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hiv miRNA microRNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627523/mircorna-3162-3p-is-a-potential-biomarker-to-identify-new-infections-in-hiv-1-infected-patients
#1
Jiegang Huang, Jingzhen Lai, Bingyu Liang, Junjun Jiang, Chuanyi Ning, Yanyan Liao, Ning Zang, Minlian Wang, Fengxiang Qin, Jun Yu, Wudi Wei, Li Ye, Hao Liang
BACKGROUND: Identification of new HIV infections (HIV incidence) is critical for monitoring AIDS epidemic and assessing the effectiveness of intervention measures. However, current methods for distinguishing new infections from newly diagnosed HIV-1 patients are still imperfect. We explored utilizing miRNAs as biomarker to identify HIV new infections. METHODS: According to the HIV-1 status and the estimated duration of infection (EDI), we enrolled participants and divided them into three groups: healthy control, new infection (within 1 year), and old infection (longer than 1 year)...
April 5, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579063/in-silico-identification-of-micrornas-predicted-to-regulate-n-myristoyltransferase-and-methionine-aminopeptidase-2-functions-in-cancer-and-infectious-diseases
#2
Ranjit Chauhan, David Datzkiw, Shailly Varma Shrivastav, Anuraag Shrivastav
Protein myristoylation is a key protein modification carried out by N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT) after Methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2) removes methionine from the amino-terminus of the target protein. Protein myristoylation by NMT augments several signaling pathways involved in a myriad of cellular processes, including developmental pathways and pathways that when dysregulated lead to cancer or immune dysfunction. The emerging evidence pointing to NMT-mediated myristoylation as a major cellular regulator underscores the importance of understanding the framework of this type of signaling event...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518453/polyomavirus-microrna-in-saliva-reveals-persistent-infectious-status-in-the-oral-cavity
#3
Francesco Martelli, Jessica Mencarini, Arianna Rocca, Nunzia Della Malva, Dario Bartolozzi, Simone Giannecchini
Current evidence suggests that Polyomavirus (PyV) microRNAs (miRNAs) circulating in biological fluids may be relevant to understanding viral persistence. Here, the expression of polyomavirus BKPyV, JCPyV, MCPyV and SV40 miRNAs in saliva was investigated to evaluate PyV prevalence/persistence in the oral cavity. PyV-DNA status and PyV-miRNA expression was examined in paired saliva and plasma samples of 100 HIV-infected patients and of 50 healthy subjects using digital droplet PCR and PyV-miRNA-5p stem-loop RT-PCR...
March 5, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514950/mir-130a-and-mir-212-disrupt-the-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-through-modulation-of-ppar%C3%AE-and-occludin-expression-in-chronic-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-rhesus-macaques
#4
Vinay Kumar, Joshua Mansfield, Rong Fan, Andrew MacLean, Jian Li, Mahesh Mohan
Intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction is a well-known sequela of HIV/SIV infection that persists despite antiretroviral therapy. Although inflammation is a triggering factor, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Emerging evidence suggests that epithelial barrier function is epigenetically regulated by inflammation-induced microRNAs (miRNAs). Accordingly, we profiled and characterized miRNA/mRNA expression exclusively in colonic epithelium and identified 46 differentially expressed miRNAs (20 upregulated and 26 downregulated) in chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta )...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510515/are-micrornas-important-players-in-hiv-1-infection-an-update
#5
REVIEW
Muthukumar Balasubramaniam, Jui Pandhare, Chandravanu Dash
HIV-1 has already claimed over 35 million human lives globally. No curative treatments are currently available, and the only treatment option for over 36 million people currently living with HIV/AIDS are antiretroviral drugs that disrupt the function of virus-encoded proteins. However, such virus-targeted therapeutic strategies are constrained by the ability of the virus to develop drug-resistance. Despite major advances in HIV/AIDS research over the years, substantial knowledge gaps exist in many aspects of HIV-1 replication, especially its interaction with the host...
