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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235519/strengthening-face-centered-cubic-crystals-by-annealing-induced-nano-twins
#1
Barna Roy, Jayanta Das
Usually, cold working strengthen metals and alloys by introducing large population of dislocations, whereas annealing of cold worked metal recovers the structure, annihilates dislocations, forms new strain-free grains, and results loss of strength. Here, we report annealing-hardening at temperature well below stress relieving and recrystallization temperatures in contrast to the typical behavior. A large amount of structural defects, such as dislocations, grain boundaries, twins, and stacking faults, have been introduced in nanostructured α-brass by cryorolling...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235506/differential-contributions-of-the-middle-frontal-gyrus-functional-connectivity-to-literacy-and-numeracy
#2
Maki S Koyama, David O'Connor, Zarrar Shehzad, Michael P Milham
Literacy and numeracy equally affect an individual's success in and beyond schools, but these two competencies tend to be separately examined, particularly in neuroimaging studies. The current resting-state fMRI study examined the neural correlates of literacy and numeracy in the same sample of healthy adults. We first used an exploratory "Multivariate Distance Matrix Regression" (MDMR) approach to examine intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC), highlighting the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) for both competencies...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235414/zikaplan-zika-preparedness-latin-american-network
#3
A Wilder-Smith, R Preet, K E Renhorn, R A Ximenes, L C Rodrigues, T Solomon, J Neyts, L Lambrechts, H Willison, R Peeling, A K Falconar, A R Precioso, J Logan, T Lang, H P Endtz, M C Erasmus, E Massad
The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Pacific Islands has underlined the need for a coordinated research network across the whole region that can respond rapidly to address the current knowledge gaps in Zika and enhance research preparedness beyond Zika. The European Union under its Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme awarded three research consortia to respond to this need. Here we present the ZikaPLAN (Zika Preparedness Latin American Network) consortium...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235390/mir-122-and-other-micrornas-as-potential-circulating-biomarkers-of-drug-induced-liver-injury
#4
Lawrence S Howell, Lucy Ireland, B Kevin Park, Christopher E Goldring
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a severe adverse drug reaction which is of major concern to patients, clinicians and the pharmaceutical industry. Accurate and rapid detection of DILI is important for patient stratification and treatment in the clinic and benefits pre-clinical drug design and risk assessment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) offer a potential new and improved class of circulating biomarkers of DILI over the current gold standard biomarkers. Areas covered: This review highlights the shortcomings of the currently used panel of biomarkers and how miRNAs, primarily miR-122, show an improved level of specificity and sensitivity in the prediction of DILI...
December 13, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235372/strengthening-stakeholder-involvement-in-health-workforce-governance-why-we-need-to-talk-about-power
#5
Ellen Kuhlmann, Viola Burau
There is now widespread agreement on the benefits of an integrated, people-centred health workforce, but the implementation of new models is difficult. We argue that we need to think about stakeholders and power, if we want to ensure change in the health workforce. We discuss these issues from a governance perspective and suggest a critical approach to stakeholder involvement as an indicator of good governance. Three models of involving stakeholders in health workforce governance can be identified: corporatist professional involvement either in a continental European model of conservative corporatism or in a Nordic model of public corporatism; managerialist and market-centred involvement of professions as organizational agents; and a more inclusive, network-based involvement of plural professional experts at different levels of governance...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235303/-varieties-textual-research-resource-investigation-and-identification-of-commercial-drugs-on-cuscutae-semen
#6
Zhi-Gui Wu, Xiao-Mei Fu, Shu-Yao Wu, Yang Li, Bin Xie, Rui-Lin Chen, Cui-Sheng Fan
Through the textual research, resource investigation, literature reviews (including Flora of China, municipal Flora, pharmacopoeia of China and municipal drug standards) and identification of commercial drugs on Cuscutae Semen, it was found the species described in the herbal textual was Cuscuta chinensis, with good quality from Shandong and Henan Province. The identification of commodities showed the majority drugs were from C. australis, varied from the ancient herbal textuals .Mordern literature reviews indicate that it was necessary to strengthen the research on Cuscutae Semen from C...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235299/-prescription-regularity-of-famous-veteran-traditional-chinese-medicine-doctor-yu-guoyou-for-treating-gastrointestinal-failure-based-ondata-mining
#7
Qing Wang, Yi-Lian Chen, Guo-Lin Wu, Fu-Lin Xiong, Guo-You Yu
Gastrointestinal failure is a kind of severe systemic inflammatory response, and often complicated with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine have a better curative effect in treating it. This study collected the famous veteran TCM physician Yu Guoyou's 175 prescriptions for treating 89 cases of gastrointestinal failure, calculated the frequency of traditional Chinese medicines and their categories, and analyzed the medication regularity with system clustering method, so as to summarize Yu's frequently used drugs and prescriptions...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235217/heterologous-protein-expression-in-pichia-pastoris-latest-research-progress-and-applications
#8
REVIEW
Veeresh Juturu, Jin Chuan Wu
Pichia pastoris is a well-known platform strain for heterologous protein expression. Over the past five years, different strategies to improve the efficiency of recombinant protein expression by this yeast strain have been developed; these include a patent-free protein expression kit, construction of the P. pastoris CBS7435Ku70 platform strain with its high efficiency in site-specific recombination of plasmid DNA into the genomic DNA, the design of synthetic promoters and their variants by combining different core promoters with multiple putative transcription factors, the generation of mutant GAP promoter variants with various promoter strengths, codon optimization, engineering the α-factor signal sequence by replacing the native glutamic acid at the Kex2 cleavage site with the other 19 natural amino acids and the addition of mammalian signal sequence to the yeast signal sequence, and the co-expression of single chaperones, multiple chaperones or helper proteins that aid in recombinant protein folding...
