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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045748/conserved-asymmetry-underpins-homodimerization-of-dicer-associated-double-stranded-rna-binding-proteins
#1
Alex Heyam, Claire E Coupland, Clément Dégut, Ruth A Haley, Nicola J Baxter, Leonhard Jakob, Pedro M Aguiar, Gunter Meister, Michael P Williamson, Dimitris Lagos, Michael J Plevin
Double-stranded RNA-binding domains (dsRBDs) are commonly found in modular proteins that interact with RNA. Two varieties of dsRBD exist: canonical Type A dsRBDs interact with dsRNA, while non-canonical Type B dsRBDs lack RNA-binding residues and instead interact with other proteins. In higher eukaryotes, the microRNA biogenesis enzyme Dicer forms a 1:1 association with a dsRNA-binding protein (dsRBP). Human Dicer associates with HIV TAR RNA-binding protein (TRBP) or protein activator of PKR (PACT), while Drosophila Dicer-1 associates with Loquacious (Loqs)...
October 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993774/the-clinical-application-of-micrornas-in-infectious-disease
#2
REVIEW
Ruth E Drury, Daniel O'Connor, Andrew J Pollard
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded non-coding RNA sequences that posttranscriptionally regulate up to 60% of protein encoding genes. Evidence is emerging that miRNAs are key mediators of the host response to infection, predominantly by regulating proteins involved in innate and adaptive immune pathways. miRNAs can govern the cellular tropism of some viruses, are implicated in the resistance of some individuals to infections like HIV, and are associated with impaired vaccine response in older people...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990063/bioinformatics-analysis-of-gene-expression-data-for-the-identification-of-critical-genes-in-breast-invasive-carcinoma
#3
Yi Li, Yongsheng Wang
Gene expression data were analyzed in order to identify critical genes in breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA). Data from 1,073 BRCA samples and 99 normal samples were analyzed, which were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the significance analysis of microarrays method and a functional enrichment analysis was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Relevant microRNAs (miRNAs), transcription factors (TFs) and associated small molecule drugs were revealed by Fisher's exact test...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990060/microrna-expression-profiling-of-intestinal-mucosa-tissue-predicts-multiple-crucial-regulatory-molecules-and-signaling-pathways-for-gut-barrier-dysfunction-of-aids-patients
#4
Yu Xu, Hua-Wei Wang, Hua-You Luo, Ruo Shu, Jia Liu, Liang Sun, Xue-Fei Han, Na Lin, Ting-Hua Wang, Yu-Jian Zeng, Kun-Hua Wang
Human immunodeficiency virus‑1 (HIV‑1) infection severely damages the gut‑associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), the immune system and the gut barrier, which leads to accelerating the disease progression for patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to this process. However, few studies have investigated the importance of miRNAs in AIDS pathogenesis and progression. The whole miRNA profile of patients with HIV infection from southwest P.R...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977573/dicer-independent-processing-of-small-rna-duplexes-mechanistic-insights-and-applications
#5
Elena Herrera-Carrillo, Ben Berkhout
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in the regulation of cellular gene expression via the conserved RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism. Biogenesis of the unusual miR-451 does not require Dicer. This molecule is instead processed by the Argonaute 2 (Ago2) enzyme. Similarly, unconventional short hairpin RNA (shRNA) molecules have been designed as miR-451 mimics that rely exclusively on Ago2 for maturation. We will review recent progress made in the understanding of this alternative processing route. Next, we describe different Dicer-independent shRNA designs that have been developed and discuss their therapeutic advantages and disadvantages...
August 31, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969448/high-prevalence-of-drug-resistance-mutations-among-patients-failing-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-and-predictors-of-virological-response-24-weeks-after-switch-to-second-line-therapy-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil
#6
Elaine Monteiro Matsuda, Luana Portes Coelho, Giselle Romero, Monica Jaques Moraes, Giselle Ibette Silva Lopez Lopes, Karen Mirna Loro Morejon, Alexandre Ely Campeas, Gabriela Bastos Cabral, Luis Fm Brigido, Salvage Therapy Working Group
INTRODUCTION: Universal antiretroviral treatment with sustained viral suppression benefits patients and reduces HIV transmission. Effectiveness of therapy may be limited by antiretroviral drug resistance. Information on the resistance profile at treatment failure and its impact on antiretroviral drugs may subsidize subsequent treatment strategies. METHODS: Partial pol sequences from 319 patients failing first-line therapy were analyzed for resistance associated mutations (RAMs) and HIV subtype...
