-months-analysis-of-demographic-data-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-post-traumatic-seizure
#11
Sang-Youl Yoon, Yeon-Ju Choi, Seong-Hyun Park, Jeong-Hyun Hwang, Sung Kyoo Hwang
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children under age 24 months has characteristic features because the brain at this age is rapidly growing and sutures are opened. Moreover, children this age are completely dependent on their parents. We analyzed the demographic data and risk factors for outcomes in TBI patients in this age group to elucidate their clinical characteristics. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and radiological films of children under 24 months who were admitted to Kyungpook National University Hospital from January 2004 to December 2013 for TBI...
September 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878954/brainstem-dermoid-cyst-rupture-with-hydrocephalus-in-a-child
#12
Elias Antoniades, Marios Themistocleous, Evangelos Drosos, Dimitrios Giakoumettis, Kyriakos Paraskeva, Panagiotis-Athanasios Georgis, George Sfakianos
Intracranial dermoid cysts are ectodermal lesions of embryological origin. They are of slow progression and symptoms associated with unruptured cysts are most commonly due to mass effect. However, a potential rupture in the ventricular system is rare and can cause meningitis, seizures and hydrocephalus. Hereby, we report a case of a 12-year-old boy presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus due to brainstem dermoid cyst rupture.
September 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875555/midazolam-vs-diazepam-in-prolonged-seizures-in-children-a-pharmacoeconomic-approach
#13
E Beghi, G Capovilla, E Franzoni, F Minicucci, A Romeo, A Verrotti, F Vigevano, E Perucca
OBJECTIVE: A previous European cost-utility study reported that use of buccal midazolam in the community setting for the treatment of prolonged seizures (ie, seizures lasting ≥5 minutes) in children was associated with an overall €12 507 399 reduction in annual costs charged to the Italian national health service compared with rectal diazepam. We re-evaluated these findings by applying a more conservative approach. METHODS: The Italian Delphi panel reconvened to apply a more conservative assessment of available reports...
September 6, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853521/-hemispherotomy-for-treatment-of-refractory-epilepsy-in-children
#14
Jonathan Roth, Sari Nagar, Shlomi Constantini, Itzhak Fried
INTRODUCTION: Hemispherotomies are an extreme treatment for epilepsy. As opposed to focal resections, in hemispherotomies the entire hemisphere is disconnected from the remaining nervous system, including functional regions and fibers. Despite this, hemispherotomy is recommended for certain indications, with good epilepsy and functional outcomes. AIMS: To summarize the experience of hemispherotomy performed at a tertiary national center. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted including all patients operated on between 2001 and 2014...
August 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852255/temporal-lobe-seizures-presenting-as-abrupt-clinging-behavior-in-a-child
#15
Shabina A Sheth, Nilanjan C Chandra, Ritambhara Y Mehta
True and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) go hand in hand. One colors the picture of other. Although it is thought that children carry lower risk for PNES than adults, this may represent the under-diagnosis of this condition in childhood due to few studies on this specific topic. Again, true seizure can be misdiagnosed by dramatic and varied manifestations appearing as psychological phenomena. We report a case of a 9-year-old boy presenting with sudden onset, short lasting, off and on different "melodramatic" episodic behavioral problems with La-Belle' indifference without loss of consciousness, appearing to be of psychogenic origin but finally ended with a diagnosis of temporal lobe epilepsy and responded dramatically with antiepileptics...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843212/the-influence-of-endophenotypic-disease-specific-and-environmental-variables-on-the-expression-of-anxiety-in-pediatric-epilepsy
#16
William A Schraegle, Jeffrey B Titus
Children and adolescents with epilepsy often show higher rates of anxiety, which carries an increased risk for reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The current study assessed the role of parental psychiatric history (i.e., anxiety, depression, and/or bipolar disorder) on the rate of anxiety features in youth seen in a tertiary epilepsy clinic. Data included parental ratings on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC-2) and the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) questionnaire for 180 children and adolescents (mean age=11...
August 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817240/prenatal-presentation-of-mabry-syndrome-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-and-phenotypic-overlap-with-fryns-syndrome
#17
Kara K Reynolds, Jane Juusola, Gregory M Rice, Philip F Giampietro
We report on a family in which initial features were compatible with Fryns syndrome. The first sibling was a stillborn female with a left diaphragmatic hernia (DH). Her clinical features overlapped with Fryns syndrome. The second pregnancy, a male fetus, was followed for polyhydramnios, hypoplastic mandible, mild enlargement of the fetal bladder, hydronephrosis, and rocker bottom foot deformities. He had facial features similar to his sibling and a large cleft of the secondary palate, small jaw, and secundum atrial septal defect...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814122/flibanserin-toxicity-in-a-toddler-following-ingestion
#18
Nicholas Granzella, Betty C Chen, Geoffrey S Baird, Matthew Valento
INTRODUCTION: Flibanserin is a medication recently approved by the FDA for treatment of generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women. Its mechanism of action is not fully understood but is thought to modulate serotonin receptors and increase levels of norepinephrine and dopamine. While much is known about toxicity of other drugs which affect these systems, there is little information about toxicity of flibanserin at this time. CASE: We present a case of a 2-year-old boy who ingested an estimated 600 mg of his mother's flibanserin...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808765/presentation-and-symptom-interval-in-children-with-central-nervous-system-tumors-a-single-center-experience
#19
Chiara Stocco, Chiara Pilotto, Eva Passone, Agostino Nocerino, Raffaello Tosolini, Anna Pusiol, Paola Cogo
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to describe the symptoms and signs of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in a pediatric population and to assess the time interval between the onset of the disease and the time of the diagnosis. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted at our Oncology Pediatric Unit between January 2000 and November 2011. We included 75 children between 5 months and 16 years (mean age of 7.8 ± 4.7 years), with male to female ratio of 3:2...
August 14, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801782/common-pediatric-medical-emergencies-in-office-practice
#20
Bharat Mehra, Suresh Gupta
General Practitioners frequently see children with medical conditions that may evolve into an emergency if not promptly attended to. The most common emergencies encountered in pediatric office practice are respiratory distress, dehydration, anaphylaxis, seizures and trauma. Assessment of children is sometimes difficult as the signs and symptoms might be subtle and not markedly expressed. Also, normal value of vital signs vary with age, thus their interpretation requires discrete knowledge of age appropriate values...
August 12, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
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