December 13, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234956/work-participation-among-employees-with-common-mental-disorders-a-meta-synthesis
#9
REVIEW
Cecilie Nørby Thisted, Claus Vinther Nielsen, Merete Bjerrum
Purpose The aim was to aggregate knowledge about the opportunities, challenges and need for support employees with common mental disorders experience in relation to work participation in order to develop recommendations for practice. Methods A meta-synthesis was conducted using a meta-aggregative approach to accurately and reliably present findings that could be used to meet our aim. Qualitative inductive content analysis was used to analyze and synthesize the findings. Results In all, 252 findings were extracted from 16 papers, and six categories were generated and aggregated into two synthesized findings...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234874/mmab-a-novel-candidate-gene-to-be-screened-in-the-molecular-diagnosis-of-mevalonate-kinase-deficiency
#10
Massimo Mezzavilla, Ronald Rodrigues Moura, Fulvio Celsi, Paola Maura Tricarico, Sergio Crovella
Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is an autosomal recessive inflammatory disease. Mutations in MVK gene are associated with MKD with modest genotype-phenotype correlation. In spite of recent guidelines indicating specific MVK mutations for the more severe form or the milder one, little is known about MVK variability within and between populations. The aim of this work is to provide supplementary information about MVK variability useful in the molecular diagnosis of MKD, as well as to unravel the presence of novel genes potentially involved as involved in the clinical heterogeneity of MKD phenotype...
December 12, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234610/a-new-root-strengthening-technique-for-acute-aortic-dissection-with-a-weakened-aortic-root-the-neo-adventitia-technique
#11
Ji Yong Kim, In Ha Kim, Woon Heo, Ho-Ki Min, Do Kyun Kang, Youn-Ho Hwang, Hee Jae Jun
Background: Dissection flaps in acute type A aortic dissection typically extend into the root, most frequently into the non-coronary sinus (NCS). The weakened root can be susceptible not only to surgical trauma, but also to future dilatation because of its thinner layers. Herein, we describe a new technique that we named the "neo-adventitia" technique to strengthen the weakened aortic root. Methods: From 2012 to 2016, 27 patients with acute type A aortic dissection underwent supracommissural graft replacement using our neo-adventitia technique...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234567/nerve-entrapment-in-the-hip-region-current-concepts-review
#12
RobRoy Martin, Hal David Martin, Benjamin R Kivlan
The purpose of this clinical commentary is to review the anatomy, etiology, evaluation, and treatment techniques for nerve entrapments of the hip region. Nerve entrapment can occur around musculotendinous, osseous, and ligamentous structures because of the potential for increased strain and compression on the peripheral nerve at those sites. The sequela of localized trauma may also result in nerve entrapment if normal nerve gliding is prevented. Nerve entrapment can be difficult to diagnose because patient complaints may be similar to and coexist with other musculoskeletal conditions in the hip and pelvic region...
