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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813915/vibrofocus-design-of-a-focal-vibro-tactile-robotic-assistive-system-for-spasticity-rehabilitation
#1
Tijana Jevtic Vojinovic, Aleksandar Zivanovic, Tom Carlson, Rui C V Loureiro
The main focus of spasticity treatment is to alleviate pain, improve function and reduce risk of additional complications. In this paper the design of a robotic system with enhanced focal vibro-tactile stimulation for the treatment of spasticity in the upper limbs is presented. Building on emerging evidence on the use of vibrations in the treatment of spasticity, we propose a new integrated approach. Our design combines the use of vibro-tactile stimulation of the high tone muscle with robotic movement assistance to augment rehabilitation outcomes in patients with spasticity in the upper limbs...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813844/soft-stop-knee-brace-for-rehabilitation-from-ligament-injuries-design-and-pilot-trial
#2
James R J Greenfield, Haram Francis Hwang, Claire Davies, Andrew J McDaid
Ligaments within the human knee are commonly torn or injured as a result of sports that involve sharp direction changes, pivoting and landing. For this reason, athletes are often side-lined from their respective sports for up to 18 months after injury to rehabilitate. As part of the rehabilitation process, knee braces are often prescribed in an attempt to decrease the recovery period of the injured individual by restraining and minimizing the motion at the knee. However, the true efficacy of knee bracing is yet to be fully evaluated as studies show mixed results to whether braces actually decrease the rehabilitation period for patients...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805560/glycation-of-matrix-proteins-in-the-artery-inhibits-migration-of-smooth-muscle-cells-from-the-media-to-the-intima
#3
A Kuzan, O Michel, A Gamian
Formation and growth of atherosclerotic plaques have serious clinical consequences. One mechanism that occurs during atherogenesis is migration of smooth muscle cells from the middle layer of the artery to the intima, where they proliferate and are transformed into foam cells. This degenerative process is accompanied by glycation, by which proteins are modified and change the biomechanical and biochemical properties. The aim of the study was to determine whether glycation of collagen and elastin building the walls of blood vessels alters the adhesion and rate of myocyte migration...
2017: Folia Biologica (Praha)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801444/radical-cystectomy-bladder-removal-against-intravesical-bcg-immunotherapy-for-high-risk-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-bravo-a-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-feasibility-study
#4
Jamie B Oughton, Heather Poad, Maureen Twiddy, Michelle Collinson, Victoria Hiley, Kathryn Gordon, Mark Johnson, Sunjay Jain, Aidan P Noon, Rohit Chahal, Matt Simms, Mohantha Dooldeniya, Phillip Koenig, Louise Goodwin, Julia M Brown, James W F Catto
INTRODUCTION: High-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (HRNMIBC) is a heterogeneous disease that can be difficult to predict. While around 25% of cancers progress to invasion and metastases, the remaining majority of tumours remain within the bladder. It is uncertain whether patients with HRNMIBC are better treated with intravesical maintenance BCG (mBCG) immunotherapy or primary radical cystectomy (RC). A definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT) is needed to compare these two different treatments but may be difficult to recruit to and has not been attempted to date...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757453/lnc133b-a-novel-long-non-coding-rna-regulates-bovine-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-by-mediating-mir-133b
#5
Cong Fei Jin, Yan Li, Xiang Bin Ding, Xin Li, Lin Lin Zhang, Xin Feng Liu, Hong Guo
The proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle satellite cells is regulated by multiple regulatory factors including non-coding RNAs. It has been reported that miR-133b regulates myogenesis. In this study, we detected a novel lncRNA, lnc133b, which is completely complemented by mature miR-133b, indicating that lnc133b may regulate the expression of miR-133b by "sponge" miR-133b. A luciferase report assay confirmed that lnc133b interacts with miR-133b in regions complemented by miR-133b. We successfully constructed lnc133b gain/loss-of-function cell models by infecting LV-1nc133b and transfecting si-lnc133b into satellite cells...
July 27, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737584/update-on-new-muscle-glycogenosis
#6
Pascal Laforêt, Edoardo Malfatti, John Vissing
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The field of muscle glycogenoses has progressed in recent years by the identification of new disorders, and by reaching a better understanding of pathophysiology of the disorders and the physiology of glycogen metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we describe the clinical and pathological features of the three most recently described muscle glycogenoses caused by recessive mutations in GYG1, RBCK1 and PGM1. The three involved enzymes play different roles in glycogen metabolism...
