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Barrett's oesophagus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904863/recent-updates-in-the-endoscopic-diagnosis-of-barrett-s-oesophagus
#1
REVIEW
Neel Sharma, Khek Yu Ho
BACKGROUND: Barrett's oesophagus (BO) is a premalignant condition associated with the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). Despite the low risk of progression per annum, OAC is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 5-year survival of 10%. Furthermore, the incidence of OAC continues to rise globally. Therefore, it is imperative to detect the premalignant phase of BO and follow up such patients accordingly. SUMMARY: The mainstay diagnosis of BO is endoscopy and biopsy sampling...
October 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904862/risk-factors-for-barrett-s-oesophagus
#2
REVIEW
Neel Sharma, Khek Yu Ho
BACKGROUND: Barrett's oesophagus (BO) is a premalignant condition associated with the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). Globally, the incidence of OAC is rising. Furthermore, the prognosis regarding the morbidity and mortality of OAC is bleak, with an estimated 5-year survival of 10-15%. Hence, detection of the premalignant phase is paramount. Endoscopy and biopsy sampling is the mainstay of diagnosis. Patients may present with symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) or be completely asymptomatic...
October 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902130/cytosponge-test-could-be-an-alternative-to-endoscopy
#3
(no author information available yet)
A 'sponge on a string' pill test can identify people with Barrett's oesophagus who are at low risk of developing oesophageal cancer, say University of Cambridge researchers.
November 30, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888864/oesophageal-disease-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-barrett-s-oesophagus-achalasia-and-eosinophilic-oesophagitis
#4
Xavier Calvet
The most interesting conclusions and/or advances presented at Digestive Disease Week 2016 were the following: a) gastroesophageal reflux disease: proton pump inhibitor-refractory reflux disease is frequently associated with poor treatment adherence, psychiatric comorbidities and functional gastrointestinal disorders. These possible entities should be investigated in all cases of proton pump inhibitor-refractory reflux disease; b) Barrett's oesophagus: the efficacy of screening remains unclear; however, new minimally-invasive techniques such as the cytosponge allow more effective detection, both of Barrett's oesophagus and Barrett's oesophagus-associated dysplasia or neoplasia; c) achalasia: evidence indicates that peroral endoscopic myotomy is as effective as surgery and is a safer alternative; d) eosinophilic oesophagitis: high-dose proton pump inhibitors are required to rule out proton pump inhibitor-responsive eosinophilic oesophagitis; montelukast is not clearly effective in the treatment of eosinophilic oesophagitis, although moderate efficacy cannot be ruled out...
September 2016: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875772/hnf4%C3%AE-is-a-key-gene-that-can-generate-columnar-metaplasia-in-oesophageal-epithelium
#5
Benjamin J Colleypriest, Zoë D Burke, Leonard P Griffiths, Yu Chen, Wei-Yuan Yu, Ramiro Jover, Michael Bock, Leigh Biddlestone, Jonathan M Quinlan, Stephen G Ward, J Mark Farrant, Jonathan M W Slack, David Tosh
Barrett's metaplasia is the only known morphological precursor to oesophageal adenocarcinoma and is characterized by replacement of stratified squamous epithelium by columnar epithelium. The cell of origin is uncertain and the molecular mechanisms responsible for the change in cellular phenotype are poorly understood. We therefore explored the role of two transcription factors, Cdx2 and HNF4α in the conversion using primary organ cultures. Biopsy samples from cases of human Barrett's metaplasia were analysed for the presence of CDX2 and HNF4α...
November 19, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853746/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-pre-procedure-simethicone-and-n-acetylcysteine-to-improve-mucosal-visibility-during-gastroscopy-nicevis
#6
Peter John Basford, James Brown, Lisa Gadeke, Carole Fogg, Ben Haysom-Newport, Reuben Ogollah, Rupam Bhattacharyya, Gaius Longcroft-Wheaton, Fergus Thursby-Pelham, James R Neale, Pradeep Bhandari
Background and study aims: Mucosal views can be impaired by residual bubbles and mucus during gastroscopy. This study aimed to determine whether a pre-gastroscopy drink containing simethicone and N-acetylcysteine improves mucosal visualisation. Patients and methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial recruiting 126 subjects undergoing routine gastroscopy. Subjects were randomized 1:1:1 to receive: A-pre-procedure drink of water, simethicone and N-acetylcysteine (NAC); B-water alone; or C-no preparation...