March 3, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468972/investigating-hiv-human-interaction-networks-to-unravel-pathogenic-mechanism-for-drug-discovery-a-systems-biology-approach
#6
Cheng-Wei Li, Bor-Sen Chen
BACKGROUND: Two big issues in the study of pathogens are determining how pathogens infect hosts and how the host defends itself against infection. Therefore, investigating host-pathogen interactions is important for understanding pathogenicity and host defensive mechanisms and treating infections. METHODS: In this study, we used omics data, including time-course data from high throughput sequencing, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and human microRNA (miRNA) and protein-protein interaction to construct an interspecies protein-protein and miRNA interaction (PPMI) network of human CD4+ T cells during HIV-1 infection through system modeling and identification...
February 19, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425228/kshv-oral-shedding-and-plasma-viremia-result-in-significant-changes-in-the-extracellular-tumorigenic-mirna-expression-profile-in-individuals-infected-with-the-malaria-parasite
#7
Minako Ikoma, Soren Gantt, Corey Casper, Yuko Ogata, Qing Zhang, Ryan Basom, Michael R Dyen, Timothy M Rose, Serge Barcy
Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Both KSHV and HIV infections are endemic in Uganda, where KS is among the most common cancers in HIV-infected individuals. Recent studies examined the use of small RNAs as biomarkers of disease, including microRNAs (miRNAs), with viral and tumor-derived miRNAs being detected in exosomes from individuals with KSHV-associated malignancies. In the current study, the host and viral extracellular mature miRNA expression profiles were analyzed in blood of KS-negative individuals in Uganda, comparing those with or without KSHV detectable from the oropharynx...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296171/micrornas-sequencing-unveils-distinct-molecular-subgroups-of-plasmablastic-lymphoma
#8
Maria Raffaella Ambrosio, Lucia Mundo, Sara Gazaneo, Matteo Picciolini, Prasad Satya Vara, Shaheen Sayed, Alessandro Ginori, Giuseppe Lo Bello, Leonardo Del Porro, Mohsen Navari, Stefano Ascani, Amhed Yonis, Lorenzo Leoncini, Pier Paolo Piccaluga, Stefano Lazzi
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an aggressive lymphoma, often arising in the context of immunodeficiency and associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The most frequently detected genetic alteration is the deregulation of MYC gene through the translocation - t(8;14)(q24;q32). The diagnosis of PBL is often challenging because it has an overlap in morphology, immunophenotype, cytogenetics and virus association with other lymphomas and plasma cell neoplasms; further, its molecular basis remains elusive...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282036/circulating-microrna-s-as-a-diagnostic-tool-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-a-hyper-endemic-hiv-setting-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-a-case-control-study-protocol-focusing-on-viral-etiology
#9
K Sartorius, B Sartorius, A Kramvis, E Singh, A Turchinovich, B Burwinkel, T Madiba, C A Winkler
BACKGROUND: A wide range of studies has investigated the diagnostic proficiency of extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) in hepatocellular cancer (HCC). HCC is expected to increase in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), due to endemic levels of viral infection (HBV/HIV), ageing and changing lifestyles. This unique aetiological background provides an opportunity for investigating potentially novel circulating miRNAs as biomarkers for HCC in a prospective study in South Africa. METHODS: This study will recruit HCC patients from two South African cancer hospitals, situated in Durban and Pietermaritzburg in the province of KwaZulu-Natal...
December 28, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170365/intrahepatic-microrna-profile-of-liver-transplant-recipients-with-hepatitis-c-virus-co-infected-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#10
Hisamitsu Miyaaki, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Tatsuki Ichikawa, Masaaki Hidaka, Akihiko Soyama, Hideki Ohdan, Yukihiro Inomata, Shinji Uemoto, Norihiro Kokudo, Kazuhiko Nakao, Susumu Eguchi
BACKGROUND In patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection, HIV can modulate HCV replication and immune response as well as accelerate liver fibrosis. The role of miRNA in HIV/HCV co-infection is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the differential expression of miRNAs in the liver. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirteen patients who had undergone a liver transplant (7 HCV-infected and 6 HIV/HCV-co-infected patients) were examined using a miRNA array containing 1347 human miRNAs...
