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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652215/stigma-of-sickle-cell-disease-a-systematic-review
#1
Dominique Bulgin, Paula Tanabe, Coretta Jenerette
The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the literature regarding health-related stigma in adolescents and adults living with sickle cell disease (SCD). Four domains were identified from 27 studies: 1) social consequences of stigma, 2) the effect of stigma on psychological well-being, 3) the effect of stigma on physiological well-being, and 4) the impact of stigma on patient-provider relationships and care-seeking behaviors. Current literature revealed that SCD stigma has detrimental consequences...
April 13, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651888/mechanisms-of-performance-improvements-due-to-a-leading-teammate-during-uphill-cycling
#2
Theo Ouvrard, Alain Groslambert, Gilles Ravier, Sidney Grosprêtre, Phillipe Gimenez, Frederic Grappe
PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify the impact of a leading teammate in front of a cyclist on psychological, physiological, biomechanical and performance parameters during an uphill maximal effort. METHODS: After familiarisation, twelve well-trained competitive cyclists completed two uphill time-trials (UTTs, 2.7 km at 7.4 %) in randomised order: one performed alone (control condition), and one following a simulated teammate during the entire UTT (leader condition)...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649711/the-interaction-of-bdnf-val66met-ptsd-and-child-abuse-on-psychophysiological-reactivity-and-hpa-axis-function-in-a-sample-of-gulf-war-veterans
#3
Dmitri A Young, Thomas C Neylan, Aoife O'Donovan, Thomas Metzler, Anne Richards, Jessica A Ross, Sabra S Inslicht
INTRODUCTION: While the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has been linked to various psychological disorders, limited focus has been on its relationship to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and early traumas such as child abuse. Therefore, we assessed whether Val66Met was associated with fear potentiated psychophysiological response and HPA axis dysfunction and whether PTSD status or child abuse history moderated these outcomes in a sample of Veterans. METHODS: 226 and 173 participants engaged in a fear potentiated acoustic startle paradigm and a dexamethasone suppression test (DST) respectively...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648848/howard-b-eichenbaum-1947-2017
#4
Neal J Cohen, Matthew Shapiro
Presents an obituary of Howard B. Eichenbaum (1947-2017). Eichenbaum, a world leader in the study of memory and the brain, died in Boston, Massachusetts, on July 21, 2017, at age 69, following recent spine surgery. Eichenbaum was a hugely creative and integrative scientist whose work combined cognitive and lesion analyses with high-density neuronal recordings, providing insights into brain computations and representations that help bridge psychological and physiological mechanisms of memory. His theories and original and elegant experiments in animals have greatly advanced our knowledge of the nature and brain mechanisms of memory in animals and humans alike...
April 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644065/frailty-and-chronic-kidney-disease-current-evidence-and-continuing-uncertainties
#5
Andrew C Nixon, Theodoros M Bampouras, Neil Pendleton, Alexander Woywodt, Sandip Mitra, Ajay Dhaygude
Frailty, the state of increased vulnerability to physical stressors as a result of progressive and sustained degeneration in multiple physiological systems, is common in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In fact, the prevalence of frailty in the older adult population is reported to be 11%, whereas the prevalence of frailty has been reported to be greater than 60% in dialysis-dependent CKD patients. Frailty is independently linked with adverse clinical outcomes in all stages of CKD and has been repeatedly shown to be associated with an increased risk of mortality and hospitalization...
April 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642757/associations-between-chronotype-morbidity-and-mortality-in-the-uk-biobank-cohort
#6
Kristen L Knutson, Malcolm von Schantz
Later chronotype (i.e. evening preference) and later timing of sleep have been associated with greater morbidity, including higher rates of metabolic dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, no one has examined whether chronotype is associated with mortality risk to date. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that being an evening type is associated with increased mortality in a large cohort study, the UK Biobank. Our analysis included 433 268 adults aged 38-73 at the time of enrolment and an average 6...
April 11, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628723/prevalence-of-postmenopausal-symptoms-its-effect-on-quality-of-life-and-coping-in-rural-couple
#7
Radha Shukla, Jaishree Ganjiwale, Rakhee Patel
Aim: Menopause is a physiological process, with potential to lead to various pathological/psychological complications, leading to change in quality of life (QOL). Although literature suggests the effect of menopause on various aspects of life, there is scarcity of studies from rural setup in this regard. Thus, it is essential to assess extent of menopause-related changes, its awareness, and coping mechanisms in rural couple. This study aimed to find the prevalence of postmenopausal symptoms, its severity, and effect on QOL of rural women and the couples' coping mechanisms...