November 2016: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836821/sponge-on-string-could-replace-endoscopy-in-patients-with-barrett-s-oesophagus
#7
Zosia Kmietowicz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818151/oesophageal-adenocarcinoma-and-barrett-s-oesophagus
#8
Manjulika Das
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780192/pathogenesis-and-progression-of-oesophageal-adenocarcinoma-varies-by-prior-diagnosis-of-barrett-s-oesophagus
#9
Michael B Cook, Jennifer Drahos, Shannon Wood, Lindsey Enewold, Ruth Parsons, Neal D Freedman, Philip R Taylor, Winnie Ricker, Christian C Abnet
BACKGROUND: The absolute risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) among individuals with Barrett's oesophagus (BE) is low and a majority of EA cases are diagnosed among individuals with no prior BE diagnosis. To ensure that insights from EA case-control studies are transferable to clinical management of BE populations, we conducted a case-case study to compare the clinical presentation, medical history and survival of EA cases with and without a prior BE diagnosis in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Medicare database...
November 22, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761232/monitoring-the-premalignant-potential-of-barrett-s-oesophagus
#10
David Graham, Gideon Lipman, Vinay Sehgal, Laurence B Lovat
The landscape for patients with Barrett's oesophagus (BE) has changed significantly in the last decade. Research and new guidelines have helped gastroenterologists to better identify those patients with BE who are particularly at risk of developing oesophageal adenocarcinoma. In parallel, developments in endoscopic image enhancement technology and optical biopsy techniques have improved our ability to detect high-risk lesions. Once these lesions have been identified, the improvements in minimally invasive endoscopic therapies has meant that these patients can potentially be cured of early cancer and high-risk dysplastic lesions without the need for surgery, which still has a significant morbidity and mortality...
October 2016: Frontline Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752370/barrett-s-oesophagus-in-an-achalasia-patient-immunological-analysis-and-comparison-with-a-group-of-achalasia-patients
#11
Samuel Torres-Landa, Janette Furuzawa-Carballeda, Enrique Coss-Adame, Miguel A Valdovinos, Edgar Alejandro-Medrano, Bárbara Ramos-Ávalos, Braulio Martínez-Benítez, Gonzalo Torres-Villalobos
The aim of the study was to characterize the presence of diverse CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets and regulatory cells in peripheral blood and lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) from a young patient with BE/achalasia without treatment versus achalasia group. In order to characterize the circulating cells in this patient, a cytometric analysis was performed. LES tissue was evaluated by double-immunostaining procedure. Five healthy blood donors, 5 type achalasia patients, and 5 oesophagus tissue samples (gastrooesophageal junction) from transplant donors were included as control groups...
2016: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733908/oesophageal-biopsies-are-insufficient-to-predict-final-histology-after-endoscopic-resection-in-early-barrett-s-neoplasia
#12
E Werbrouck, G De Hertogh, X Sagaert, G Coremans, H Willekens, I Demedts, R Bisschops
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic resection (ER) with or without ablation is the first choice treatment for early Barrett's neoplasia. Adequate staging is important to assure a good oncological outcome. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of pre-operative biopsies in patients who undergo ER for high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or early adenocarcinoma (EAC) in Barrett's oesophagus (BE) and the cardia. METHODS: Between November 2005-May 2012, 142 ERs performed in 137 patients were obtained...
October 2016: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733907/endoscopic-risk-factors-for-neoplastic-progression-in-patients-with-barrett-s-oesophagus
#13
Angela Bureo Gonzalez, Jacques Jghm Bergman, Roos E Pouw
Barrett's oesophagus is a precursor lesion for oesophageal adenocarcinoma, which generally has a poor prognosis. Patients diagnosed with Barrett's oesophagus therefore undergo regular endoscopic surveillance to detect neoplastic lesions at a curable stage. The efficacy of endoscopic surveillance of Barrett's oesophagus patients is, however, hampered by difficulties to detect early neoplasia endoscopically, biopsy sampling error, inter-observer variability in histological assessment and the relatively low overall progression rate...
October 2016: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713951/rapid-infrared-mapping-for-highly-accurate-automated-histology-in-barrett-s-oesophagus
#14
O J Old, G R Lloyd, J Nallala, M Isabelle, L M Almond, N A Shepherd, C A Kendall, A C Shore, H Barr, N Stone
Barrett's oesophagus (BE) is a premalignant condition that can progress to oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic surveillance aims to identify potential progression at an early, treatable stage, but generates large numbers of tissue biopsies. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) mapping was used to develop an automated histology tool for detection of BE and Barrett's neoplasia in tissue biopsies. 22 oesophageal tissue samples were collected from 19 patients. Contiguous frozen tissue sections were taken for pathology review and FTIR imaging...
