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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907186/inter-tissue-gene-co-expression-networks-between-metabolically-healthy-and-unhealthy-obese-individuals
#1
Lisette J A Kogelman, Jingyuan Fu, Lude Franke, Jan Willem Greve, Marten Hofker, Sander S Rensen, Haja N Kadarmideen
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with severe co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. However, studies have shown that 10-25 percent of the severely obese individuals are metabolically healthy. To date, the identification of genetic factors underlying the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) state is limited. Systems genetics approaches have led to the identification of genes and pathways in complex diseases. Here, we have used such approaches across tissues to detect genes and pathways involved in obesity-induced disease development...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892880/mri-cross-sectional-atlas-of-normal-canine-cervical-musculoskeletal-structure
#2
M Alizadeh, C Zindl, M J Allen, G G Knapik, N Fitzpatrick, W S Marras
Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly used as a diagnostic tool for cervical spine injuries in canines, a comprehensive normal MRI anatomy of the canine cervical spine muscles is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to build a magnetic resonance imaging atlas of the normal cross sectional anatomy of the muscles of the canine cervical spine. MRI scans were performed on a canine cadaver using a combination of T1 and T2-weighted images in the transverse, sagittal and dorsal planes acquired at a slice thickness of 1mm...
September 30, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888098/identification-of-novel-peptide-motifs-in-the-serpin-maspin-that-affect-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-function
#3
S E Jenkinson, L J Brown, J Ombor, J A Milburn, T Smulders-Srinivasan, S Veuger, D R Edwards, R Bass
Maspin is a non-inhibitory member of the serpin family that affects cell behaviours related to migration and survival. We have previously shown that peptides of the isolated G α-helix (G-helix) domain of maspin show bioactivity. Migration, invasion, adhesion and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are important processes that contribute to the build-up of atherosclerotic plaques. Here we report the use of functional assays of these behaviours to investigate whether other maspin-derived peptides impact directly on VSMC; focusing on potential anti-atherogenic properties...
November 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854219/sil1-mutant-mice-elucidate-chaperone-function-in-neurological-disorders
#4
Stephan Buchkremer, José Andrés González Coraspe, Joachim Weis, Andreas Roos
Chaperone dysfunction leading to the build-up of misfolded proteins could frequently be linked to clinical manifestations also affecting the nervous system and the skeletal muscle. In addition, increase in chaperone function is beneficial to antagonize protein aggregation and thus represents a promising target for therapeutic concepts for many genetic and acquired chaperonopathies. However, little is known on the precise molecular mechanisms defining the cell and tissue abnormalities in the case of impaired chaperone function as well as on underlying effects in the case of compensatory up-regulation of chaperones...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853436/the-importance-of-intrinsically-disordered-segments-of-cardiac-troponin-in-modulating-function-by-phosphorylation-and-disease-causing-mutations
#5
REVIEW
Maria Papadaki, Steven B Marston
Troponin plays a central role in regulation of muscle contraction. It is the Ca(2+) switch of striated muscles including the heart and in the cardiac muscle it is physiologically modulated by PKA-dependent phosphorylation at Ser22 and 23. Many cardiomyopathy-related mutations affect Ca(2+) regulation and/or disrupt the relationship between Ca(2+) binding and phosphorylation. Unlike the mechanism of heart activation, the modulation of Ca(2+)-sensitivity by phosphorylation of the cardiac specific N-terminal segment of TnI (1-30) is structurally subtle and has proven hard to investigate...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848928/maximum-relative-speeds-of-living-organisms-why-do-bacteria-perform-as-fast-as-ostriches
#6
Nicole Meyer-Vernet, Jean-Pierre Rospars
Self-locomotion is central to animal behaviour and survival. It is generally analysed by focusing on preferred speeds and gaits under particular biological and physical constraints. In the present paper we focus instead on the maximum speed and we study its order-of-magnitude scaling with body size, from bacteria to the largest terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Using data for about 460 species of various taxonomic groups, we find a maximum relative speed of the order of magnitude of ten body lengths per second over a 10(20)-fold mass range of running and swimming animals...
