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Filippo Pullara, Eliana Karina Asciutto, Ignacio Jose General
Calcium/Calmodulin dependent protein kinase II is an enzyme involved in many different functions, including the so-called long-term potentiation, a mechanism that strengthens synapses in a persistent mode, and is believed to be a basic cellular mechanism for memory formation. Here we study the conformational changes of the enzyme due to phosphorylation of some key residues that are believed to drive the transition from an inhibited to an active state; it is this active state the one associated with long-term potentiation...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Xue Bai, Rachel Pruchno
Background and Objectives: The quality of intergenerational relationships is crucial for maintaining the well-being of parents and adult children. This study developed and validated an Intergenerational Relationship Quality Scale for Aging Chinese Parents (IRQS-AP) based on the solidarity, conflict, and ambivalence models. Research Design and Methods: The data were derived from a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong which included a random sample of 1,001 community-dwelling individuals aged ≥50 years...
October 17, 2017: Gerontologist
Anne Kokel, Béla Török
Due to declining hydrocarbon resources and strengthening environmental regulations, significant attention is directed toward sustainable and non-toxic supplies for the development of green technologies in a variety of industries. This account provides an overview on the sources and recent applications of such materials surveying the most common non-toxic and renewable resources that can be obtained from biological sources. Developing a broad array of technologies based on these materials would establish a truly sustainable green chemical industry...
October 16, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Diane Hountz, Jennifer Coddington, Karen J Foli, Janet Thorlton
According to the American Cancer Society, 1 in 23 Americans will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) in their lifetime. Screening for CRC is an effective, yet underused preventive approach. This is especially true in rural areas, where only 35% of patients were found to be up to date on their screenings in 2014. Increasing CRC screening can produce positive patient outcomes by early recognition and removal of precancerous polyps. The purpose of this project was to use quality improvement (QI) interventions to increase CRC screening rates at a nurse-managed clinic in rural Indiana...
October 17, 2017: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
Zohray Talib, Susan van Schalkwyk, Ian Couper, Swaha Pattanaik, Khadija Turay, Atiene S Sagay, Rhona Baingana, Sarah Baird, Bernhard Gaede, Jehu Iputo, Minnie Kibore, Rachel Manongi, Antony Matsika, Mpho Mogodi, Jeremais Ramucesse, Heather Ross, Moses Simuyeba, Damen Haile-Mariam
PURPOSE: African medical schools are expanding, straining resources at tertiary health facilities. Decentralizing clinical training can alleviate this tension. This study assessed the impact of decentralized training and contribution of undergraduate medical students at health facilities. METHOD: Participants were from 11 Medical Education Partnership Initiative-funded medical schools in 10 African countries. Each school identified two clinical training sites-one rural and the other either peri-urban or urban...
October 17, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Linda J Blumberg, John Holahan
Most complaints about the Affordable Care Act (ACA) (e.g. high and rising insurance premiums, large deductibles, and insurer exits) relate to nongroup insurance markets. These markets, the ones that were the most dysfunctional before the ACA, provide coverage to just 7% of the nonelderly population..
October 18, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
Lei Xie, Chen Shi, Xin Cui, Jun Huang, Jingyi Wang, Qi Liu, Hongbo Zeng
Surface interactions involving deformable air bubbles have attracted tremendous interest in a wide range of engineering applications, such as mineral flotation and bitumen extraction. In this work, for the first time, the interaction forces between air bubbles and bitumen surfaces in complex aqueous media of varying pH, salinity and salts were directly measured using a bubble probe atomic force microscope (AFM) technique. The AFM topographic imaging reveals that bitumen surface tends to be rougher and form distinct domains at high NaCl concentration or under strongly alkaline environment...
October 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Hasan Emre Koçak, Ayşe Şermin Filiz Acıpayam, Harun Acıpayam, Bilgen Çakıl Erdoğan, Nimet Yeşim Yıldız, Levent Küfeciler, Mustafa Suphi Elbistanlı, Kamil Hakan Kaya
Melanocytes are located in both the cochlea and vestibular organ of the inner ear. They are present in the hearing organ, in the intermediate layer of stria vascularis in the cochlea. The most important task of the stria vascularis is to provide the endolymph production necessary for normal hearing levels, especially high K(+) concentration, and to protect the positive endocochlear potential. Specifically, intermediate layer melanocytes express ionic channels, such as inwardly rectifying K+ channels and voltage-dependent outwardly rectifying K+...