November 24, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045748/conserved-asymmetry-underpins-homodimerization-of-dicer-associated-double-stranded-rna-binding-proteins
#11
Alex Heyam, Claire E Coupland, Clément Dégut, Ruth A Haley, Nicola J Baxter, Leonhard Jakob, Pedro M Aguiar, Gunter Meister, Michael P Williamson, Dimitris Lagos, Michael J Plevin
Double-stranded RNA-binding domains (dsRBDs) are commonly found in modular proteins that interact with RNA. Two varieties of dsRBD exist: canonical Type A dsRBDs interact with dsRNA, while non-canonical Type B dsRBDs lack RNA-binding residues and instead interact with other proteins. In higher eukaryotes, the microRNA biogenesis enzyme Dicer forms a 1:1 association with a dsRNA-binding protein (dsRBP). Human Dicer associates with HIV TAR RNA-binding protein (TRBP) or protein activator of PKR (PACT), while Drosophila Dicer-1 associates with Loquacious (Loqs)...
December 1, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993774/the-clinical-application-of-micrornas-in-infectious-disease
#12
REVIEW
Ruth E Drury, Daniel O'Connor, Andrew J Pollard
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded non-coding RNA sequences that posttranscriptionally regulate up to 60% of protein encoding genes. Evidence is emerging that miRNAs are key mediators of the host response to infection, predominantly by regulating proteins involved in innate and adaptive immune pathways. miRNAs can govern the cellular tropism of some viruses, are implicated in the resistance of some individuals to infections like HIV, and are associated with impaired vaccine response in older people...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990063/bioinformatics-analysis-of-gene-expression-data-for-the-identification-of-critical-genes-in-breast-invasive-carcinoma
#13
Yi Li, Yongsheng Wang
Gene expression data were analyzed in order to identify critical genes in breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA). Data from 1,073 BRCA samples and 99 normal samples were analyzed, which were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the significance analysis of microarrays method and a functional enrichment analysis was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Relevant microRNAs (miRNAs), transcription factors (TFs) and associated small molecule drugs were revealed by Fisher's exact test...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990060/microrna-expression-profiling-of-intestinal-mucosa-tissue-predicts-multiple-crucial-regulatory-molecules-and-signaling-pathways-for-gut-barrier-dysfunction-of-aids-patients
#14
Yu Xu, Hua-Wei Wang, Hua-You Luo, Ruo Shu, Jia Liu, Liang Sun, Xue-Fei Han, Na Lin, Ting-Hua Wang, Yu-Jian Zeng, Kun-Hua Wang
Human immunodeficiency virus‑1 (HIV‑1) infection severely damages the gut‑associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), the immune system and the gut barrier, which leads to accelerating the disease progression for patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to this process. However, few studies have investigated the importance of miRNAs in AIDS pathogenesis and progression. The whole miRNA profile of patients with HIV infection from southwest P.R...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977573/dicer-independent-processing-of-small-rna-duplexes-mechanistic-insights-and-applications
#15
REVIEW
Elena Herrera-Carrillo, Ben Berkhout
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in the regulation of cellular gene expression via the conserved RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism. Biogenesis of the unusual miR-451 does not require Dicer. This molecule is instead processed by the Argonaute 2 (Ago2) enzyme. Similarly, unconventional short hairpin RNA (shRNA) molecules have been designed as miR-451 mimics that rely exclusively on Ago2 for maturation. We will review recent progress made in the understanding of this alternative processing route. Next, we describe different Dicer-independent shRNA designs that have been developed and discuss their therapeutic advantages and disadvantages...