November 15, 2016: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833573/the-influence-of-facial-signals-on-the-automatic-imitation-of-hand-actions
#7
Emily E Butler, Robert Ward, Richard Ramsey
Imitation and facial signals are fundamental social cues that guide interactions with others, but little is known regarding the relationship between these behaviors. It is clear that during expression detection, we imitate observed expressions by engaging similar facial muscles. It is proposed that a cognitive system, which matches observed and performed actions, controls imitation and contributes to emotion understanding. However, there is little known regarding the consequences of recognizing affective states for other forms of imitation, which are not inherently tied to the observed emotion...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828841/the-histocompatibility-research-of-hair-follicle-stem-cells-with-bladder-acellular-matrix
#8
Jia Li, Wenguang Wang, Jiuzhi Li, Mulati Rexiati, Henqing An, Feng Wang, Yujie Wang
BACKGROUND: Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) were reported to have multidirectional differentiation ability and could be differentiated into melanocytes, keratin cells, smooth muscle cells, and neurons. However, the functionality of HFSCs in bladder tissue regeneration is unknown. METHODS: This study was conducted to build HFSCs vs bladder acellular matrix (BAM) complexes (HFSCs-BAM complexes) in vitro and evaluated whether HFSCs have well biocompatibility with BAM...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818009/use-of-the-six-minute-walk-test-to-characterize-golden-retriever-muscular-dystrophy
#9
Austin R Acosta, Emiko Van Wie, William B Stoughton, Amanda K Bettis, Heather H Barnett, Nicholas R LaBrie, Cynthia J Balog-Alvarez, Peter P Nghiem, Kevin J Cummings, Joe N Kornegay
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder in which loss of the dystrophin protein causes progressive skeletal/cardiac muscle degeneration and death within the third decade. For clinical trials and supportive animal studies, DMD disease progression and response to treatment must be established using outcome parameters (biomarkers). The 6-minute walk test (6MWT), defined as the distance an individual can walk in 6 minutes, is commonly used in DMD clinical trials and has been employed in dogs to characterize cardiac and respiratory disease severity...
October 3, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798236/lamin-b1-contributes-to-the-proper-timing-of-epicardial-cell-migration-and-function-during-embryonic-heart-development
#10
Joseph R Tran, Xiaobin Zheng, Yixian Zheng
Lamin proteins form a meshwork beneath the nuclear envelope and contribute to many different cellular processes. Mutations in lamins cause defective organogenesis in mouse models and human diseases that affect adipose, brain, skeletal muscle, and the heart. In vitro cell culture studies have shown that lamins help maintain nuclear shape and facilitate cell migration. However, whether these defects contribute to improper tissue building in vivo requires further clarification. By studying the heart epicardium during embryogenesis, we show that Lb1 null epicardial cells exhibit an in vivo and in vitro migratory delay...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790792/als-associated-endoplasmic-reticulum-proteins-in-denervated-skeletal-muscle-implications-for-motor-neuron-disease-pathology
#11
C M Jesse, E Bushuven, P Tripathi, A Chandrasekar, C M Simon, C Drepper, A Yamoah, A Dreser, I Katona, S Johann, C Beyer, S Wagner, M Grond, S Nikolin, J Anink, D Troost, M Sendtner, A Goswami, J Weis
Alpha-motoneurons and muscle fibers are structurally and functionally interdependent. Both cell types particularly rely on endoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) functions. Mutations of the ER proteins VAPB, SigR1 and HSP27 lead to hereditary motor neuron diseases (MNDs). Here, we determined the expression profile and localization of these ER proteins/chaperons by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting in biopsy and autopsy muscle tissue of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other neurogenic muscular atrophies (NMAs) and compared these patterns to mouse models of neurogenic muscular atrophy...
October 28, 2016: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765712/walking-balance-and-compensatory-gait-mechanisms-in-surgically-treated-patients-with-adult-spinal-deformity
#12
Mitsuru Yagi, Hideaki Ohne, Tsunehiko Konomi, Kanehiro Fujiyoshi, Shinjiro Kaneko, Masakazu Takemitsu, Masafumi Machida, Yoshiyuki Yato, Takashi Asazuma
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Gait patterns and their relationship to demographic and radiographic data in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) have not been fully documented. PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess gait pattern in patients with ASD and the effect of corrective spinal surgery on gait. DESIGN/SETTING: This is a prospective case series. PATIENT SAMPLE: The gait patterns of 33 consecutive women with ASD (age 67...
