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high resolution magnetic resonance imaging

F H Wang, K Bae, Z W Huang, J M Xue
For obtaining high-resolution macroscopical anatomical information and high sensitivity microscopical optical signals, it is highly desirable to develop dual-modality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescent probes in medical imaging simultaneously. In this study, Gd2 O3 nanoparticles were modified with two-photon graphene quantum dots (GQD), integrating a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent with two-photon imaging functionality into one nanoprobe. A photoluminescence study indicated that the GQD modification process integrated MRI properties with both one-photon and two-photon imaging properties...
March 12, 2018: Nanoscale
Nerisa Banaj, Federica Piras, Fabrizio Piras, Valentina Ciullo, Mariangela Iorio, Claudia Battaglia, Donatella Pantoli, Giuseppe Ducci, Gianfranco Spalletta
The brain structural correlates of cognitive and psychopathological symptoms within the active phase in severely psychotic schizophrenic inpatients have been rarely investigated. Twenty-eight inpatients with a DSM-5 diagnosis of Schizophrenia (SZ), admitted for acute psychotic decompensation, were assessed through a comprehensive neuropsychological and psychopathological battery. All patients underwent a high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging investigation. Increased psychotic severity was related to reduced grey matter volumes in the medial portion of the right superior frontal cortex, the superior orbitofrontal cortex bilaterally and to white matter volume reduction in the medial portion of the left superior frontal area...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Sanuji Gajamange, David Raffelt, Thijs Dhollander, Elaine Lui, Anneke van der Walt, Trevor Kilpatrick, Joanne Fielding, Alan Connelly, Scott Kolbe
Long term irreversible disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to be primarily driven by axonal degeneration. Axonal degeneration leads to degenerative atrophy, therefore early markers of axonal degeneration are required to predict clinical disability and treatment efficacy. Given that additional pathologies such as inflammation, demyelination and oedema are also present in MS, it is essential to develop axonal markers that are not confounded by these processes. The present study investigated a novel method for measuring axonal degeneration in MS based on high angular resolution diffusion magnetic resonance imaging...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Tigran Khachatryan, Marina Khachatryan, Ruben Fanarjyan, Mikayel Grigoryan, Arthur Grigorian
Background: Currently, transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is the preferred method for surgical treatment of intrasellar pituitary adenomas. However, it carries some risk of intraoperative arterial injuries, which is mainly attributed to direct iatrogenic rupture of the internal carotid artery (ICA). There is anecdotal evidence suggesting that intracranial aneurysms are coincidentally found significantly more frequently in the setting of pituitary adenomas than when the incidence is compared to other intracranial neoplasms...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Sumito Maruyama, Kenzo Muroi, Yoshiyuki Hosokai
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: In general functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis, the task onset time of the statistical model is typically set according to the timing of stimulation. In this study, using a high temporal resolution fMRI data, we examined the way of dynamically visualizing the difference in the activation timing between the brain activation areas by analyzing the task onset time of the statistical model shifted from the actual stimulation timing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: fMRI data with high temporal resolution was acquired using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging for 10 right-handed healthy volunteers...
March 7, 2018: Academic Radiology
M Fareed K Suri, Jincheng Zhou, Ye Qiao, Haitao Chu, Adnan I Qureshi, Tom Mosley, Rebecca F Gottesman, Lisa Wruck, A Richey Sharrett, Alvaro Alonso, Bruce A Wasserman
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis and cognitive impairment in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort. METHODS: ARIC participants underwent high-resolution 3T magnetic resonance angiography and a neuropsychology battery and neurologic examination adjudicated by an expert panel to detect mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. We adjusted for demographic and vascular risk factors in weighted logistic regression analysis, accounting for stratified sampling design and attrition, to determine the association of intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) with cognitive impairment...
