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hiv miRNA microRNA

Vibe Ballegaard, Ulrik Ralfkiaer, Karin K Pedersen, Malene Hove, Simon Koplev, Peter Brændstrup, Lars P Ryder, Hans O Madsen, Jan Gerstoft, Kirsten Grønbæk, Susanne D Nielsen
OBJECTIVE: Inflammation may contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-1 infection. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of inflammation. In treated HIV-1-infected individuals, we aimed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs with known roles in inflammation and CVD risk, and to investigate associations between these and systemic inflammation. METHODS: In a screening cohort including 14 HIV-1-infected individuals and nine uninfected controls microarray profiling was performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Erin C Peckham-Gregory, Dharma R Thapa, Jeremy Martinson, Priya Duggal, Sudhir Penugonda, Jay H Bream, Po-Yin Chang, Sugandha Dandekar, Shen-Chih Chang, Roger Detels, Otoniel Martínez-Maza, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Shehnaz K Hussain
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs, small non-coding RNAs involved in gene regulation, are implicated in lymphomagenesis. We evaluated whether genetic variations in microRNA coding regions, binding sites, or biogenesis genes (collectively referred to as miRNA-SNPs) were associated with risk of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL), and serum levels of four lymphoma-related microRNAs. METHODS: Twenty-five miRNA-SNPs were genotyped in 180 AIDS-NHL cases and 529 HIV-infected matched controls from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), and real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify serum microRNA levels...
October 1, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Pejman Rahimian, Johnny J He
BACKGROUND: Synaptodendritic damage is a pathological hallmark of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, and HIV-1 Tat protein is known to cause such injury in the central nervous system. In this study, we aimed to determine the molecular mechanisms of Tat-induced neurite shortening, specifically the roles of miR-132, an important regulator of neurite morphogenesis in this process. METHODS: The relationship between Tat expression and miR-132 expression was first determined using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) in Tat-transfected astrocytes and neurons, astrocytes from Tat-transgenic mice, and HIV-infected astrocytes...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Parmila Verma, Rajan K Pandey, Priyanka Prajapati, Vijay K Prajapati
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionary conserved, small non-coding RNA with size ranging from 19 to 24 nucleotides. They endogenously regulate the gene expression at the post transcriptional level either through translation repression or mRNA degradation. MiRNAs have shown the potential to be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of infectious diseases. Many miRNAs have shown significantly altered expression during infection. The altered expression of miRNA level in an infected human can be identified by the use of advanced diagnostic tools...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Binlian Sun, Rongge Yang, Massimo Mallardo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNA molecules, with sequence length of 19-24 nucleotides, which can induce mRNA degradation and regulate protein translation repression. Recently plenty of reports showed that miRNAs increase or decrease in the serum (circulating miRNAs) and in PBMC of Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infected individuals to affect the replication of HIV-1 through regulating HIV-1 proteins or HIV-1 replication related host factors. Many of miRNAs can suppress HIV-1 replication, but do not affect the integrated viral DNA...
August 29, 2016: MicroRNA
Guojing Wang, Tingting Jia, Xixia Xu, Le Chang, Rui Zhang, Yu Fu, Yulong Li, Xin Yang, Kuo Zhang, Guigao Lin, Yanxi Han, Jinming Li
Current treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have shown inadequate. MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) mediated RNA interference brings new prospects. A safe, efficient miRNA delivery system is an indispensable assurance. Previously, we developed an MS2 bacteriophage virus-like particle (VLP)-based microRNA delivery system crosslinked with the HIV TAT peptide, which served as an effective inhibitor in the treatments of systemic lupus erythematosus and osteoporosis. However, defects, such as low crosslinking efficiency, high cost, and potential toxicity of the crosslinking agent, needed to be confronted...