October 2, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968466/changes-in-the-cellular-microrna-profile-by-the-intracellular-expression-of-hiv-1-tat-regulator-a-potential-mechanism-for-resistance-to-apoptosis-and-impaired-proliferation-in-hiv-1-infected-cd4-t-cells
#7
María Sánchez-Del Cojo, María Rosa López-Huertas, Francisco Díez-Fuertes, Sara Rodríguez-Mora, Mercedes Bermejo, Guillermo López-Campos, Elena Mateos, Laura Jiménez-Tormo, Francisco Gómez-Esquer, Gema Díaz-Gil, José Alcamí, Mayte Coiras
HIV-1 induces changes in the miRNA expression profile of infected CD4+ T cells that could improve viral replication. HIV-1 regulator Tat modifies the cellular gene expression and has been appointed as an RNA silencing suppressor. Tat is a 101-residue protein codified by two exons that regulates the elongation of viral transcripts. The first exon of Tat (amino acids 1-72) forms the transcriptionally active protein Tat72, but the presence of the second exon (amino acids 73-101) results in a more competent regulatory protein (Tat101) with additional functions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884441/inhibition-of-retroviral-gag-assembly-by-non-silencing-mirnas-promotes-autophagic-viral-degradation
#8
Na Qu, Zhao Ma, Mengrao Zhang, Muaz N Rushdi, Christopher J Krueger, Antony K Chen
We recently reported an unconventional mechanism by which miRNAs inhibit HIV-1 viral production. This occurs when miRNAs bind nonspecifically to the viral structural protein Gag, interfering with viral RNA-mediated Gag assembly at the plasma membrane. Consequently, misassembled viral complexes are redirected into the endocytic pathway where they are delivered to lysosomes for degradation. In this study, we demonstrate that autophagy is a critical mediator of the viral degradation pathway and that this pathway is not HIV-1 specific...
September 7, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883647/circulating-mir-122-and-mir-200a-as-biomarkers-for-fatal-liver-disease-in-art-treated-hiv-1-infected-individuals
#9
Daniel D Murray, Kazuo Suzuki, Matthew Law, Jonel Trebicka, Jacquie Neuhaus Nordwall, Margaret Johnson, Michael J Vjecha, Anthony D Kelleher, Sean Emery
Liver disease is one of the main contributors to the increased levels of morbidity and mortality seen in the HIV-1-infected, ART-treated population. Circulating miRNAs, particularly those located inside extracellular vesicles, are seen as promising biomarkers for a number of human disease conditions, including liver-related diseases. Here, we show that serum levels of miR-122 and miR-200a are greater in HIV/HCV co-infected individuals compared to HIV-1 mono-infected individuals. We also show that miR-122 and miR-200a are elevated in ART-treated, HIV-1-infected individuals prior to the development of fatal liver disease, suggesting that these miRNA may have some potential clinical utility as biomarkers...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828217/a-pilot-study-on-the-effects-of-probiotic-supplementation-on-neuropsychological-performance-and-microrna-29a-c-levels-in-antiretroviral-treated-hiv-1-infected-patients
#10
Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Mariangela Fratino, Carla Selvaggi, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Ivan Schietroma, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Paolo Pavone, Giulia Passavanti, Danilo Alunni Fegatelli, Ivano Mezzaroma, Guido Antonelli, Vincenzo Vullo, Carolina Scagnolari, Gabriella d'Ettorre
INTRODUCTION: The gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of cognition, mood, anxiety, and pain, and can impact cognitive functions by producing neuroactive substances or releasing bacterial by-products and metabolites. No information is available on the effects of a probiotic supplementation on brain function of HIV+ subjects. In light of the above considerations, we performed a pilot study in cART-treated HIV-1-positive patients with long-term virologic suppression. The aims were to analyze the effect of high-concentration multistrain probiotic supplementation (Vivomixx®; Visbiome®) on several neurocognitive abilities and to evaluate the safety of this supplementation...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800366/proceedings-of-the-isev-symposium-on-hiv-neuroaids-drug-abuse-evs
