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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627523/mircorna-3162-3p-is-a-potential-biomarker-to-identify-new-infections-in-hiv-1-infected-patients
#1
Jiegang Huang, Jingzhen Lai, Bingyu Liang, Junjun Jiang, Chuanyi Ning, Yanyan Liao, Ning Zang, Minlian Wang, Fengxiang Qin, Jun Yu, Wudi Wei, Li Ye, Hao Liang
BACKGROUND: Identification of new HIV infections (HIV incidence) is critical for monitoring AIDS epidemic and assessing the effectiveness of intervention measures. However, current methods for distinguishing new infections from newly diagnosed HIV-1 patients are still imperfect. We explored utilizing miRNAs as biomarker to identify HIV new infections. METHODS: According to the HIV-1 status and the estimated duration of infection (EDI), we enrolled participants and divided them into three groups: healthy control, new infection (within 1 year), and old infection (longer than 1 year)...
April 5, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579063/in-silico-identification-of-micrornas-predicted-to-regulate-n-myristoyltransferase-and-methionine-aminopeptidase-2-functions-in-cancer-and-infectious-diseases
#2
Ranjit Chauhan, David Datzkiw, Shailly Varma Shrivastav, Anuraag Shrivastav
Protein myristoylation is a key protein modification carried out by N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT) after Methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2) removes methionine from the amino-terminus of the target protein. Protein myristoylation by NMT augments several signaling pathways involved in a myriad of cellular processes, including developmental pathways and pathways that when dysregulated lead to cancer or immune dysfunction. The emerging evidence pointing to NMT-mediated myristoylation as a major cellular regulator underscores the importance of understanding the framework of this type of signaling event...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518453/polyomavirus-microrna-in-saliva-reveals-persistent-infectious-status-in-the-oral-cavity
#3
Francesco Martelli, Jessica Mencarini, Arianna Rocca, Nunzia Della Malva, Dario Bartolozzi, Simone Giannecchini
Current evidence suggests that Polyomavirus (PyV) microRNAs (miRNAs) circulating in biological fluids may be relevant to understanding viral persistence. Here, the expression of polyomavirus BKPyV, JCPyV, MCPyV and SV40 miRNAs in saliva was investigated to evaluate PyV prevalence/persistence in the oral cavity. PyV-DNA status and PyV-miRNA expression was examined in paired saliva and plasma samples of 100 HIV-infected patients and of 50 healthy subjects using digital droplet PCR and PyV-miRNA-5p stem-loop RT-PCR...
March 5, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515574/human-intestinal-epithelial-cells-release-antiviral-factors-that-inhibit-hiv-infection-of-macrophages
#4
Le Guo, Xi-Qiu Xu, Li Zhou, Run-Hong Zhou, Xu Wang, Jie-Liang Li, Jin-Biao Liu, Hang Liu, Biao Zhang, Wen-Zhe Ho
As a rich source of CD4+ T cells and macrophages, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a major target site for HIV infection. The interplay between GI-resident macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) constitutes an important element of GI innate immunity against pathogens. In this study, we investigated whether human IECs have the ability to produce antiviral factors that can inhibit HIV infection of macrophages. We demonstrated that IECs possess functional toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), the activation of which resulted in induction of key interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRF3 and IRF7), IFN-β, IFN-λ, and CC chemokines (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES), the ligands of HIV entry co-receptor CCR5...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514950/mir-130a-and-mir-212-disrupt-the-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-through-modulation-of-ppar%C3%AE-and-occludin-expression-in-chronic-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-rhesus-macaques
#5
Vinay Kumar, Joshua Mansfield, Rong Fan, Andrew MacLean, Jian Li, Mahesh Mohan
Intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction is a well-known sequela of HIV/SIV infection that persists despite antiretroviral therapy. Although inflammation is a triggering factor, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Emerging evidence suggests that epithelial barrier function is epigenetically regulated by inflammation-induced microRNAs (miRNAs). Accordingly, we profiled and characterized miRNA/mRNA expression exclusively in colonic epithelium and identified 46 differentially expressed miRNAs (20 upregulated and 26 downregulated) in chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta )...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510515/are-micrornas-important-players-in-hiv-1-infection-an-update
#6
REVIEW
Muthukumar Balasubramaniam, Jui Pandhare, Chandravanu Dash
HIV-1 has already claimed over 35 million human lives globally. No curative treatments are currently available, and the only treatment option for over 36 million people currently living with HIV/AIDS are antiretroviral drugs that disrupt the function of virus-encoded proteins. However, such virus-targeted therapeutic strategies are constrained by the ability of the virus to develop drug-resistance. Despite major advances in HIV/AIDS research over the years, substantial knowledge gaps exist in many aspects of HIV-1 replication, especially its interaction with the host...
