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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907634/strengthening-the-links-between-mapping-planning-and-global-engagement-for-disease-elimination-lessons-learnt-from-trachoma
#1
Paul Courtright, Lisa A Rotondo, Chad MacArthur, Iain Jones, Angela Weaver, Biruck Kebede Negash, Nicholas Olobio, Kamal Binnawi, Simon Bush, Mariamo Abdala, Danny Haddad, Astrid Bonfield, Paul Emerson, Virginia Sarah, Anthony W Solomon
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness. Until recently, reliable data on the global extent of the disease, detailed plans for elimination, and government, donor and partner engagement were all inadequate. METHODS: The trachoma community undertook a systematic, three-pronged strategy to map trachoma district by district, develop national-level trachoma elimination plans, and create a framework for governments, donors and partners to convene and coordinate in support of trachoma elimination...
June 15, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907633/association-of-lacc1-cebpb-ptpn1-ripk2-and-ado-egr2-with-ocular-behcet-s-disease-in-a-chinese-han-population
#2
Pengcheng Wu, Liping Du, Shengping Hou, Guannan Su, Lu Yang, Jiayue Hu, Jing Deng, Qingfeng Cao, Gangxiang Yuan, Chunjiang Zhou, Aize Kijlstra, Peizeng Yang
BACKGROUND: An Immunochip study recently identified the association of a number of new genetic loci with Behcet's disease (BD). OBJECTIVE: To confirm the association between new genetic loci reported in an Immunochip study and BD in a Han Chinese population. METHODS: A two-stage association study was carried out in 1238 patients with BD and 1458 healthy controls. Twenty-two candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected for genotyping by iPLEXGold genotyping or TaqMan SNP assays and a meta-analysis was performed for significantly associated markers...
June 15, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907150/comparing-the-income-related-inequity-of-tested-prevalence-and-self-reported-prevalence-of-hypertension-in-china
#3
Min Su, Yafei Si, Zhongliang Zhou, Chi Shen, Wanyue Dong, Xiaojing Fan, Xiao Wang, Xiaolin Wei
BACKGROUND: Hypertension has become a global health challenge given its high prevalence and but low awareness and detection. Whether the actual prevalence of hypertension has been estimated is important, especially for the poor. This study aimed to measure tested prevalence and self-reported prevalence of hypertension and compare the inequity between them in China. METHODS: Data were derived from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted in 2011. By using the multistage, stratified, random sampling method, 12,168 respondents aged 18 or older were identified for analysis...
June 15, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907139/the-role-of-timely-initiation-of-antenatal-care-on-protective-dose-tetanus-toxoid-immunization-the-case-of-northern-ethiopia-post-natal-mothers
#4
Muhabaw Shumye Mihret, Miteku Andualem Limenih, Temesgen Worku Gudayu
BACKGROUND: Globally, tetanus toxoid protective dose immunization of the mothers is one of the strategies of maternal and neonatal tetanus prevention. Ethiopia has planned the national tetanus protection at birth coverage to reach 86% by the year 2015. However, there is still low coverage with less identified associated factors. Therefore; the purpose of this study was to assess tetanus toxoid protective dose immunization at last birth and associated factors among mothers who gave birth within one year prior to the study in Debretabor town, Northwest Ethiopia, 2016...
June 15, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907128/protecting-adolescents-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-from-interpersonal-violence-pro-youth-trial-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-strengthening-families-programme-10-14-familias-fuertes-in-panama
#5
Anilena Mejia, Richard Emsley, Eleonora Fichera, Wadih Maalouf, Jeremy Segrott, Rachel Calam
BACKGROUND: Interpersonal violence can significantly reduce adolescents' opportunities for becoming happy and healthy adults. Central America is the most violent region in the world and it is estimated that adolescents are involved in 82% of all homicides in this region. Family skills training programmes have been designed to prevent interpersonal violence in adolescents. Several studies in high-income countries suggest they are effective. However, there are no published trials assessing effectiveness of these programmes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC)...
June 15, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906871/molecular-force-spectroscopy-of-kinetochore-microtubule-attachment-in-silico-mechanical-signatures-of-an-unusual-catch-bond-and-collective-effects
#6
Dipanwita Ghanti, Shubhadeep Patra, Debashish Chowdhury
Measurement of the lifetime of attachments formed by a single microtubule (MT) with a single kinetochore (kt) in vitro under force-clamp conditions had earlier revealed a catch-bond-like behavior. In the past, the physical origin of this apparently counterintuitive phenomenon was traced to the nature of the force dependence of the (de)polymerization kinetics of the MTs. Here, first the same model MT-kt attachment is subjected to external tension that increases linearly with time until rupture occurs. In our force-ramp experiments in silico, the model displays the well known "mechanical signatures" of a catch bond probed by molecular force spectroscopy...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906781/structural-optimization-and-amorphous-calcium-phosphate-mineralization-in-sensory-setae-of-a-terrestrial-crustacean-isopoda-oniscidea
#7
Miloš Vittori, Vesna Srot, Birgit Bussmann, Felicitas Predel, Peter A van Aken, Jasna Štrus
Terrestrial isopods possess large sensory setae on their walking legs. Increased fracture resistance of these elongated structures is of crucial importance, making the exoskeleton forming the setae an interesting durable material that may inspire biomimetic designs. We studied the cuticle of the sensory setae with analytical electron microscopy in order to gain detailed insights into its structure and composition at the nanometer scale and identify features that increase the fracture resistance of these minute skeletal elements...