#11
Guoku Hu, Kenneth W Witwer, Vincent C Bond, Norman Haughey, Fatah Kashanchi, Lynn Pulliam, Shilpa Buch
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are globular, membrane bound nanovesicles (30-100 nm range) that are shed both during normal cellular functioning and under pathological conditions by most cell types. In recent years, there has been significant interest in the study of these vesicles as conduits for the delivery of information between cells from both analogous and disparate tissues. Their ability to carry specialised cargo including signalling mediators, proteins, messenger RNA and miRNAs characterises these vesicles as primary facilitators of cell-to-cell communication and regulation...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762497/t-cell-dependent-antigen-adjuvanted-with-dotap-cpg-b-but-not-dotap-cpg-a-induces-robust-germinal-center-responses-and-high-affinity-antibodies-in-mice
#12
Munir Akkaya, Billur Akkaya, Patrick W Sheehan, Pietro Miozzo, Mirna Pena, Chen-Feng Qi, Javier Manzella-Lapeira, Silvia Bolland, Susan K Pierce
The development of vaccines for infectious diseases for which we currently have none, including HIV, will likely require the use of adjuvants that strongly promote germinal center responses and somatic hypermutation to produce broadly neutralizing antibodies. Here we compared the outcome of immunization with the T-cell dependent antigen, NP-conjugated to chicken gamma globulin (NP-CGG) adjuvanted with the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) ligands, CpG-A or CpG-B, alone or conjugated with the cationic lipid carrier, DOTAP...
August 1, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717424/low-active-loading-of-cargo-into-engineered-extracellular-vesicles-results-in-inefficient-mirna-mimic-delivery
#13
Dhruvitkumar S Sutaria, Jinmai Jiang, Ola A Elgamal, Steven M Pomeroy, Mohamed Badawi, Xiaohua Zhu, Ryan Pavlovicz, Ana Clara P Azevedo-Pouly, Jeffrey Chalmers, Chenglong Li, Mitch A Phelps, Thomas D Schmittgen
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) hold great potential as novel systems for nucleic acid delivery due to their natural composition. Our goal was to load EVs with microRNA that are synthesized by the cells that produce the EVs. HEK293T cells were engineered to produce EVs expressing a lysosomal associated membrane, Lamp2a fusion protein. The gene encoding pre-miR-199a was inserted into an artificial intron of the Lamp2a fusion protein. The TAT peptide/HIV-1 transactivation response (TAR) RNA interacting peptide was exploited to enhance the EV loading of the pre-miR-199a containing a modified TAR RNA loop...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712508/health-care-importance-of-treponema-pallidum-chagas-disease-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-among-amerindians-of-argentina-an-observational-study
#14
María E Eirin, Cecilia M Delfino, Williams R Pedrozo, Richard Malan, Alberto Puca, Ana M De Rissio, Rogelio D Espejo, María L Gallo Vaulet, Marcelo Rodríguez Fermepin, Mirna M Biglione, Carolina A Berini
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Treponema pallidum, Trypanosoma cruzi and Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) in five Amerindian populations of Argentina. A retrospective study was conducted among 857 Amerindian populations (112 Kollas, 298 Mbyá-guaraníes, 79 Sagua Huarpes, 368 Wichis) from 2007 to 2010. Screening and confirmation of T. pallidum, T. cruzi and HIV-1 were performed. T. pallidum and T. cruzi infections were detected in all communities with an overall prevalence rate of 4...