March 3, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468972/investigating-hiv-human-interaction-networks-to-unravel-pathogenic-mechanism-for-drug-discovery-a-systems-biology-approach
#7
Cheng-Wei Li, Bor-Sen Chen
BACKGROUND: Two big issues in the study of pathogens are determining how pathogens infect hosts and how the host defends itself against infection. Therefore, investigating host-pathogen interactions is important for understanding pathogenicity and host defensive mechanisms and treating infections. METHODS: In this study, we used omics data, including time-course data from high throughput sequencing, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and human microRNA (miRNA) and protein-protein interaction to construct an interspecies protein-protein and miRNA interaction (PPMI) network of human CD4+ T cells during HIV-1 infection through system modeling and identification...
February 19, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425228/kshv-oral-shedding-and-plasma-viremia-result-in-significant-changes-in-the-extracellular-tumorigenic-mirna-expression-profile-in-individuals-infected-with-the-malaria-parasite
#8
Minako Ikoma, Soren Gantt, Corey Casper, Yuko Ogata, Qing Zhang, Ryan Basom, Michael R Dyen, Timothy M Rose, Serge Barcy
Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Both KSHV and HIV infections are endemic in Uganda, where KS is among the most common cancers in HIV-infected individuals. Recent studies examined the use of small RNAs as biomarkers of disease, including microRNAs (miRNAs), with viral and tumor-derived miRNAs being detected in exosomes from individuals with KSHV-associated malignancies. In the current study, the host and viral extracellular mature miRNA expression profiles were analyzed in blood of KS-negative individuals in Uganda, comparing those with or without KSHV detectable from the oropharynx...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296171/micrornas-sequencing-unveils-distinct-molecular-subgroups-of-plasmablastic-lymphoma
#9
Maria Raffaella Ambrosio, Lucia Mundo, Sara Gazaneo, Matteo Picciolini, Prasad Satya Vara, Shaheen Sayed, Alessandro Ginori, Giuseppe Lo Bello, Leonardo Del Porro, Mohsen Navari, Stefano Ascani, Amhed Yonis, Lorenzo Leoncini, Pier Paolo Piccaluga, Stefano Lazzi
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an aggressive lymphoma, often arising in the context of immunodeficiency and associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The most frequently detected genetic alteration is the deregulation of MYC gene through the translocation - t(8;14)(q24;q32). The diagnosis of PBL is often challenging because it has an overlap in morphology, immunophenotype, cytogenetics and virus association with other lymphomas and plasma cell neoplasms; further, its molecular basis remains elusive...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282036/circulating-microrna-s-as-a-diagnostic-tool-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-a-hyper-endemic-hiv-setting-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-a-case-control-study-protocol-focusing-on-viral-etiology
#10
K Sartorius, B Sartorius, A Kramvis, E Singh, A Turchinovich, B Burwinkel, T Madiba, C A Winkler
BACKGROUND: A wide range of studies has investigated the diagnostic proficiency of extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) in hepatocellular cancer (HCC). HCC is expected to increase in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), due to endemic levels of viral infection (HBV/HIV), ageing and changing lifestyles. This unique aetiological background provides an opportunity for investigating potentially novel circulating miRNAs as biomarkers for HCC in a prospective study in South Africa. METHODS: This study will recruit HCC patients from two South African cancer hospitals, situated in Durban and Pietermaritzburg in the province of KwaZulu-Natal...