October 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968466/changes-in-the-cellular-microrna-profile-by-the-intracellular-expression-of-hiv-1-tat-regulator-a-potential-mechanism-for-resistance-to-apoptosis-and-impaired-proliferation-in-hiv-1-infected-cd4-t-cells
#16
María Sánchez-Del Cojo, María Rosa López-Huertas, Francisco Díez-Fuertes, Sara Rodríguez-Mora, Mercedes Bermejo, Guillermo López-Campos, Elena Mateos, Laura Jiménez-Tormo, Francisco Gómez-Esquer, Gema Díaz-Gil, José Alcamí, Mayte Coiras
HIV-1 induces changes in the miRNA expression profile of infected CD4+ T cells that could improve viral replication. HIV-1 regulator Tat modifies the cellular gene expression and has been appointed as an RNA silencing suppressor. Tat is a 101-residue protein codified by two exons that regulates the elongation of viral transcripts. The first exon of Tat (amino acids 1-72) forms the transcriptionally active protein Tat72, but the presence of the second exon (amino acids 73-101) results in a more competent regulatory protein (Tat101) with additional functions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828217/a-pilot-study-on-the-effects-of-probiotic-supplementation-on-neuropsychological-performance-and-microrna-29a-c-levels-in-antiretroviral-treated-hiv-1-infected-patients
#17
Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Mariangela Fratino, Carla Selvaggi, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Ivan Schietroma, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Paolo Pavone, Giulia Passavanti, Danilo Alunni Fegatelli, Ivano Mezzaroma, Guido Antonelli, Vincenzo Vullo, Carolina Scagnolari, Gabriella d'Ettorre
INTRODUCTION: The gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of cognition, mood, anxiety, and pain, and can impact cognitive functions by producing neuroactive substances or releasing bacterial by-products and metabolites. No information is available on the effects of a probiotic supplementation on brain function of HIV+ subjects. In light of the above considerations, we performed a pilot study in cART-treated HIV-1-positive patients with long-term virologic suppression. The aims were to analyze the effect of high-concentration multistrain probiotic supplementation (Vivomixx®; Visbiome®) on several neurocognitive abilities and to evaluate the safety of this supplementation...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717424/low-active-loading-of-cargo-into-engineered-extracellular-vesicles-results-in-inefficient-mirna-mimic-delivery
#18
Dhruvitkumar S Sutaria, Jinmai Jiang, Ola A Elgamal, Steven M Pomeroy, Mohamed Badawi, Xiaohua Zhu, Ryan Pavlovicz, Ana Clara P Azevedo-Pouly, Jeffrey Chalmers, Chenglong Li, Mitch A Phelps, Thomas D Schmittgen
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) hold great potential as novel systems for nucleic acid delivery due to their natural composition. Our goal was to load EVs with microRNA that are synthesized by the cells that produce the EVs. HEK293T cells were engineered to produce EVs expressing a lysosomal associated membrane, Lamp2a fusion protein. The gene encoding pre-miR-199a was inserted into an artificial intron of the Lamp2a fusion protein. The TAT peptide/HIV-1 transactivation response (TAR) RNA interacting peptide was exploited to enhance the EV loading of the pre-miR-199a containing a modified TAR RNA loop...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639194/rnaa-induced-by-tata-box-targeting-micrornas
#19
Yijun Zhang, Hui Zhang
Recent studies reveal that some nuclear microRNAs (miRNA) and synthesized siRNAs target gene promoters to activate gene transcription (RNAa). Interestingly, our group identified a novel HIV-1-encoded miRNA, miR-H3, which targets specifically the core promoter TATA box of HIV-1 and activates viral gene expression. Depletion of miR-H3 significantly impaired the replication of HIV-1. miR-H3 mimics could activate viruses from CD4(+) T cells isolated from patients receiving suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy, which is very intriguing for reducing HIV-1 latent reservoir...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594894/micrornas-upregulated-during-hiv-infection-target-peroxisome-biogenesis-factors-implications-for-virus-biology-disease-mechanisms-and-neuropathology
#20
Zaikun Xu, Eugene L Asahchop, William G Branton, Benjamin B Gelman, Christopher Power, Tom C Hobman
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) represent a spectrum neurological syndrome that affects up to 25% of patients with HIV/AIDS. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms contribute to the development of HAND symptoms including chronic neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Among the factors linked to development of HAND is altered expression of host cell microRNAs (miRNAs) in brain. Here, we examined brain miRNA profiles among HIV/AIDS patients with and without HAND. Our analyses revealed differential expression of 17 miRNAs in brain tissue from HAND patients...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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