January 2018: Journal of Mid-life Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628432/cognitive-and-psychological-issues-in-postural-tachycardia-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Vidya Raj, Morwenna Opie, Amy C Arnold
Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is one of the most common forms of chronic orthostatic intolerance. In addition to orthostatic symptoms, many POTS patients report incapacitating cognitive dysfunction or "brain fog" even while lying down or seated. Consistent with these subjective reports, there is accruing objective evidence of specific cognitive difficulties in POTS, with studies showing mild to moderate cognitive impairment using standardized neuropsychological assessment batteries. The precise profile of cognitive dysfunction in POTS patients has been shown to vary among these studies potentially due to the neuropsychological tests used, postural position, comorbidities and length of illness, inclusion of adolescent versus adult patients, and sites of recruitment...
March 27, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627695/mindfulness-based-resilience-training-to-reduce-health-risk-stress-reactivity-and-aggression-among-law-enforcement-officers-a-feasibility-and-preliminary-efficacy-trial
#9
Michael S Christopher, Matthew Hunsinger, Lt Richard J Goerling, Sarah Bowen, Brant S Rogers, Cynthia R Gross, Eli Dapolonia, Jens C Pruessner
The primary objective of this study was to assess feasibility and gather preliminary outcome data on Mindfulness-Based Resilience Training (MBRT) for law enforcement officers. Participants (n = 61) were randomized to either an 8-week MBRT course or a no intervention control group. Self-report and physiological data were collected at baseline, post-training, and three months following intervention completion. Attendance, adherence, post-training participant feedback, and interventionist fidelity to protocol all demonstrated feasibility of MBRT for law enforcement officers...
March 23, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626378/physiological-and-psychological-effects-of-gardening-activity-in-older-adults
#10
Ahmad Hassan, Chen Qibing, Jiang Tao
AIM: Gardening has long been one of most enjoyable pastimes among older adults. Whether gardening activities contribute to the well-being of older adults is a major question. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the psychophysiological relaxing effects of gardening activities on older adults living in modern institutional care. METHODS: The study participants were 40 older women aged 79.5 ± 8.09 years (mean ± SD). A cross-over study design was used to investigate the physiological and psychological responses to environments with and without plants...
April 6, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623604/mental-fatigue-and-soccer-current-knowledge-and-future-directions
#11
Mitchell R Smith, Chris Thompson, Samuele M Marcora, Sabrina Skorski, Tim Meyer, Aaron J Coutts
Fatigue is a complex state with multiple physiological and psychological origins. However, fatigue in soccer has traditionally been investigated from a physiological perspective, with little emphasis on the cognitive demands of competition. These cognitive demands may induce mental fatigue, which could contribute to the fatigue-related performance decrements observed during and after soccer matches. Recent research investigating the relationship between mental fatigue and soccer-specific performance supports this suggestion...
April 5, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623033/aggression-social-stress-and-the-immune-system-in-humans-and-animal-models
#12
REVIEW
Aki Takahashi, Meghan E Flanigan, Bruce S McEwen, Scott J Russo
Social stress can lead to the development of psychological problems ranging from exaggerated anxiety and depression to antisocial and violence-related behaviors. Increasing evidence suggests that the immune system is involved in responses to social stress in adulthood. For example, human studies show that individuals with high aggression traits display heightened inflammatory cytokine levels and dysregulated immune responses such as slower wound healing. Similar findings have been observed in patients with depression, and comorbidity of depression and aggression was correlated with stronger immune dysregulation...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620390/yoga-as-an-intervention-for-psychological-symptoms-following-trauma-a-systematic-review-and-quantitative-synthesis
#13
Viann N Nguyen-Feng, Cari J Clark, Mary E Butler
Despite evidence of the physiologic impact of trauma, treatments are only beginning to focus on the impact of trauma on the body. Yoga may be a promising treatment for trauma sequelae, given research that supports yoga for general distress. The present study aims to systematically assess and quantitatively synthesize the effectiveness of yoga interventions for psychological symptoms (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression, anxiety symptoms) following potentially traumatic life events. The following electronic databases were systematically searched: PsycINFO, Ovid Medline/PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Embase/Embase Classic...