July 13, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639194/rnaa-induced-by-tata-box-targeting-micrornas
#15
Yijun Zhang, Hui Zhang
Recent studies reveal that some nuclear microRNAs (miRNA) and synthesized siRNAs target gene promoters to activate gene transcription (RNAa). Interestingly, our group identified a novel HIV-1-encoded miRNA, miR-H3, which targets specifically the core promoter TATA box of HIV-1 and activates viral gene expression. Depletion of miR-H3 significantly impaired the replication of HIV-1. miR-H3 mimics could activate viruses from CD4(+) T cells isolated from patients receiving suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy, which is very intriguing for reducing HIV-1 latent reservoir...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594894/micrornas-upregulated-during-hiv-infection-target-peroxisome-biogenesis-factors-implications-for-virus-biology-disease-mechanisms-and-neuropathology
#16
Zaikun Xu, Eugene L Asahchop, William G Branton, Benjamin B Gelman, Christopher Power, Tom C Hobman
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) represent a spectrum neurological syndrome that affects up to 25% of patients with HIV/AIDS. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms contribute to the development of HAND symptoms including chronic neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Among the factors linked to development of HAND is altered expression of host cell microRNAs (miRNAs) in brain. Here, we examined brain miRNA profiles among HIV/AIDS patients with and without HAND. Our analyses revealed differential expression of 17 miRNAs in brain tissue from HAND patients...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568970/the-changing-trends-and-profile-of-pneumocystosis-mortality-in-the-united-states-1999-2014
#17
Ranjana N Wickramasekaran, Mirna Ponce Jewell, Frank Sorvillo, Tony Kuo
Pneumocystosis (PCP) mortality in the U.S. has received less attention in recent years. This study describes recent trends in mortality and the estimated burden of PCP in the U.S., using the national multiple cause of death data during 1999-2014. PCP mortality rates were calculated for age, sex, race and year. Demographic differences were presented for decedents with and without a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-diagnosis. Matched odds ratios (MOR) were generated to describe associations between non-HIV conditions and PCP mortality...
September 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566772/serum-extracellular-vesicle-depletion-processes-affect-release-and-infectivity-of-hiv-1-in-culture
#18
Zhaohao Liao, Dillon C Muth, Erez Eitan, Meghan Travers, Lisa N Learman, Elin Lehrmann, Kenneth W Witwer
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in intercellular communication and affect processes including immune and antiviral responses. Blood serum, a common cell culture medium component, is replete with EVs and must be depleted prior to EV-related experiments. The extent to which depletion processes deplete non-EV particles is incompletely understood, but depleted serum is associated with reduced viability and growth in cell culture. Here, we examined whether serum depleted by two methods affected HIV-1 replication...
May 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553929/silencing-of-hiv-1-by-agoshrna-molecules
#19
E Herrera-Carrillo, A Harwig, B Berkhout
RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence-specific gene silencing mechanism that is triggered by the expression of a short hairpin RNA (shRNA). shRNA molecules enter the RNAi pathway at the Dicer processing step. Recent studies indicated that the cellular microRNA miR-451 is not recognized by Dicer, but that it is processed instead by the Argonaute 2 (Ago2) protein. Subsequently, Dicer-independent shRNAs were described that rely on Ago2 for processing, as well as the subsequent silencing step. We called these AgoshRNA molecules because they depend on Ago2 both for maturation and activation...
August 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489271/successful-treatment-of-kshv-inflammatory-cytokine-syndrome-kics-after-kidney-liver-transplant-correlations-with-hhv8-mirnome-and-specific-t-cell-response
#20
Alessandra Mularoni, Alessia Gallo, Giovanni Riva, Patrizia Barozzi, Monica Miele, Giovanni Cardinale, Giovanni Vizzini, Riccardo Volpes, Paolo Grossi, Daniele Di Carlo, Angelo Luca, Tommaso Trenti, Mario Luppi, Pier Giulio Conaldi
In post-transplant patients, HHV-8/KSHV infection is known to cause aggressive tumors, as well as severe non-neoplastic complications. These latter syndromes are driven by HHV-8/KSHV lytic reactivations and related hyper-inflammatory host responses, typically characterized by high viral loads, elevated levels of cytokines and other inflammation biomarkers, cytopenia, organ failure, high fever, and worsening conditions (with no evidence of B-cell neoplasias). These disorders are associated with a high mortality rate, often due to lack of prompt diagnosis, effective therapeutic approaches, and adequate follow up...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
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