March 9, 2018: Neurology
Richard Manber, Kris Thielemans, Brian F Hutton, Simon Wan, Francesco Fraioli, Anna Barnes, Sebastien Ourselin, Simon Arridge, David Atkinson
In Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging, patient motion due to respiration can lead to artefacts and blurring, in addition to quantification errors. The integration of PET imaging with Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging in PET/MR scanners provides spatially aligned complementary clinical information, and allows the use of high spatial resolution and high contrast MR images to monitor and correct motion-corrupted PET data. We validate our PET respiratory motion correction methodology based on a joint PET-MR motion model, on a patient cohort, showing it can improve lesion detectability and quantitation, and reduce image artefacts...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Idan Ashur, Hyla Allouche-Arnon, Amnon Bar-Shir
Inorganic nanocrystals (NCs) have been extensively developed for a variety of uses. The ability to obtain high-resolution NMR signals from the core nuclei of NCs in solution could offer new opportunities in materials sciences and MR imaging. Here, we demonstrate that small, water-soluble 19F-ionic NCs can average out homonuclear dipolar interactions, enabling one to obtain high-resolution 19F-NMR signals in solution that reflect the MR properties of F- in the crystal core. Decorating 19F-NC surfaces with a biocompatible polyethylene-glycol coating maintains colloidal stability in water while preserving the NC high-resolution 19F-NMR properties, even after further functionalization...
March 8, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Kevin T Chen, Stephanie Salcedo, Daniel B Chonde, David Izquierdo-Garcia, Michael A Levine, Julie C Price, Bradford C Dickerson, Ciprian Catana
BACKGROUND: Subject motion in positron emission tomography (PET) studies leads to image blurring and artifacts; simultaneously acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data provides a means for motion correction (MC) in integrated PET/MRI scanners. PURPOSE: To assess the effect of realistic head motion and MR-based MC on static [18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images in dementia patients. STUDY TYPE: Observational study. POPULATION: Thirty dementia subjects were recruited...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
R Espert, M Gadea, M Alino, J Oltra-Cucarella, C Perpina
INTRODUCTION: Moyamoya disease (MMD) is an occlusive cerebrovascular disease characterized by progressive stenosis or occlusion in the terminal portion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries, affecting both children and adults. AIM: To conduct a review and update on MMD from a clinical, neuroradiological, neuropsychological and genetic perspective. DEVELOPMENT: In this pathology, which occurs with ischemia or cerebral hemorrhage, an unusual compensatory vascular network (moyamoya vessels) develops at the base of the brain in the form of collateral channels...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Dominik A Moser, Gaelle E Doucet, Won Hee Lee, Alexander Rasgon, Hannah Krinsky, Evan Leibu, Alex Ing, Gunter Schumann, Natalie Rasgon, Sophia Frangou
Importance: Alterations in multiple neuroimaging phenotypes have been reported in psychotic disorders. However, neuroimaging measures can be influenced by factors that are not directly related to psychosis and may confound the interpretation of case-control differences. Therefore, a detailed characterization of the contribution of these factors to neuroimaging phenotypes in psychosis is warranted. Objective: To quantify the association between neuroimaging measures and behavioral, health, and demographic variables in psychosis using an integrated multivariate approach...
March 7, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Leslee N Matheny, Sudipa Sarkar, Hanyuan Shi, Jiun-Ruey Hu, Hannah Harmsen, Ty W Abel, Shubhada M Jagasia, Shichun Bao
We present a case of a 52-year-old male who developed Cushing's Syndrome due to ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion from a large esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) of the nasal sinuses. The patient initially presented with polyuria, polydipsia, weakness, and confusion. Computed tomography scan of the head and magnetic resonance imaging showed a 7 cm skull base mass centered in the right cribriform plate without sella involvement. Work-up revealed ACTH-dependent hypercortisolemia, which did not suppress appropriately after high-dose dexamethasone...
2018: Case Reports in Endocrinology
Ralph Rahme, Tejaswi D Sudhakar, Marjan Alimi, Timothy G White, Rafael A Ortiz, David J Langer
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is a well-known complication of superficial temporal artery (STA) to middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. While this argues against "low flow" in the bypass construct, flow rates in the graft have not been previously quantified in the setting of CHS. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 58-yr-old man presented with recurrent left hemispheric ischemic strokes and fluctuating right hemiparesis and aphasia...