April 5, 2018: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617398/impact-of-an-animal-assisted-therapy-programme-on-physiological-and-psychosocial-variables-of-paediatric-oncology-patients
#14
Nathiana B Silva, Flávia L Osório
The objective of this study was to propose an intervention and safety protocol for performing animal-assisted therapy (AAT) and evaluating its efficacy in children under outpatient oncological treatment based on psychological, physiological, and quality of life indicators for the children and caregivers. The sample consisted of 24 children diagnosed with leukaemia and solid tumours (58% girls with a mean age of 8.0 years) who underwent an AAT programme consisting of three 30-min sessions in an open group. Two dogs (one Labrador retriever and one golden retriever) were used, and activities such as sensory stimulation, gait training, and socialization were conducted...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616454/effects-of-social-exclusion-on-cardiovascular-and-affective-reactivity-to-a-socially-evaluative-stressor
#15
Timothy J Williamson, KaMala S Thomas, Naomi I Eisenberger, Annette L Stanton
PURPOSE: Socially disconnected individuals have worse health than those who feel socially connected. The mechanisms through which social disconnection influences physiological and psychological outcomes warrant study. The current study tested whether experimental manipulations of social exclusion, relative to inclusion, influenced subsequent cardiovascular (CV) and affective reactivity to socially evaluative stress. METHODS: Young adults (N = 81) were assigned through block randomization to experience either social exclusion or inclusion, using a standardized computer-based task (Cyberball)...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614960/chair-based-exercise-in-community-settings-a-cluster-randomised-feasibility-study
#16
K R Robinson, A L Long, P Leighton, S Armstrong, R Pulikottill-Jacob, J R F Gladman, A L Gordon, P Logan, K A Anthony, R H Harwood, P E Blackshaw, T Masud
BACKGROUND: Some older people who find standard exercise programmes too strenuous may be encouraged to exercise while remaining seated - chair based exercises (CBE). We previously developed a consensus CBE programme (CCBE) following a modified Delphi process. We firstly needed to test the feasibility and acceptability of this treatment approach and explore how best to evaluate it before undertaking a definitive trial. METHODS: A feasibility study with a cluster randomised controlled trial component was undertaken to 1...
April 3, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614917/perfectionism-and-training-distress-in-junior-athletes-the-mediating-role-of-coping-tendencies
#17
Daniel J Madigan, Andrew P Hill, Paul A Anstiss, Sarah H Mallinson-Howard, Simon Kumar
Training distress occurs when athletes fail to cope with physiological and psychological stress and can be an early sign of overtraining syndrome. Recent research has found that perfectionism predicts increases in training distress in junior athletes over time. The current study provides the first empirical test of the possibility that coping tendencies mediate the perfectionism-training distress relationship. Adopting a cross-sectional design, 171 junior athletes (mean age = 18.1 years) completed self-report measures of perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, problem-focused coping, avoidant coping, and training distress...
April 3, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614555/-assessment-of-the-quality-of-life-of-tongue-base-cancer-patients-after-reconstruction-with-anterolateral-thigh-perforator-flap
#18
N Gao, K Fu, W He
Objective: To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of patients who underwent resection of tongue base cancer and reconstruction by anterolateral thigh perforator free flap(ALTFF). Methods: A total of 77 patients with tongue cancer who underwent glossectomy and reconstruction by ALTFF were retrospectively analyzed in this work. At intervals of 3-month before operation, as well as both 3-month and 12-month post-operation, the QOL of these patients was assessed by using the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaires(OHIP-14) and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Head and Neck Module(EORTC-QLQ-H&N35)...
March 7, 2018: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611872/the-dresden-burnout-study-protocol-of-a-prospective-cohort-study-for-the-bio-psychological-investigation-of-burnout
#19
Marlene Penz, Magdalena K Wekenborg, Lars Pieper, Katja Beesdo-Baum, Andreas Walther, Robert Miller, Tobias Stalder, Clemens Kirschbaum
OBJECTIVES: The Dresden Burnout Study (DBS) is a 12-year longitudinal cohort study that aims to provide a description of the burnout syndrome on the basis of time and symptom criteria with a special focus on the search for biomarkers. Biological and psychosocial approaches are applied to examine the long-term course and consequences of burnout within a population-based German-speaking sample aged 18 to 68 years. METHODS: Demographics and psychosocial data are generated by online assessments, including demographics and questionnaires on burnout, burnout-related constructs, work-environment, and health-related factors...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609922/an-investigation-into-the-use-of-recorded-music-as-a-surgical-intervention-a-systematic-critical-review-of-methodologies-used-in-recent-adult-controlled-trials
#20
Courtney Williams, Trevor Hine
CONTEXT: While music is being increasingly used as a surgical intervention, the types of music used and the reasons underlying their selection remain inconsistent. Empirical research into the efficacy of such musical interventions is therefore problematic. OBJECTIVE: To provide clear guidelines for musical selection and employment in surgical interventions, created through a synthesis of the literature. The aim is to examine how music is implemented in surgical situations, and to provide guidance for the selection and composition of music for future interventions...
April 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
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