October 17, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752543/tactile-stimulation-of-the-face-and-the-production-of-facial-expressions-activate-neurons-in-the-primate-amygdala
#13
Clayton P Mosher, Prisca E Zimmerman, Andrew J Fuglevand, Katalin M Gothard
The majority of neurophysiological studies that have explored the role of the primate amygdala in the evaluation of social signals have relied on visual stimuli such as images of facial expressions. Vision, however, is not the only sensory modality that carries social signals. Both humans and nonhuman primates exchange emotionally meaningful social signals through touch. Indeed, social grooming in nonhuman primates and caressing touch in humans is critical for building lasting and reassuring social bonds. To determine the role of the amygdala in processing touch, we recorded the responses of single neurons in the macaque amygdala while we applied tactile stimuli to the face...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743205/population-pharmacokinetics-of-a-novel-once-every-3-months-intramuscular-formulation-of-paliperidone-palmitate-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#14
Mats O Magnusson, Mahesh N Samtani, Elodie L Plan, E Niclas Jonsson, Stefaan Rossenu, An Vermeulen, Alberto Russu
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of paliperidone after intramuscular administration of its long-acting 3-month formulation palmitate ester at various doses and at different injection sites (deltoid and gluteal muscles). METHODS: This retrospective analysis included pooled data from 651 subjects from one phase I study (single injection of the 3-month formulation) and one phase III study (multiple injections of both 1- and 3-month formulations)...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725917/human-somatic-cells-acquire-the-plasticity-to-generate-embryoid-like-metamorphosis-via-the-actin-cytoskeleton-in-injured-tissues
#15
Jairo A Diaz, Mauricio F Murillo, Jhonan A Mendoza, Ana M Barreto, Lina S Poveda, Lina K Sanchez, Laura C Poveda, Katherine T Mora
Emergent biological responses develop via unknown processes dependent on physical collision. In hypoxia, when the tissue architecture collapses but the geometric core is stable, actin cytoskeleton filament components emerge, revealing a hidden internal order that identifies how each molecule is reassembled into the original mold, using one common connection, i.e., a fractal self-similarity that guides the system from the beginning in reverse metamorphosis, with spontaneous self-assembly of past forms that mimics an embryoid phenotype...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717927/characteristics-of-the-anthropometric-measures-and-biological-age-of-girls-of-yakut-ethnicity-depending-on-tanner-s-index
#16
Alla B Guryeva, Vilyuya A Alekseyeva, Palmira G Petrova
INTRODUCTION: severe climatic conditions of Yakutia influence the human morphofunctional status and it requires a comprehensive biomedical researches. The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of the anthropometric measures and biological age of Yakut girls aged 16-20 depending on Tanner's index. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the analysis of anthropometric examination of 1276 girls is presented. Anthropometric measurements were performed using the method of V...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716829/analysis-of-microstructure-of-the-cardiac-conduction-system-based-on-three-dimensional-confocal-microscopy
#17
Daniel Romero, Oscar Camara, Frank Sachse, Rafael Sebastian
The specialised conducting tissues present in the ventricles are responsible for the fast distribution of the electrical impulse from the atrio-ventricular node to regions in the subendocardial myocardium. Characterisation of anatomical features of the specialised conducting tissues in the ventricles is highly challenging, in particular its most distal section, which is connected to the working myocardium via Purkinje-myocardial junctions. The goal of this work is to characterise the architecture of the distal section of the Purkinje network by differentiating Purkinje cells from surrounding tissue, performing a segmentation of Purkinje fibres at cellular scale, and mathematically describing its morphology and interconnections...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715424/population-structure-of-the-raccoon-dog-on-the-grounds-of-the-imperial-palace-tokyo-revealed-by-microsatellite-analysis-of-fecal-dna
#18
Wataru Saito, Yosuke Amaike, Takako Sako, Yayoi Kaneko, Ryuichi Masuda
The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, Canidae, Carnivora) is highly adaptable to urban environments. Populations of carnivorans inhabiting urban areas sometimes differ ecologically and genetically from those in rural areas. However, there is little information on urban raccoon dogs. This study focused on raccoon dog populations in Tokyo, one of the most highly urbanized cities in the world. We examined the genotypes of 10 microsatellites for 101 fecal samples from raccoon dogs inhabiting the grounds of the Imperial Palace, a green space in central Tokyo...
October 2016: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708684/the-impact-of-protein-quality-on-the-promotion-of-resistance-exercise-induced-changes-in-muscle-mass
#19
Stuart M Phillips
Protein supplementation during resistance exercise training augments hypertrophic gains. Protein ingestion and the resultant hyperaminoacidemia provides the building blocks (indispensable amino acids - IAA) for, and also triggers an increase in, muscle protein synthesis (MPS), suppression of muscle protein breakdown (MPB), and net positive protein balance (i.e., MPS > MPB). The key amino acid triggering the rise in MPS is leucine, which stimulates the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1, a key signalling protein, and triggers a rise in MPS...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678004/helical-model-of-smooth-muscle-myosin-filament-and-the-ribbons-made-of-caldesmon-history-revisited
#20
Apolinary Sobieszek
In early studies on smooth muscle, I described a crude myosin fraction (CMF) in which self-assembly of myosin filaments was observed. For the first time, the 14-nm periodicity stemming from regular arrangement of myosin heads on the filament surface was observed (Sobieszek in J Mol Biol 70:741-744, 1972). In this fraction, we also observed formation of long ribbon-shaped aggregates exhibiting a 5.6-nm periodicity, characteristic of tropomyosin (TM) paracrystals (Sobieszek and Small in Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 265:203-212, 1973)...
September 27, 2016: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
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