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high resolution magnetic resonance imaging

E Mark Mahone, Deana Crocetti, Laura Tochen, Tina Kline, Stewart H Mostofsky, Harvey S Singer
BACKGROUND: Complex motor stereotypies in children are repetitive rhythmic movements that have a predictable pattern and location, seem purposeful, but serve no obvious function, tend to be prolonged, and stop with distraction, e.g., arm or hand flapping, waving. They occur in both "primary" (otherwise typically developing) and secondary conditions. These movements are best defined as habitual behaviors and therefore pathophysiologically hypothesized to reside in premotor to posterior putamen circuits...
September 8, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Faysal F Altahawi, Kevin J Blount, Nicholas P Morley, Esther Raithel, Imran M Omar
PURPOSE: To compare a faster, new, high-resolution accelerated 3D-fast-spin-echo (3D-FSE) acquisition sequence (CS-SPACE) to traditional 2D and high-resolution 3D sequences for knee 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients received knee MRIs that included routine 2D (T1, PD ± FS, T2-FS; 0.5 × 0.5 × 3 mm(3); ∼10 min), traditional 3D FSE (SPACE-PD-FS; 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 mm(3); ∼7.5 min), and accelerated 3D-FSE prototype (CS-SPACE-PD-FS; 0...
October 15, 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Yibin Xie, Young-Jin Kim, Jianing Pang, Jung-Sun Kim, Qi Yang, Janet Wei, Christopher T Nguyen, Zixin Deng, Byoung Wook Choi, Zhaoyang Fan, C Noel Bairey Merz, Prediman K Shah, Daniel S Berman, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Debiao Li
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is the development of coronary atherosclerosis T1-weighted characterization with integrated anatomical reference (CATCH) technique and the validation by comparison with high-risk plaque features (HRPF) observed on intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) and invasive coronary angiography. BACKGROUND: T1-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance with or without contrast media has been used for characterizing coronary atherosclerosis showing promising prognostic value...
October 6, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Nelson F Velasco, Andrea Rueda, Cristina Santa Marta, Eduardo Romero
High-quality Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) images can be hardly obtained when intrinsic noise sources are present, namely heart and breathing movements. Yet heart images may be acquired in real time, the image quality is really limited and most sequences use ECG gating to capture images at each stage of the cardiac cycle during several heart beats. This paper presents a novel super-resolution algorithm that improves the cardiac image quality using a sparse Bayesian approach. The high-resolution version of the cardiac image is constructed by combining the information of the low-resolution series -observations from different non-orthogonal series composed of anisotropic voxels- with a prior distribution of the high-resolution local coefficients that enforces sparsity...
October 11, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Thomas M Link, Ursula Heilmeier
Both bone mass and quality are responsible for bone strength. Whereas bone mass is measured with bone mineral density, quantification of bone quality is more complex and involves bone architecture, texture, and mechanical parameters. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing technologies to measure bone quality. These include novel low-cost modalities such as trabecular bone score measured on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry images and quantitative ultrasound as well as more advanced imaging modalities such as multidetector computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography...
July 2016: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
Judith E Adams
Maximizing peak bone mass in childhood is relevant to optimizing bone health in later life, so the study of the skeleton in children in health and disease is important. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most widely used clinical tool for the assessment of bone status in children. Technological developments in DXA enable vertebral fracture assessment at much lower ionizing radiation doses than spinal radiographs. Quantitative computed tomography remains predominantly a research tool but has some advantages over DXA in not being size dependent...
July 2016: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
Tao Xie, Wei Sun, Xiaobiao Zhang, Tengfei Liu, Hailing Ding, Fan Hu, Yong Yu, Ye Gu
BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated the value of three-dimensional (3D) fast-imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting non-iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhoea and compared it with regular MRI and 3D magnetisation prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE) MRI sequences, as well as high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging. We also present the endoscopic experiences of such cases. METHOD: From June 2011 to Feb 2016, 17 patients with non-iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea were included...