December 28, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187813/a-mirna-signature-for-cognitive-deficits-and-alcohol-use-disorder-in-persons-living-with-hiv-aids
#11
Dorota Wyczechowska, Hui-Yi Lin, Andrea LaPlante, Duane Jeansonne, Adam Lassak, Christopher H Parsons, Patricia E Molina, Francesca Peruzzi
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) affects more than half of persons living with HIV-1/AIDS (PLWHA). Identification of biomarkers representing the cognitive status of PLWHA is a critical step for implementation of successful cognitive, behavioral and pharmacological strategies to prevent onset and progression of HAND. However, the presence of co-morbidity factors in PLWHA, the most common being substance abuse, can prevent the identification of such biomarkers. We have optimized a protocol to profile plasma miRNAs using quantitative RT-qPCR and found a miRNA signature with very good discriminatory ability to distinguish PLWHA with cognitive impairment from those without cognitive impairment...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170365/intrahepatic-microrna-profile-of-liver-transplant-recipients-with-hepatitis-c-virus-co-infected-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#12
Hisamitsu Miyaaki, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Tatsuki Ichikawa, Masaaki Hidaka, Akihiko Soyama, Hideki Ohdan, Yukihiro Inomata, Shinji Uemoto, Norihiro Kokudo, Kazuhiko Nakao, Susumu Eguchi
BACKGROUND In patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection, HIV can modulate HCV replication and immune response as well as accelerate liver fibrosis. The role of miRNA in HIV/HCV co-infection is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the differential expression of miRNAs in the liver. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirteen patients who had undergone a liver transplant (7 HCV-infected and 6 HIV/HCV-co-infected patients) were examined using a miRNA array containing 1347 human miRNAs...
November 24, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145159/potential-link-between-m-6-a-modification-and-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#13
REVIEW
Lian-Ju Li, Yin-Guang Fan, Rui-Xue Leng, Hai-Feng Pan, Dong-Qing Ye
The field of m6 A modification and epitranscriptomics has recently attracted much attention. More methods allowing for precise m6 A site profiling and location are developed and crucial players of m6 A modification machinery are increasingly identified. Although some challenges remain, m6 A modification is found to modulate almost all aspects of RNA metabolism, such as splicing, stability, structure, translation, and export. Thus, m6 A modification adds a new layer of post-transcriptional gene expression regulation, and it is implicated in T cell response to HIV infection, type I interferon production, and T cell differentiation and homeostasis...
January 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091125/noncompliance-in-people-living-with-hiv-accuracy-of-defining-characteristics-of-the-nursing-diagnosis1
#14
Richardson Augusto Rosendo da Silva, Mayara Mirna do Nascimento Costa, Vinicius Lino de Souza, Bárbara Coeli Oliveira da Silva, Cristiane da Silva Costa, Itaísa Fernandes Cardoso de Andrade
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the accuracy of the defining characteristics of the NANDA International nursing diagnosis, noncompliance, in people with HIV. METHOD: study of diagnostic accuracy, performed in two stages. In the first stage, 113 people with HIV from a hospital of infectious diseases in the Northeast of Brazil were assessed for identification of clinical indicators of noncompliance. In the second, the defining characteristics were evaluated by six specialist nurses, analyzing the presence or absence of the diagnosis...
October 30, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045748/conserved-asymmetry-underpins-homodimerization-of-dicer-associated-double-stranded-rna-binding-proteins
#15
Alex Heyam, Claire E Coupland, Clément Dégut, Ruth A Haley, Nicola J Baxter, Leonhard Jakob, Pedro M Aguiar, Gunter Meister, Michael P Williamson, Dimitris Lagos, Michael J Plevin
Double-stranded RNA-binding domains (dsRBDs) are commonly found in modular proteins that interact with RNA. Two varieties of dsRBD exist: canonical Type A dsRBDs interact with dsRNA, while non-canonical Type B dsRBDs lack RNA-binding residues and instead interact with other proteins. In higher eukaryotes, the microRNA biogenesis enzyme Dicer forms a 1:1 association with a dsRNA-binding protein (dsRBP). Human Dicer associates with HIV TAR RNA-binding protein (TRBP) or protein activator of PKR (PACT), while Drosophila Dicer-1 associates with Loquacious (Loqs)...