July 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727745/evaluation-of-tissue-displacement-and-regional-strain-in-the-achilles-tendon-using-quantitative-high-frequency-ultrasound
#7
Stijn Bogaerts, Catarina De Brito Carvalho, Lennart Scheys, Kaat Desloovere, Jan D'hooge, Frederik Maes, Paul Suetens, Koen Peers
The Achilles tendon has a unique structure-function relationship thanks to its innate hierarchical architecture in combination with the rotational anatomy of the sub-tendons from the triceps surae muscles. Previous research has provided valuable insight in global Achilles tendon mechanics, but limitations with the technique used remain. Furthermore, given the global approach evaluating muscle-tendon junction to insertion, regional differences in tendon mechanical properties might be overlooked. However, recent advancements in the field of ultrasound imaging in combination with speckle tracking have made an intratendinous evaluation possible...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721951/recording-characteristics-of-electrical-impedance-myography-needle-electrodes
#8
Hyeuknam Kwon, Seward B Rutkove, Benjamin Sanchez
OBJECTIVE: The neurology and physiatry community need improved tools for the evaluation of skeletal muscle condition. Here, we evaluate needle electrical impedance myography (EIM), a new minimally invasive approach to determine muscle status that could ultimately become a bedside tool for the assessment of neuromuscular disorders. APPROACH: We design and study the recording characteristics of tetrapolar EIM needle electrodes combining theory and finite element model simulations...
July 19, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700630/simulating-ideal-assistive-devices-to-reduce-the-metabolic-cost-of-walking-with-heavy-loads
#9
Christopher L Dembia, Amy Silder, Thomas K Uchida, Jennifer L Hicks, Scott L Delp
Wearable robotic devices can restore and enhance mobility. There is growing interest in designing devices that reduce the metabolic cost of walking; however, designers lack guidelines for which joints to assist and when to provide the assistance. To help address this problem, we used musculoskeletal simulation to predict how hypothetical devices affect muscle activity and metabolic cost when walking with heavy loads. We explored 7 massless devices, each providing unrestricted torque at one degree of freedom in one direction (hip abduction, hip flexion, hip extension, knee flexion, knee extension, ankle plantarflexion, or ankle dorsiflexion)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696593/-sarcopenia-in-elderly-benefice-of-physical-exercices
#10
André Laszlo
From the age of fifty onwards a progressive loss of muscle mass may be observed, it often leads to real sarcopenia. Sedentary life style and unbalanced feeding habits represent major risk factors. The decrease in muscle tone leads to a loss of function and an altered quality of life, not to mention socioeconomic factors. The molecular mechanisms of sarcopenia are complex but our understanding of them is increasing. There is no pharmaceutical treatment of sarcopenia of use in current practice. Regular, several times a week, practice of a combination of adapted muscle building physical and endurance exercises, associated with protein intake have shown there use...
November 9, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692691/extracting-time-frequency-feature-of-single-channel-vastus-medialis-emg-signals-for-knee-exercise-pattern-recognition
#11
Yi Zhang, Peiyang Li, Xuyang Zhu, Steven W Su, Qing Guo, Peng Xu, Dezhong Yao
The EMG signal indicates the electrophysiological response to daily living of activities, particularly to lower-limb knee exercises. Literature reports have shown numerous benefits of the Wavelet analysis in EMG feature extraction for pattern recognition. However, its application to typical knee exercises when using only a single EMG channel is limited. In this study, three types of knee exercises, i.e., flexion of the leg up (standing), hip extension from a sitting position (sitting) and gait (walking) are investigated from 14 healthy untrained subjects, while EMG signals from the muscle group of vastus medialis and the goniometer on the knee joint of the detected leg are synchronously monitored and recorded...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659756/proprioceptive-feedback-through-a-neuromorphic-muscle-spindle-model
#12
Lorenzo Vannucci, Egidio Falotico, Cecilia Laschi
Connecting biologically inspired neural simulations to physical or simulated embodiments can be useful both in robotics, for the development of a new kind of bio-inspired controllers, and in neuroscience, to test detailed brain models in complete action-perception loops. The aim of this work is to develop a fully spike-based, biologically inspired mechanism for the translation of proprioceptive feedback. The translation is achieved by implementing a computational model of neural activity of type Ia and type II afferent fibers of muscle spindles, the primary source of proprioceptive information, which, in mammals is regulated through fusimotor activation and provides necessary adjustments during voluntary muscle contractions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659748/anti-fatigue-effects-of-dietary-nucleotides-in-mice
#13
Meihong Xu, Rui Liang, Yong Li, Junbo Wang
As the building blocks of nucleic acids, nucleotides are conditionally essential nutrients that exhibit multifaceted activities. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of dietary nucleotides (NTs) on mice and explore the possible underlying mechanism. Mice were randomly divided into four experimental sets to detect different indicators. Each set of mice was then divided into four groups: (i) one control group and (ii) three NTs groups, which were fed diets supplemented with NTs at concentrations of 0%, 0...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648117/alteration-of-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-atpase-expression-in-lower-limb-ischemia-caused-by-atherosclerosis-obliterans
#14
J Fodor, A Gomba-Tóth, T Oláh, E Zádor, Zs Cs Tóth, I Ioannis, B Molnár, I Kovács, L Csernoch
Atherosclerosis is a disease caused by a build-up of fatty plaques and cholesterol in the arteries. The lumen of the vessels is obliterated resulting in restricted blood supply to tissues. In ischemic conditions, the cytosolic Ca(2+) level of skeletal muscle may increase, indicating the alteration of Ca(2+) removal mechanisms. Ca(2+) is transported from cytosol into the sarcoplasmic reticulum by Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA), with its 1a isoform expressed in adult, while its 1b isoform in neonatal and regenerating fast-twitch skeletal muscle...