October 17, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
Matthew G Barstead, Kelly A Smith, Brett Laursen, Cathryn Booth-LaForce, Shakeena King, Kenneth H Rubin
The researchers examined differential outcomes related to two distinct motivations for withdrawal (preference for solitude and shyness) as well as the possibility that support from important others (mothers, fathers, and best friends) attenuate any such links. Adolescents (159 males, 171 females) reported on their motivations to withdraw, internalizing symptoms, and relationship quality in eighth grade, as well as their anxiety and depression in ninth grade. Using structural equation modeling, the authors found that maternal support weakened the association between shyness and internalizing problems; friend support weakened the association between preference for solitude and depression; and friend support strengthened the association between shyness and depression...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
Danielle Blouin, Ara Tekian, Carol Kamin, Ilene B Harris
OBJECTIVES: Increased emphasis is being placed worldwide on accreditation of undergraduate medical education programmes, and costs of participation in accreditation continue to rise. The primary purposes of accreditation are to ensure the quality of medical education and to promote quality improvement. Student performance data as indicators of the impact of accreditation have important limitations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of accreditation using an innovative marker: the processes implemented at medical schools as a result of accreditation...
October 18, 2017: Medical Education
Alexandra L Phelan, Lawrence O Gostin
A One Health approach calls for multisectoral and multi-institutional cooperation and partnership across the interfaces of human, animal and ecosystem health risks. Without strong governance, these interfaces risk detaching, leaving gaps in capacities to prevent, detect and respond to emerging and persisting public health threats. As a crucial component of governance, law can act as the fixture between interfaces. We examine some of the many forms and foci of law and propose that the process of law-making, implementation and evaluation can provide a benefit for strengthening law as a fixture between One Health interfaces...
June 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Sunghwan Kim, Seunghwa Ryu
Despite the significance of surface effects on the deformation behaviours of small-scale metallic glasses, systematic investigations on surface states are lacking. In this work, by employing atomistic simulations, we characterise the distributions of local inhomogeneity near surfaces created by casting and cutting, along with internal distributions in pristine and irradiated bulk specimens, and investigate the effects of inhomogeneity on the mechanical properties. The cast surface shows enhanced yield strength and degrees of shear localisation, while the cut surface shows the opposite effects, although the fraction of vibrational soft spots, known to indicate low-energy barriers for local rearrangement, is high near both surfaces...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Katarina Bačević, Gérald Lossaint, Thiziri Nait Achour, Virginie Georget, Daniel Fisher, Vjekoslav Dulić
Although cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) controls the G1/S transition and promotes DNA replication, it is dispensable for cell cycle progression due to redundancy with Cdk1. Yet Cdk2 also has non-redundant functions that can be revealed in certain genetic backgrounds and it was reported to promote the G2/M DNA damage response checkpoint in TP53 (p53)-deficient cancer cells. However, in p53-proficient cells subjected to DNA damage, Cdk2 is inactivated by the CDK inhibitor p21. We therefore investigated whether Cdk2 differentially affects checkpoint responses in p53-proficient and deficient cell lines...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Katherine A McClendon, Lotus McDougal, Sankari Ayyaluru, Yemeserach Belayneh, Anand Sinha, Jay G Silverman, Anita Raj
Child marriage and subsequent early first birth is a considerable social, economic and health concern, and a pervasive practice in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. This study explores barriers and facilitators to family planning among women and girls, and their marital decision-makers subsequent to receipt of child marriage prevention programmes in Ethiopia and India. In-depth interviews with 128 women and girls who were married as minors or who cancelled or postponed marriage as minors and their marital decision-makers were analysed using content analysis...