June 9, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906495/hiv-infection-across-aging-synergistic-effects-on-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-the-brain
#8
Anna R Egbert, Bharat Biswal, Keerthana Karunakaran, Agnieszka Pluta, Tomasz Wolak, Stephen Rao, Robert Bornstein, Bogna Szymańska, Andrzej Horban, Ewa Firląg-Burkacka, Marta Sobańska, Natalia Gawron, Przemysław Bieńkowski, Halina Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, Anna Ścińska-Bieńkowska, Emilia Łojek
The objective of the study was to examine additive and synergistic effects of age and HIV infection on resting state (RS) intra- and inter-network functional connectivity (FC) of the brain. We also aimed to assess relationships with neurocognition and determine clinical-, treatment-, and health-related factors moderating intrinsic brain activity in aging HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals. The current report presents data on 54 HIV+ individuals (age M = 41, SD = 12 years) stabilized on cART and 54 socio-demographically matched healthy (HIV-) comparators (age M = 43, SD = 12 years), with cohort education mean of 16 years (SD = 12)...
June 12, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906317/essential-considerations-in-developing-attention-control-groups-in-behavioral-research
#9
Dawn M Aycock, Matthew J Hayat, Ashley Helvig, Sandra B Dunbar, Patricia C Clark
Attention control groups strengthen randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions, but researchers need to give careful consideration to the attention control activities. A comparative effectiveness research framework provides an ideal opportunity for an attention control group as a supplement to standard care, so participants potentially receive benefit regardless of group assignment. The anticipated benefit of the control condition must be independent of the study outcome. Resources needed for attention control activities need to be carefully considered and ethical considerations carefully weighed...
June 2018: Research in Nursing & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906198/an-audit-of-chronic-oedema-within-the-care-home-setting
#10
Jackie Stephen-Haynes, Rosie Callaghan
This articles outlines the important issue of chronic oedema, its definition and the physiology of the three main categories. The care delivered in the care home (nursing) sector was the subject of a printed questionnaire and the results are presented here. They are discussed and the implications for practice and an evidenced-based approach to care delivery are considered. Several conclusions can be drawn from this study but would be strengthened by a larger study. Care for patients with chronic oedema could be enhanced and this would improve clinical outcomes; significantly fewer patients would need to be referred for GP management if an appropriate and timely first-line treatment was agreed and provided by nursing staff...
April 1, 2018: British Journal of Community Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906177/nonmonotonic-aging-and-memory-in-a-frictional-interface
#11
Sam Dillavou, Shmuel M Rubinstein
We measure the static frictional resistance and the real area of contact between two solid blocks subjected to a normal load. We show that following a two-step change in the normal load the system exhibits nonmonotonic aging and memory effects, two hallmarks of glassy dynamics. These dynamics are strongly influenced by the discrete geometry of the frictional interface, characterized by the attachment and detachment of unique microcontacts. The results are in good agreement with a theoretical model we propose that incorporates this geometry into the framework recently used to describe Kovacs-like relaxation in glasses as well as thermal disordered systems...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905861/evaluation-of-a-mobile-approach-to-gender-based-violence-service-delivery-among-syrian-refugees-in-lebanon
#12
Pamela Lilleston, Liliane Winograd, Spogmay Ahmed, Dounia Salamé, Dayana Al Alam, Kirsten Stoebenau, Ilaria Michelis, Sunita Palekar Joergensen
As the landscape of humanitarian response shifts from camp-based to urban- and informal-tented settlement-based responses, service providers and policymakers must consider creative modes for delivering health services. Psychosocial support and case management can be life-saving services for refugee women and girls who are at increased risk for physical, sexual and psychological gender-based violence (GBV). However, these services are often unavailable in non-camp refugee settings. We evaluated an innovative mobile service delivery model for GBV response and mitigation implemented by the International Rescue Committee (IRC) in Lebanon...
June 13, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905161/reviving-post-mortem-diagnostics-as-a-tool-to-increase-porcine-herd-health-and-strengthen-early-detection-of-pig-diseases-the-pathopig-project-2014-2016
#13
M Schediwy, S Balmer, C Bredtmann, D Hadorn, P Bless, G Rosato, T Sydler, M Harisberger, R Graage, H Saura-Martinez, H Posthaus, C Gurtner
Post-mortem diagnostics are an important tool for disease diagnosis and therefore early detection of (re-)emerging animal diseases and zoonoses as well as nationwide disease surveillance programs. To counteract the decline of porcine necropsies in Switzerland over the last ten years, the Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office (FSVO) launched a national project in 2014 called PathoPig. Post-mortem examinations of pigs from herds with health problems were financially supported by the FSVO. During the first 3 years of the project, the number of pig necropsies increased by 195% (mean)...