July 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Qin Yan, Chenyou Shen, Jie Qin, Wan Li, Minmin Hu, Hongmei Lu, Di Qin, Jianzhong Zhu, Shou-Jiang Gao, Chun Lu
UNLABELLED: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection is required for the development of several AIDS-related malignancies, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). The high incidence of AIDS-KS has been ascribed to the interaction of KSHV and HIV-1. We have previously shown that HIV-1-secreted proteins Tat and Nef regulate the KSHV life cycle and synergize with KSHV oncogenes to promote angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. Here, we examined the regulation of KSHV latency by HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr)...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Ahmad Nejati, Masoud Soleimani, Ehsan Arefian, Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Hamideh Tabatabaie, Mohammad Farahmand, Zabihollah Shoja, Mahmood Mahmoodi, Rakhshandeh Nategh, Shohreh Shahmahmoodi
: : Background: Artificial microRNAs (miRNAs) are designed to develop an RNAi-based gene therapy. Recently, it has been suggested that the flanking sequences and terminal loop structure play a critical role in RNAi biogenesis and target recognition, but no extensive study regarding the different miRNA backbone for artificial miRNAs optimization has been conducted. OBJECTIVE: We tested three artificial miRNAs with human hsa-miR30a (common miRNA), hsa-miR150 (T cell specific miRNA), and hsa-miR122 (liver specific miRNA) backbones in HEK-293T and Jurkat cell lines...
July 8, 2016: MicroRNA
Rakesh Dey, Kartik Soni, Shanmugam Saravanan, Pachamuthu Balakrishnan, Vikram Kumar, Jayaseelan Boobalan, Sunil Suhas Solomon, Vinod Scaria, Suniti Solomon, Samir K Brahmachari, Beena Pillai
HIV-1 replication inside host cells is known to be regulated by various host factors. Host miRNAs, by virtue of its normal functioning, also regulate HIV-1 RNA expression by either directly targeting virus mRNAs or indirectly by regulating host proteins that HIV-1 uses for own replication. Therefore, it is highly possible that with differential miRNA expression, rate of disease progression will vary in HIV-1 infected individuals. In this study we have compared expression of a panel of 13 reported anti-HIV miRNAs in human PBMCs from long term non progressors (LTNPs), regular progressors and rapid progressors...
2016: Scientific Reports
Adelina Rosca, Gabriela Anton, Anca Botezatu, Aura Temereanca, Luminita Ene, Cristian Achim, Simona Ruta
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA species essential for the post-translational regulation of gene expression. Several miRNA have been proposed to contribute to Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection establishment, progression and latency. Among them, miR-29a seems to be of particular interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between miR-29a expression and immunologic and virologic markers of HIV infection progression in long-term antiretroviral-treated individuals...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Eugene L Asahchop, Segun M Akinwumi, William G Branton, Esther Fujiwara, M John Gill, Christopher Power
OBJECTIVE: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a common neurological disorder among HIV-infected patients despite the availability of combination antiretroviral therapy. Host-encoded microRNAs (miRNA) regulate both host and viral gene expression contributing to HAND pathogenesis and can also serve as disease biomarkers. Herein, plasma miRNA profiles were investigated in HIV/AIDS patients with HAND. METHODS: Discovery and Validation Cohorts comprising HIV/AIDS patients were studied that included patients with and without HAND (non-HAND)...
August 24, 2016: AIDS
Sara Yahyaei, Mara Biasin, Irma Saulle, Federica Gnudi, Mariacristina De Luca, Karen I Tasca, Daria Trabattoni, Sergio Lo Caputo, Francesco Mazzotta, Mario Clerici
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression that play important roles in viral infections. Alterations of specific miRNAs are described in HIV infection, suggesting a role for miRNAs in pathogenesis of this disease. We verified whether a particular miRNA signature could be identified in natural resistance to HIV-1. METHODS: Expression level of 84 miRNAs was analyzed by RT-qPCR in plasma and unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) of 30 seronegative individuals repeatedly exposed to HIV-1 (HESN), 30 HIV seropositive subjects (HIV+), and 30 healthy controls (HC)...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Lander Egaña-Gorroño, Alberto C Guardo, Manel E Bargalló, Evarist Planet, Elisenda Vilaplana, Tuixent Escribà, Iñaki Pérez, Josep Maria Gatell, Felipe García, Mireia Arnedo, Montserrat Plana M
BACKGROUND: The relationship between host microRNAs (miRNA), viral control and immune response has not yet been elucidated in the field of HIV. The aim of this study was to assess the differential miRNA profile in CD8+ T-cells between HIV-infected individuals who differ in terms of viral replication control and immune response. METHODS: miRNA profile from resting and CD3/CD28-stimulated CD8+ T-cells from uninfected individuals (HIV-, n = 11), Elite Controllers (EC, n = 15), Viremic Controllers (VC, n = 15), Viremic Progressors (VP, n = 13) and HIV-infected patients on therapy (ART, n = 14) was assessed using Affymetrix miRNA 3...