June 26, 2017: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642676/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-protein-and-exercise
#15
REVIEW
Ralf Jäger, Chad M Kerksick, Bill I Campbell, Paul J Cribb, Shawn D Wells, Tim M Skwiat, Martin Purpura, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Arny A Ferrando, Shawn M Arent, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Jeffrey R Stout, Paul J Arciero, Michael J Ormsbee, Lem W Taylor, Colin D Wilborn, Doug S Kalman, Richard B Kreider, Darryn S Willoughby, Jay R Hoffman, Jamie L Krzykowski, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review related to the intake of protein for healthy, exercising individuals. Based on the current available literature, the position of the Society is as follows:An acute exercise stimulus, particularly resistance exercise, and protein ingestion both stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and are synergistic when protein consumption occurs before or after resistance exercise.For building muscle mass and for maintaining muscle mass through a positive muscle protein balance, an overall daily protein intake in the range of 1...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640774/the-difference-between-countermovement-and-squat-jump-performances-a-review-of-underlying-mechanisms-with-practical-applications
#16
Bas Van Hooren, Julia Zolotarjova
Van Hooren, B and Zolotarjova, J. The difference between countermovement and squat jump performances: a review of underlying mechanisms with practical applications. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 2011-2020, 2017-Two movements that are widely used to monitor athletic performance are the countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ). Countermovement jump performance is almost always better than SJ performance, and the difference in performance is thought to reflect an effective utilization of the stretch-shortening cycle...
July 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631809/anabolic-steroids-for-treating-pressure-ulcers
#17
REVIEW
Cho Naing, Maxine A Whittaker
BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers, also known as bed sores, pressure sores or decubitus ulcers develop as a result of a localised injury to the skin or underlying tissue, or both. The ulcers usually arise over a bony prominence, and are recognised as a common medical problem affecting people confined to a bed or wheelchair for long periods of time. Anabolic steroids are used as off-label drugs (drugs which are used without regulatory approval) and have been used as adjuvants to usual treatment with dressings, debridement, nutritional supplements, systemic antibiotics and antiseptics, which are considered to be supportive in healing of pressure ulcers...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623037/muscle-recruitment-and-coordination-with-an-ankle-exoskeleton
#18
Katherine M Steele, Rachel W Jackson, Benjamin R Shuman, Steven H Collins
Exoskeletons have the potential to assist and augment human performance. Understanding how users adapt their movement and neuromuscular control in response to external assistance is important to inform the design of these devices. The aim of this research was to evaluate changes in muscle recruitment and coordination for ten unimpaired individuals walking with an ankle exoskeleton. We evaluated changes in the activity of individual muscles, cocontraction levels, and synergistic patterns of muscle coordination with increasing exoskeleton work and torque...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621415/building-functional-units-of-movement-generation-and-movement-sensation-in-the-embryo
#19
Peleg Hasson, Talila Volk, Adi Salzberg
The musculoskeletal and proprioceptive sensory systems exhibit intricate crosstalk between force generation, force sensation and force transmission, all of which are critical for coordinated animal locomotion. Recent developmental studies of the musculoskeletal and proprioceptive units of the invertebrate Drosophila embryo, have revealed several common molecular and structural principles mediating the formation of each of these systems. These common principles, as well as the differences between the developmental programs of the two systems, are discussed...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617826/cf2-transcription-factor-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-mef2-rna-levels-nuclei-number-and-muscle-fiber-size
#20
Juan J Arredondo, Jorge Vivar, Sara Laine-Menéndez, Leticia Martínez-Morentin, Margarita Cervera
CF2 and Mef2 influence a variety of developmental muscle processes at distinct stages of development. Nevertheless, the exact nature of the CF2-Mef2 relationship and its effects on muscle building remain yet to be resolved. Here, we explored the regulatory role of CF2 in the Drosophila embryo muscle formation. To address this question and not having proper null CF2 mutants we exploited loss or gain of function strategies to study the contribution of CF2 to Mef2 transcription regulation and to muscle formation...
2017: PloS One
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