June 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905113/the-retro-cue-benefit-for-verbal-material-and-its-influence-on-the-probability-of-intrusions-under-dual-task-conditions
#14
Antonia Krefeld-Schwalb
It is well established in the working memory literature, that performance can be improved by cueing attention toward the position of a to-be-tested item, even after that item's presentation. This retro-cue benefit is often characterized as the joint outcome of two different effects: facilitation of recall and memory strengthening at the cued position. While the latter has been mainly explained by increased context-content binding, competing hypotheses exist to explain the facilitation of recall. The present study focuses on two of these hypotheses: the removal of non-cued information and the protection of cued information against interference...
May 2018: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904730/surveillance-and-epidemiology-of-drug-resistant-infections-consortium-sedric-supporting-the-transition-from-strategy-to-action
#15
Keiji Fukuda, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Iruka N Okeke, Nandini Shetty, Rogier van Doorn, Nicholas A Feasey, Francesca Chiara, Ghada Zoubiane, Tim Jinks, Julian Parkhill, Jean Patel, Stuart W J Reid, Alison H Holmes, Sharon J Peacock
In recognition of the central importance of surveillance and epidemiology in the control of antimicrobial resistance and the need to strengthen surveillance at all levels, Wellcome has brought together a new international expert group SEDRIC (Surveillance and Epidemiology of Drug Resistant Infections Consortium). SEDRIC aims to advance and transform the ways of tracking, sharing and analysing rates of infection and drug resistance, burden of disease, information on antibiotic use, opportunities for preventative measures such as vaccines, and contamination of the environment...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904606/starting-the-conversation-community-perspectives-on-preterm-birth-and-kangaroo-mother-care-in-southern-malawi
#16
Megan Lydon, Monica Longwe, Dyson Likomwa, Victoria Lwesha, Lydia Chimtembo, Pamela Donohue, Tanya Guenther, Bina Valsangar
Background: Despite introduction of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in Malawi over a decade ago, preterm birth remains the leading cause of neonatal mortality. Although KMC is initiated in the health care facility, robust community follow-up is critical for survival and optimal development of preterm and low birth weight infants post-discharge. The objective of this qualitative study was to gain insight into community and health worker understanding, attitudes, beliefs and practices around preterm and low birth weight babies and KMC in Malawi...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904544/interventions-for-supporting-and-assessing-science-writing-communication-cases-of-asian-english-language-learners
#17
Beverly L Smith-Keiling, Lidia K Swanson, Joanne M Dehnbostel
In seeking to support diversity, one challenge lies in adequately supporting and assessing science cognitions in a writing-intensive Biochemistry laboratory course when highly engaged Asian English language learners (Asian ELLs) struggle to communicate and make novice errors in English. Because they may understand advanced science concepts, but are not being adequately assessed for their deeper scientific understanding, we sought and examined interventions. We hypothesized that inquiry strategies, scaffolded learning through peer evaluation, and individualized tools that build writing communication skills would increase confidence...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904449/red-cell-distribution-width-and-mortality-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-a-meta-analysis-on-prognosis
#18
Lauro L Abrahan, John Daniel A Ramos, Elleen L Cunanan, Marc Denver A Tiongson, Felix Eduardo R Punzalan
Background: Red cell distribution width (RDW), a routine component of the complete blood count (CBC), measures variation in the size of circulating erythrocytes. It has been associated with several clinical outcomes in cardiovascular disease. We sought to strengthen the association between RDW and mortality in patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) by pooling together data from available studies. Methods: Studies that fulfilled the following were identified for analysis: 1) observational; 2) included patients admitted for ACS; 3) reported data on all-cause or cardiovascular (CV) mortality in association with a low or high RDW; and 4) used logistic regression analysis to control for confounders...
June 2018: Cardiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904190/the-childbearing-experience-of-women-with-spinal-cord-injury-in-iran-a-phenomenological-study
#19
Zahra Khazaeipour, Alireza Nikbakht-Nasrabadi, Nooredin Mohammadi, Alireza Salehi-Nejad, Maryam Shabany
STUDY DESIGN: This was a qualitative study conducted using an interpretative phenomenological approach. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the experience of pregnancy and childbirth in women with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. METHODS: The data were collected using telecommunication and face-to-face semi-structured interviews with eight women with SCI...
June 14, 2018: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903790/pathways-linking-socioeconomic-status-to-small-for-gestational-age-sga-infants-among-primiparae-a-birth-cohort-study-in-china
#20
Xiu Luo, Lingfei Liu, Huaiting Gu, Fang Hou, Xinyan Xie, Xin Li, Heng Meng, Jiajia Zhang, Shunqing Xu, Ranran Song
OBJECTIVES: Evidence about the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants was insufficient among Chinese primiparae. In addition, factors that may mediate this relationship are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk of and mediators between SES and SGA. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Wuhan, Hubei, China. METHOD: Participants were recruited from patients who gave birth in the maternity care hospital of Wuhan between September 2012 and October 2014...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
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