2016: PloS One
Yijun Zhang, Yue Yin, Shaoying Zhang, Haihua Luo, Hui Zhang
The mechanisms underlying HIV-1-mediated CD4(+) T cell depletion are highly complicated. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a key cytokine that maintains the survival and proliferation of activated CD4(+) T cells. IL-2 levels are disturbed during HIV-1 infection, but the underlying mechanism(s) requires further investigation. We have reported that cellular microRNA (miRNA) let-7i upregulates IL-2 expression by targeting the promoter TATA-box region, which functions as a positive regulator. In this study, we found that HIV-1 infection decreases the expression of let-7i in CD4(+) T cells by attenuating its promoter activity...
2016: Scientific Reports
Krishnakumar Devadas, Santanu Biswas, Mohan Haleyurgirisetty, Viswanath Ragupathy, Xue Wang, Sherwin Lee, Indira Hewlett
While human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) share many similar traits, major differences in pathogenesis and clinical outcomes exist between the two viruses. The differential expression of host factors like microRNAs (miRNAs) in response to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections are thought to influence the clinical outcomes presented by the two viruses. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which function in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. MiRNAs play a critical role in many key biological processes and could serve as putative biomarker(s) for infection...
2016: Viruses
Luca Sardo, Priyal R Vakil, Weam Elbezanti, Anas El-Sayed, Zachary Klase
BACKGROUND: Long term infection with HIV-1, even in the context of therapy, leads to chronic health problems including an array of neurocognitive dysfunctions. The viral Tat protein has previously been implicated in neuropathogenesis through its effect on astrocytes. Tat has also been shown to inhibit the biogenesis of miRNAs by inhibiting the activity of the cellular Dicer protein in an RNA dependent fashion. Whether there is a mechanistic connection between the ability of HIV-1 Tat to alter miRNAs and its observed effects on cells of the central nervous system has not been well examined...
2016: Retrovirology
Alex Harwig, Aldo Jongejan, Antoine H C van Kampen, Ben Berkhout, Atze T Das
Evidence is accumulating that retroviruses can produce microRNAs (miRNAs). To prevent cleavage of their RNA genome, retroviruses have to use an alternative RNA source as miRNA precursor. The transacting responsive (TAR) hairpin structure in HIV-1 RNA has been suggested as source for miRNAs, but how these small RNAs are produced without impeding virus replication remained unclear. We used deep sequencing analysis of AGO2-bound HIV-1 RNAs to demonstrate that the 3' side of the TAR hairpin is processed into a miRNA-like small RNA...
May 19, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Tiziano Vignolini, Lisa Macera, Guido Antonelli, Mauro Pistello, Fabrizio Maggi, Simone Giannecchini
Torquetenovirus (TTV) is a widespread anellovirus that establishes persistent infections in human showing an increased viremia in immunosuppressed patients. TTV possesses microRNA (miRNA)-coding sequences that might be involved in viral immune evasion. Here, the presence of TTV DNA and miRNAs expression was investigated in plasma samples of 77 diseased (20 infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 18 infected with hepatitis B (HBV) virus, 18 infected with hepatitis C (HCV) virus, 21 solid organ transplanted) patients, and 25 healthy controls...
June 2, 2016: Virus Research
Vinay Kumar, Workineh Torben, Carys S Kenway, Faith R Schiro, Mahesh Mohan
UNLABELLED: Chronic immune activation/inflammation driven by factors like microbial translocation is a key determinant of human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) disease progression. Although extensive research on inflammation has focused on studying protein regulators, increasing evidence suggests a critical role for microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating several aspects of the immune/inflammatory response and immune cell proliferation, differentiation, and activation...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Lingxiang Mao, Jing Wu, Li Shen, Jing Yang, Jianguo Chen, Huaxi Xu
Exosomes are small secreted cellular vesicles for intercellular communications which contain proteins, mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs). Recent studies have shown that exosomes play an important role in the transmission of infectious agents including hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and so on. However, the role of exosomes in the transfer of enterovirus 71 (EV71) between host cells remains unknown. In this study, we show that the exosomes derived from EV71-infected rhabdomyosarcoma cells contain EV71 RNA and capsid protein VP1, determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (QRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis...
April 2016: Virus Genes
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