October 18, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
G Maino, R Carleer, W Marchal, G Bonneux, A Hardy, M K Van Bael
LiMn2O4 (LMO) is interesting from the viewpoint of its energy storage applications as it is a cathode in lithium ion batteries (LIB), which contains no rare, toxic or expansive elements, while it provides a high theoretical capacity (148 mA h g(-1)) at a reasonable voltage (4 V region) and a higher thermal stability compared to cobalt based cathodes and has a good rechargeability and cycling stability due to its spinel structure. Low temperature synthesis routes for cathode materials are currently gaining attention, in order to decrease the ecological footprint of the final LIB...
October 18, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Ji-Yeong Seo, Dawon Lee, Dongyun Lee, Boseok Cha, Chul-Soo Park, Bong-Jo Kim, Cheol-Soon Lee, So-Jin Lee, In-Young Ahn, Jae-Won Choi
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether the resilience of males with probable bipolar depression (PBD) can be strengthened and compared it to that of males with probable unipolar depression (PUD). METHODS: Prospective data for 198 participants (PBD: 66, PUD: 66, normal control: 66) were analyzed. The participants' resilience, bipolarity and severity of depressive symptoms were evaluated at baseline and after 5 weeks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and repeated measure ANOVA was performed for comparing resilience between three groups through a basic military training...
September 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
Lei Li, Steven M Jay, Yan Wang, Shu-Wei Wu, Zhengguo Xiao
An effective cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against intracellular pathogens is generally accomplished by immense CTL expansion and activation, which can destroy infected cells. Vigorous immune responses can lead to activation of bystander CD8(+) T cells, but the contribution from antigen-specific CTLs is not well understood. We found that CTLs secrete extracellular vesicles following antigen stimulation. These CTL-derived vesicles contain CTL proteins and exhibit markers and size profiles consistent with exosomes...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Anna M van Opstal, Abimbola A Akintola, Marjan van der Elst, Rudi G Westendorp, Hanno Pijl, Diana van Heemst, Jeroen van der Grond
The hypothalamus is a crucial structure in the brain that responds to metabolic cues and regulates energy homeostasis. Patients with type 2 diabetes demonstrate a lack of hypothalamic neuronal response after glucose ingestion, which is suggested to be an underlying cause of the disease. In this study, we assessed whether intranasal insulin can be used to enhance neuronal hypothalamic responses to glucose ingestion. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled 4-double cross-over experiment, hypothalamic activation was measured in young non- diabetic subjects by determining blood-oxygen-level dependent MRI signals over 30 minutes before and after ingestion of 75 g glucose dissolved in 300 ml water, under intranasal insulin or placebo condition...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jian-Xiong Ma, Wei-Wei He, Jie Zhao, Ming-Jie Kuang, Hao-Hao Bai, Lei Sun, Bin Lu, Ai-Xian Tian, Ying Wang, Ben-Chao Dong, Yan Wang, Xin-Long Ma
The mechanism behind osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the pathogenesis of ONFH from a biomechanical standpoint to provide a theoretical basis for improved treatments. We compared the bone structure of fractured femoral heads with that of necrotic femoral heads by Micro-CT scanning and histological evaluation. In addition, we compared the biomechanical properties of each zone in fractured femoral heads with those in necrotic femoral heads by using biomechanical tests...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Swaran P Singh, Helena Tuomainen, Giovanni de Girolamo, Athanasios Maras, Paramala Santosh, Fiona McNicholas, Ulrike Schulze, Diane Purper-Ouakil, Sabine Tremmery, Tomislav Franić, Jason Madan, Moli Paul, Frank C Verhulst, Gwen C Dieleman, Jane Warwick, Dieter Wolke, Cathy Street, Claire Daffern, Priya Tah, James Griffin, Alastair Canaway, Giulia Signorini, Suzanne Gerritsen, Laura Adams, Lesley O'Hara, Sonja Aslan, Frédérick Russet, Nikolina Davidović, Amanda Tuffrey, Anna Wilson, Charlotte Gatherer, Leanne Walker
INTRODUCTION: Disruption of care during transition from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) to adult mental health services may adversely affect the health and well-being of service users. The MILESTONE (Managing the Link and Strengthening Transition from Child to Adult Mental Healthcare) study evaluates the longitudinal course and outcomes of adolescents approaching the transition boundary (TB) of their CAMHS and determines the effectiveness of the model of managed transition in improving outcomes, compared with usual care...
October 16, 2017: BMJ Open
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