March 3, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Natally Horvat, Harini Veeraraghavan, Monika Khan, Ivana Blazic, Junting Zheng, Marinela Capanu, Evis Sala, Julio Garcia-Aguilar, Marc J Gollub, Iva Petkovska
Purpose To investigate the value of T2-weighted-based radiomics compared with qualitative assessment at T2-weighted imaging and diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging for diagnosis of clinical complete response in patients with rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy-radiation therapy (CRT). Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 114 patients with rectal cancer who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging after CRT between March 2012 and February 2016. Median age among women (47 of 114, 41%) was 55...
March 7, 2018: Radiology
Giovanni Tringali, Beatrice Bono, Ivano Dones, Roberto Cordella, Giuseppe Didato, Flavio Villani, Francesco Prada
BACKGROUND: Type II focal cortical dysplasia is the most common malformation of cortical development associated with drug resistant epilepsy and susceptible to surgical resection. Although advanced imaging modalities are nowadays capable to detect the majority of such cortical disorders, it is still a challenge for the surgeon to visualize them intraoperatively. The lack of direct boundaries' identification between normal brain and subtle dysplastic tissue may explain poor results in terms of seizure-free patients compared to other forms of epilepsy...
March 3, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Paul M Macey, Natasha Haris, Rajesh Kumar, M Albert Thomas, Mary A Woo, Ronald M Harper
INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects approximately 10% of adults, and alters brain gray and white matter. Psychological and physiological symptoms of the disorder are sex-specific, perhaps related to greater injury occurs in female than male patients in white matter. Our objective was to identify influences of OSA separated by sex on cortical gray matter. METHODS: We assessed cortical thickness in 48 mild-severe OSA patients (mean age±std[range] = 46...
2018: PloS One
Roberto Guidotti, Raffaele Sinibaldi, Cinzia De Luca, Allegra Conti, Risto J Ilmoniemi, Koos C J Zevenhoven, Per E Magnelind, Vittorio Pizzella, Cosimo Del Gratta, Gian Luca Romani, Stefania Della Penna
The prototypes of ultra-low-field (ULF) MRI scanners developed in recent years represent new, innovative, cost-effective and safer systems, which are suitable to be integrated in multi-modal (Magnetoencephalography and MRI) devices. Integrated ULF-MRI and MEG scanners could represent an ideal solution to obtain functional (MEG) and anatomical (ULF MRI) information in the same environment, without errors that may limit source reconstruction accuracy. However, the low resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ULF images, as well as their limited coverage, do not generally allow for the construction of an accurate individual volume conductor model suitable for MEG localization...
2018: PloS One
Régis Trapeau, Marc Schönwiesner
Spatial hearing is a crucial capacity of the auditory system. While the encoding of horizontal sound direction has been extensively studied, very little is known about the representation of vertical sound direction in the auditory cortex. Using high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured voxel-wise sound elevation tuning curves in human auditory cortex and show that sound elevation is represented by broad tuning functions preferring lower elevations as well as secondary narrow tuning functions preferring individual elevation directions...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Payam Dadvand, Jesus Pujol, Dídac Macià, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Marion Mortamais, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Raquel Fenoll, Mikel Esnaola, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Mónica López-Vicente, Xavier Basagaña, Michael Jerrett, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Sunyer
BACKGROUND: Proponents of the biophilia hypothesis believe that contact with nature, including green spaces, has a crucial role in brain development in children. Currently, however, we are not aware of evidence linking such exposure with potential effects on brain structure. OBJECTIVE: We determined whether lifelong exposure to residential surrounding greenness is associated with regional differences in brain volume based on 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) among children attending primary school...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Yujia Zhou, Han Zhang, Lichi Zhang, Xiaohuan Cao, Ru Yang, Qianjin Feng, Pew-Thian Yap, Dinggang Shen
Population studies of brain function with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) rely on accurate intersubject registration of functional areas. This is typically achieved through registration using high-resolution structural images with more spatial details and better tissue contrast. However, accumulating evidence has suggested that such strategy cannot align functional regions well because functional areas are not necessarily consistent with anatomical structures. To alleviate this problem, a number of registration algorithms based directly on rs-fMRI data have been developed, most of which utilize functional connectivity (FC) features for registration...
March 5, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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