December 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234498/evaluation-of-the-national-return-of-unwanted-medicines-rum-program-in-australia-a-study-protocol
#13
Amanda J Wheeler, Jean Spinks, Emilie Bettington, Fiona Kelly
Background: The National Return of Unwanted Medicines (NatRUM) program in Australia is one of the few nationally coordinated, free-to-consumer schemes to dispose of unwanted medicines globally. This scheme has been in operation since 1996, however, little is known about public awareness of the scheme and its effectiveness in reducing unsafe disposal practices. The study objectives are to undertake a review of (1) the current use of the NatRUM scheme by consumers; and (11) to investigate disposal practices and beliefs of the general population...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234452/genetic-variations-of-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-and-diet-interactions-in-relation-to-lipid-profiles-and-coronary-heart-disease-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Parvin Mirmiran, Zohre Esfandiar, Firoozeh Hosseini-Esfahani, Gelareh Koochakpoor, Maryam S Daneshpour, Bahar Sedaghati-Khayat, Fereidoun Azizi
Data on diet-genotype interactions in the prevention or treatment of dyslipidemia have increased remarkably. This systematic review aimed to assess nutrigenetic studies regarding the modulating effect of diet on cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) polymorphisms in relation to metabolic traits. Data were collected through studies published between 2000 and SEP. 2016 using five electronic databases. The quality of eligible studies was assessed using a 12-item quality checklist, derived from the STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association Studies (STREGA) statement...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234440/morinda-officinalis-polysaccharides-stimulate-hypothalamic-gnrh-secretion-in-varicocele-progression
#15
Zhu Zhu, Feng Huang, Feng Wang, Yonghong Zhang, Xiaozhen Zhao, Wei Wang
Varicoceles (VCs) are the predominant cause of male infertility and are a risk factor for chronic venous disease. Morinda officinalis (M. officinalis) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to tonify the kidney and strengthen yang. In this study, we evaluated the effects of water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from M. officinalis (MOPs) on gonadotropin-release hormone (GnRH) secretion in a classic experimental left VC (ELV) rat model. Intragastric administration of MOPs at a dose ranging from 50 mg kg-1 to 100 mg kg-1 facilitated improvements in sperm parameters and seminiferous epithelial structures, modulated serum hormone profiles, and stimulated GnRH synthesis and release in the hypothalamus...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234425/systems-pharmacological-approach-to-the-effect-of-bulsu-san-promoting-parturition
#16
Su Yeon Suh, Won G An
Bulsu-san (BSS) has been commonly used in oriental medicine for pregnant women in East Asia. The purpose of this research was to elucidate the effect of BSS on ease of parturition using a systems-level in silico analytic approach. Research results show that BSS is highly connected to the parturition related pathways, biological processes, and organs. There were numerous interactions between most compounds of BSS and multiple target genes, and this was confirmed using herb-compound-target network, target-pathway network, and gene ontology analysis...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234091/structural-reorganization-of-the-early-visual-cortex-following-braille-training-in-sighted-adults
#17
Łukasz Bola, Katarzyna Siuda-Krzywicka, Małgorzata Paplińska, Ewa Sumera, Maria Zimmermann, Katarzyna Jednoróg, Artur Marchewka, Marcin Szwed
Training can induce cross-modal plasticity in the human cortex. A well-known example of this phenomenon is the recruitment of visual areas for tactile and auditory processing. It remains unclear to what extent such plasticity is associated with changes in anatomy. Here we enrolled 29 sighted adults into a nine-month tactile Braille-reading training, and used voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging to describe the resulting anatomical changes. In addition, we collected resting-state fMRI data to relate these changes to functional connectivity between visual and somatosensory-motor cortices...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233963/a-paleocene-penguin-from-new-zealand-substantiates-multiple-origins-of-gigantism-in-fossil-sphenisciformes
#18
Gerald Mayr, R Paul Scofield, Vanesa L De Pietri, Alan J D Tennyson
One of the notable features of penguin evolution is the occurrence of very large species in the early Cenozoic, whose body size greatly exceeded that of the largest extant penguins. Here we describe a new giant species from the late Paleocene of New Zealand that documents the very early evolution of large body size in penguins. Kumimanu biceae, n. gen. et sp. is larger than all other fossil penguins that have substantial skeletal portions preserved. Several plesiomorphic features place the new species outside a clade including all post-Paleocene giant penguins...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233616/n-term-2017-proteostasis-via-the-n-terminus
#19
Nico Dissmeyer, Emmanuelle Graciet, Michael J Holdsworth, Daniel J Gibbs
N-term 2017 was the first international meeting to bring together researchers from diverse disciplines with a shared interest in protein N-terminal modifications and the N-end rule pathway of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, providing a platform for interdisciplinary cross-kingdom discussions and collaborations, as well as strengthening the visibility of this growing scientific community.
December 9, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233230/priority-actions-for-addressing-the-obesity-epidemic-in-england
#20
Fiona Watson, Anna Taylor, Mike Rayner, Tim Lobstein, Robin Hinks
OBJECTIVE: To prioritise policy actions for government to improve the food environment and contribute to reduced obesity and related diseases. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study applying the Food Environment Policy Index (Food EPI) in two stages. First, the evidence on all relevant policies was compiled, through an Internet search of government documents, and reviewed for accuracy and completeness by government officials. Second, independent experts were brought together to identify critical gaps and prioritise actions to fill those gaps, through a two-stage rating process...
December 13, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
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