October 13, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Michele R Colonna, Giuseppe Tallarida, Francesco Stagno d'Alcontres, Salvatore Noto, Aurora Parodi, Alberto Tagliafico
Five years after both right ulnar and median nerve decompression for paraesthesias and palsy, a patient, coming from Nigeria but living in Italy, came to our unit claiming to have persistent pain and combined median and ulnar palsy. Under suspicion of leprosy, skin and left sural nerve biopsy were performed. Skin tests were negative, but Schwann cells resulted as positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB), leading to the diagnosis of Pure Neuritic Leprosy (PNL). The patient was given PB multidrug therapy and recovered from pain in two months...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Hooman Hamedani, Stephen Kadlecek, Yi Xin, Sarmad Siddiqui, Heather Gatens, Joseph Naji, Masaru Ishii, Maurizio Cereda, Milton Rossman, Rahim Rizi
PURPOSE: To present a method for simultaneous acquisition of alveolar oxygen tension (PA O2 ), specific ventilation (SV), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of hyperpolarized (HP) gas in the human lung, allowing reinterpretation of the PA O2 and SV maps to produce a map of oxygen uptake (R). METHOD: An imaging scheme was designed with a series of identical normoxic HP gas wash-in breaths to measure ADC, SV, PA O2 , and R in less than 2 min. Signal dynamics were fit to an iterative recursive model that regionally solved for these parameters...
October 13, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
James Rafferty, Lance Farr, Tim James, David Chase, John Heinrich, Michael Brady
We present a novel, high-resolution magnetic resonance technique, fine structure analysis (FSA) for the quantification and analysis of amorphous and quasi-amorphous biological structures. The one-dimensional technique is introduced mathematically and then applied to one simulated phantom, two physical phantoms and a set of ex vivo biological samples, scanned with interpoint spacings of 0.0038-0.195 mm and cross-sectional sizes of 3 × 3 or 5 × 5 mm. The simulated phantom and one of the physical phantoms consists of randomly arranged beads of known size in two and three dimensions, respectively...
October 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Emilio Luis González-Martínez, David Santamarta
BACKGROUND: Late-onset idiopathic aqueductal stenosis may present with clinical features indistinct from idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Moreover, aqueductal stenosis (AS) is not always detected by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to compare the hydrodynamic pattern among NPH patients according to the patency of the aqueduct. METHODS: Fifty-six consecutive lumbar infusion tests were performed in patients with NPH syndrome...
October 11, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Christian Herff, Tanja Schultz
Speech interfaces have become widely accepted and are nowadays integrated in various real-life applications and devices. They have become a part of our daily life. However, speech interfaces presume the ability to produce intelligible speech, which might be impossible due to either loud environments, bothering bystanders or incapabilities to produce speech (i.e., patients suffering from locked-in syndrome). For these reasons it would be highly desirable to not speak but to simply envision oneself to say words or sentences...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Mustapha Bouhrara, Richard G Spencer
A number of central nervous system (CNS) diseases exhibit changes in myelin content and magnetic resonance longitudinal, T1, and transverse, T2, relaxation times, which therefore represent important biomarkers of CNS pathology. Among the methods applied for measurement of myelin water fraction (MWF) and relaxation times, the multicomponent driven equilibrium single pulse observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT) approach is of particular interest. mcDESPOT permits whole brain mapping of multicomponent T1 and T2, with data acquisition accomplished within a clinically realistic acquisition time...