October 7, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681974/barrett-s-oesophagus-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-clinical-management
#15
David C Whiteman, Bradley J Kendall
Barrett's oesophagus is a condition characterised by partial replacement of the normal squamous epithelium of the lower oesophagus by a metaplastic columnar epithelium containing goblet cells (intestinal metaplasia). Barrett's oesophagus is important clinically because those afflicted are predisposed to oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Prevalence surveys suggest that up to 2% of the population may be affected; most will be unaware of their diagnosis. Risk factors include age, male sex, gastro-oesophageal acid reflux, central obesity and smoking...
October 3, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593706/effects-of-omeprazole-or-anti-reflux-surgery-on-lower-oesophageal-sphincter-characteristics-and-oesophageal-acid-exposure-over-10-years
#16
Birgitte-Elise G Emken, Lars R Lundell, Lene Wallin, Helge E Myrvold, Cecilia Engström, Madeleine Montgomery, Anders R Malm, Tore Lind, Jan G Hatlebakk
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of anti-reflux surgery (ARS) versus proton pump inhibitor therapy on lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) function and oesophageal acid exposure in patients with chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) over a decade of follow-up. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this randomised, prospective, multicentre study we compared LOS pressure profiles, as well as oesophageal exposure to acid, at baseline and at 1 and 10 years after randomisation to either open ARS (n = 137) or long-term treatment with omeprazole (OME) 20-60 mg daily (n = 108)...
September 3, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586588/the-characterization-of-an-intestine-like-genomic-signature-maintained-during-barrett-s-associated-adenocarcinogenesis-reveals-an-nr5a2-mediated-promotion-of-cancer-cell-survival
#17
Shane P Duggan, Fiona M Behan, Murat Kirca, Abdul Zaheer, Sarah A McGarrigle, John V Reynolds, Gisela M F Vaz, Mathias O Senge, Dermot Kelleher
Barrett's oesophagus (BO), an intestinal-type metaplasia (IM), typically arising in conjunction with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, is a prominent risk factor for the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). The molecular similarities between IM and normal intestinal tissues are ill-defined. Consequently, the contribution of intestine-enriched factors expressed within BO to oncogenesis is unclear. Herein, using transcriptomics we define the intestine-enriched genes expressed in meta-profiles of BO and OAC...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571366/the-evolution-and-outcome-of-surveillance-of-barrett-s-oesophagus-over-four-decades-in-a-uk-district-general-hospital
#18
Christine Royston, Christine Caygill, Andre Charlett, Karna Dev Bardhan
INTRODUCTION: We present the long-term outcome of Barrett's oesophagus (BO) at a District General Hospital set against the increasing numbers of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). METHODS: Data were collected prospectively over 37 years. Comparison of GORD without Barrett's (NoBO) versus BO was performed from 1/1/1977 to 31/12/2001 when the NoBO database closed and outcomes of all cases of BO diagnosed until 31/12/2011 and followed up until 31/12/2013 have been reported...
August 26, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562355/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-prevalent-vs-incident-oesophageal-adenocarcinoma-and-high-grade-dysplasia-in-barrett-s-oesophagus
#19
REVIEW
K Visrodia, S Singh, R Krishnamoorthi, D A Ahlquist, K K Wang, P G Iyer, D A Katzka
BACKGROUND: The proportion of oesophageal adenocarcinoma that is detected concurrently with initial Barrett's oesophagus diagnosis is not well studied. AIM: To compare the proportion of prevalent adenocarcinoma vs. incident adenocarcinoma found during surveillance of Barrett's. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science (from their inception to 31 May 2015) for cohort studies in adults with Barrett's (nondysplastic Barrett's ± Barrett's with low-grade dysplasia) with minimum average follow-up of 3 years, and providing numbers of prevalent adenocarcinoma detected (concurrently with Barrett's diagnosis and up to 1 year afterwards) vs...
October 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538785/dynamic-clonal-equilibrium-and-predetermined-cancer-risk-in-barrett-s-oesophagus
#20
Pierre Martinez, Margriet R Timmer, Chiu T Lau, Silvia Calpe, Maria Del Carmen Sancho-Serra, Danielle Straub, Ann-Marie Baker, Sybren L Meijer, Fiebo J W Ten Kate, Rosalie C Mallant-Hent, Anton H J Naber, Arnoud H A M van Oijen, Lubbertus C Baak, Pieter Scholten, Clarisse J M Böhmer, Paul Fockens, Jacques J G H M Bergman, Carlo C Maley, Trevor A Graham, Kausilia K Krishnadath
Surveillance of Barrett's oesophagus allows us to study the evolutionary dynamics of a human neoplasm over time. Here we use multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization on brush cytology specimens, from two time points with a median interval of 37 months in 195 non-dysplastic Barrett's patients, and a third time point in a subset of 90 patients at a median interval of 36 months, to study clonal evolution at single-cell resolution. Baseline genetic diversity predicts progression and remains in a stable dynamic equilibrium over time...
2016: Nature Communications
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