December 1, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993774/the-clinical-application-of-micrornas-in-infectious-disease
#16
REVIEW
Ruth E Drury, Daniel O'Connor, Andrew J Pollard
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded non-coding RNA sequences that posttranscriptionally regulate up to 60% of protein encoding genes. Evidence is emerging that miRNAs are key mediators of the host response to infection, predominantly by regulating proteins involved in innate and adaptive immune pathways. miRNAs can govern the cellular tropism of some viruses, are implicated in the resistance of some individuals to infections like HIV, and are associated with impaired vaccine response in older people...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990063/bioinformatics-analysis-of-gene-expression-data-for-the-identification-of-critical-genes-in-breast-invasive-carcinoma
#17
Yi Li, Yongsheng Wang
Gene expression data were analyzed in order to identify critical genes in breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA). Data from 1,073 BRCA samples and 99 normal samples were analyzed, which were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the significance analysis of microarrays method and a functional enrichment analysis was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Relevant microRNAs (miRNAs), transcription factors (TFs) and associated small molecule drugs were revealed by Fisher's exact test...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990060/microrna-expression-profiling-of-intestinal-mucosa-tissue-predicts-multiple-crucial-regulatory-molecules-and-signaling-pathways-for-gut-barrier-dysfunction-of-aids-patients
#18
Yu Xu, Hua-Wei Wang, Hua-You Luo, Ruo Shu, Jia Liu, Liang Sun, Xue-Fei Han, Na Lin, Ting-Hua Wang, Yu-Jian Zeng, Kun-Hua Wang
Human immunodeficiency virus‑1 (HIV‑1) infection severely damages the gut‑associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), the immune system and the gut barrier, which leads to accelerating the disease progression for patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to this process. However, few studies have investigated the importance of miRNAs in AIDS pathogenesis and progression. The whole miRNA profile of patients with HIV infection from southwest P.R...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977573/dicer-independent-processing-of-small-rna-duplexes-mechanistic-insights-and-applications
#19
REVIEW
Elena Herrera-Carrillo, Ben Berkhout
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in the regulation of cellular gene expression via the conserved RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism. Biogenesis of the unusual miR-451 does not require Dicer. This molecule is instead processed by the Argonaute 2 (Ago2) enzyme. Similarly, unconventional short hairpin RNA (shRNA) molecules have been designed as miR-451 mimics that rely exclusively on Ago2 for maturation. We will review recent progress made in the understanding of this alternative processing route. Next, we describe different Dicer-independent shRNA designs that have been developed and discuss their therapeutic advantages and disadvantages...
October 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969448/high-prevalence-of-drug-resistance-mutations-among-patients-failing-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-and-predictors-of-virological-response-24-weeks-after-switch-to-second-line-therapy-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil
#20
Elaine Monteiro Matsuda, Luana Portes Ozório Coelho, Giselle de Faria Romero, Monica Jacques de Moraes, Giselle Ibete Silva Lopez-Lopes, Karen Morejon, Alexandre Ely Campeas, Gabriela Bastos Cabral, Luís Fernando de Macedo Brígido
Universal antiretroviral treatment with sustained viral suppression benefits patients and reduces HIV transmission. Effectiveness of therapy may be limited by antiretroviral drug resistance. Information on the resistance profile at treatment failure and its impact on antiretroviral drugs may subsidize subsequent treatment strategies. Partial pol sequences from 319 patients failing first-line therapy were analyzed for resistance associated mutations (RAMs) and HIV subtype. Demographic data, CD4 T cell count, viral load, and antiretroviral regimens and mutational profile at first-line failure were also investigated for associations to the response to second-line regimens...
November 27, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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