October 8, 2016: NeuroImage
Musaed Alzahrani, Rami Alhazmi, Manon Bélair, Issam Saliba
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of preoperative mastoid high resolution Computerized tomography (CT Scan) fusion with the postoperative diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (Non-EPI DWI) to accurately localize the residual cholesteatoma thus sparing an unnecessary postoperative CT scan radiation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: this is a prospective study performed in our tertiary care center. We followed up prospectively a consecutive group of patients presenting with middle ear cholesteatoma using preoperative mastoid CT scans, postoperative mastoid CT scan and mastoid diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) between 2012 and 2013...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Mingming Wang, Fengguo Zhang, Lei Xu, Yun Xiao, Jianfeng Li, Zhaomin Fan, Qian Sun, Xiaohui Bai, Haibo Wang
OBJECTIVE: To identify the disease-related SLC26A4 mutants in a Chinese Han pedigree associated with Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA). METHODS: EVA diagnosis was based on the family history, clinical examinations, systematically audiometric evaluations, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the temporal bone, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of inner ear. Sanger sequencing and mutation analysis of the SLC26A4 gene were performed in all members of this family to identify the disease-related SLC26A4 mutants...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Timothy I Alves, Gandikota Girish, Monica Kalume Brigido, Jon A Jacobson
Pain and other disorders of the knee are a common presenting complaint in the ambulatory setting. Although the cornerstones of imaging evaluation of the knee are radiographs and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, ultrasonography (US) is less expensive than MR imaging, easily available, and of comparable accuracy in the evaluation of certain pathologic conditions of the knee. The benefits of US include portability, low cost, high spatial resolution, dynamic imaging, and ability to guide percutaneous interventions when indicated...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Udit Rawat, Jennifer L Pierce, Scott Evans, A Bobby Chhabra, Nicholas C Nacey
Despite having many unique anatomic features relative to the other digits, the thumb has received little attention in the radiology literature. The thumb, with its opposable and prehensile abilities, enables fine manual dexterity. However, most radiologists have little familiarity with the structures that allow these dynamic movements, other than their recognition of the role of the ulnar collateral ligament in the setting of gamekeeper injury. High-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows optimal assessment of the intricate soft-tissue anatomy of the thumb, which enables thumb flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Gary M LiMarzi, Kurt F Scherer, Michael L Richardson, David R Warden, Christopher W Wasyliw, Jack A Porrino, Christopher R Pettis, Gideon Lewis, Christopher C Mason, Laura W Bancroft
A variety of surgical procedures exist for repair of both traumatic and degenerative osseous and soft-tissue pathologic conditions involving the foot and ankle. It is necessary for the radiologist to be familiar with these surgical procedures, so as to assess structural integrity, evaluate for complicating features, and avoid diagnostic pitfalls. Adequate interpretation of postoperative changes often requires access to surgical documentation to evaluate not only the surgery itself but the expected timeline for resolution of normal postoperative changes versus progressive disease...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Jennifer L Pierce, Nicholas C Nacey, Stephen Jones, Davis Rierson, Brian Etier, Stephen Brockmeier, Mark W Anderson
Imaging interpretation of the postoperative shoulder is a challenging and difficult task for both the radiologist and the orthopedic surgeon. The increasing number of shoulder rotator cuff, labrum, and biceps tendon repairs performed in the United States also makes this task a frequent occurrence. Whether treatment is surgical or conservative, imaging plays a crucial role in patient care. Many imaging findings can be used to predict prognosis and functional outcomes, ultimately affecting treatment. In addition, evolving surgical techniques alter the normal anatomy and imaging appearance of the shoulder such that accepted findings proved to be pathologic in the preoperative setting cannot be as readily described as pathologic after surgery...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Mohammad Reza Hayeri, Pouya Ziai, Monda L Shehata, Oleg M Teytelboym, Brady K Huang
Infection of the musculoskeletal system can be associated with high mortality and morbidity if not promptly and accurately diagnosed. These infections are generally diagnosed and managed clinically; however, clinical and laboratory findings sometimes lack sensitivity and specificity, and a definite diagnosis may not be possible. In uncertain situations, imaging is frequently performed to confirm the diagnosis, evaluate the extent of the disease, and aid in treatment planning. In particular, cross-sectional imaging, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, provides detailed anatomic information in the evaluation of soft tissues due to their inherent high spatial and contrast resolution...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
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