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Tacit learning

Ole Lund, Berit Andersen, Mette K Christensen
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to explore the habitual constraints and opportunities that affect how experienced clinicians learn new skills and, in particular, how new ways of teaching can influence these. Methods:   We conducted a case study based on a specialized training program for colonoscopy services in Denmark. Data was obtained from a short-term ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviews during this program. Participants were 12 experienced colonoscopists and three expert colonoscopy trainers from Denmark and UK...
2016: International Journal of Medical Education
Leah Bowen, Alison Shaw, Mark D Lyttle, Sarah Purdy
BACKGROUND: Rates of unplanned paediatric admissions are persistently high. Many admissions are short-stay events, lasting less than 48 hours. OBJECTIVE: This qualitative research explores factors that influence clinical decision making in the paediatric ED (PED) for children under 5 attending with acute respiratory conditions, focusing on how management decisions adapt with increasing experience. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 PED clinicians (doctors, emergency nurse practitioners and registered nurses) with varying levels of experience in paediatric emergency medicine (PEM), emergency medicine or paediatrics...
August 5, 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Liz Lees-Deutsch, Jan Christian, Ian Setchfield
This article conveys concerns raised by delegates at the International SAM Conference (Manchester, 2015) regarding how to advance nursing practice in acute medicine. It endeavors to capture the essence of 'how to advance practice' and 'how to integrate advanced practice' within the workforce structures of an acute medicine unit (AMU). It addresses the production of tacit knowledge and the recognition and integration of this to developing the nursing workforce. The current context of NHS efficiencies and recruitment issues emphasize the value of retaining tacit knowledge...
2016: Acute Medicine
Yasuko Maekawa, Yukie Majima, Masato Soga
In nursing education, it is important that nursing students acquire the appropriate nursing knowledge and skills which include the empirical tacit knowledge of the skilled nurses. Verbalizing them is difficult. We paid attention to the eye tracking at the time of the skill enforcement of expert nurses and the nursing students. It is said that the sight accounts for 70% higher than of all sense information. For the purpose of the learning support of the tacit nursing skill, we analyzed the difference of both including the gaze from an actual measured value with the eye mark recorder...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Matthias Deliano, Karsten Tabelow, Reinhard König, Jörg Polzehl
Estimation of learning curves is ubiquitously based on proportions of correct responses within moving trial windows. Thereby, it is tacitly assumed that learning performance is constant within the moving windows, which, however, is often not the case. In the present study we demonstrate that violations of this assumption lead to systematic errors in the analysis of learning curves, and we explored the dependency of these errors on window size, different statistical models, and learning phase. To reduce these errors in the analysis of single-subject data as well as on the population level, we propose adequate statistical methods for the estimation of learning curves and the construction of confidence intervals, trial by trial...
2016: PloS One
Andrew K Tolmie, Zayba Ghazali, Suzanne Morris
BACKGROUND: Research has identified the core skills that predict success during primary school in reading and arithmetic, and this knowledge increasingly informs teaching. However, there has been no comparable work that pinpoints the core skills that underlie success in science. AIMS AND METHOD: The present paper attempts to redress this by examining candidate skills and considering what is known about the way in which they emerge, how they relate to each other and to other abilities, how they change with age, and how their growth may vary between topic areas...
September 2016: British Journal of Educational Psychology
David F Lancy
Since Margaret Mead's field studies in the South Pacific a century ago, there has been the tacit understanding that as culture varies, so too must the socialization of children to become competent culture users and bearers. More recently, the work of anthropologists has been mined to find broader patterns that may be common to childhood across a range of societies. One improbable commonality has been the tolerance, even encouragement, of toddler behavior that is patently risky, such as playing with or attempting to use a sharp-edged tool...
May 2016: Child Development
Thea van Lankveld, Judith Schoonenboom, Rashmi Kusurkar, Jos Beishuizen, Gerda Croiset, Monique Volman
BACKGROUND: Informal peer learning is a particularly powerful form of learning for medical teachers, although it does not always occur automatically in the departments of medical schools. In this article, the authors explore the role of teacher communities in enhancing informal peer learning among undergraduate medical teachers. Teacher communities are groups of teachers who voluntarily gather on a regular basis to develop and share knowledge. Outside of medical education, these informal teacher communities have proved to be an effective means of enhancing peer learning of academic teachers...
2016: BMC Medical Education
Jennifer C Weeks, Renée K Biss, Kelly J Murphy, Lynn Hasher
Difficulty remembering faces and corresponding names is a hallmark of cognitive aging, as is increased susceptibility to distraction. Given evidence that older adults spontaneously encode relationships between target pictures and simultaneously occurring distractors (a hyper-binding phenomenon), we asked whether memory for face-name pairs could be improved through prior exposure to faces presented with distractor names. In three experiments, young and older adults performed a selective attention task on faces while ignoring superimposed names...
February 1, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Cecilia Heyes
To make good use of learning from others (social learning), we need to learn from the right others; from agents who know better than we do. Research on social learning strategies (SLSs) has identified rules that focus social learning on the right agents, and has shown that the behaviour of many animals conforms to these rules. However, it has not asked what the rules are made of, that is, about the cognitive processes implementing SLSs. Here, I suggest that most SLSs depend on domain-general, sensorimotor processes...
March 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Anne Hudon, Kadija Perreault, Maude Laliberté, Pascal Desrochers, Bryn Williams-Jones, Debbie Ehrmann Feldman, Matthew Hunt, Evelyne Durocher, Barbara Mazer
PURPOSE: Ethical practice is an essential competency for occupational and physical therapists. However, rehabilitation educators have few points of reference for choosing appropriate pedagogical and evaluation methods related to ethics. The objectives of this study were to: (1) identify priority content to cover in ethics teaching in occupational therapy (OT) and physical therapy (PT) programmes and (2) explore useful and innovative teaching and evaluation methods. METHOD: Data for this qualitative descriptive study were collected during a 1-d knowledge exchange workshop focused on ethics teaching in rehabilitation...
November 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
John W Whiteoak, Sherif Mohamed
Systems thinking is a philosophy currently prevalent within construction safety literature that is applied to understand and improve safety in sociotechnical systems. Among systems, the site-project organizational system is of particular interest to this paper. Using focus group and survey feedback research to learn about how safety incidents effect levels of construction workers engagement this paper reveals how a safety incident provides an opportunity to create a potential quality (productivity) upgrade within an organization...
August 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Maria Athina Tina Martimianakis, Barret Michalec, Justin Lam, Carrie Cartmill, Janelle S Taylor, Frederic W Hafferty
BACKGROUND: Medical educators have used the hidden curriculum concept for over three decades to make visible the effects of tacit learning, including how culture, structures, and institutions influence professional identity formation. In response to calls to see more humanistic-oriented training in medicine, the authors examined how the hidden curriculum construct has been applied in the English language medical education literature with a particular (and centering) look at its use within literature pertaining to humanism...
November 2015: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Tarek Malas, Richard Saczkowski, Benjamin Sohmer, Marc Ruel, Thierry Mesana, Laurent de Kerchove, Gebrine El Khoury, Munir Boodhwani
BACKGROUND: Aortic valve (AV) preservation and repair, although effective, is performed in a limited number of centres. Lack of wider application might be due to challenges in dissemination of tacit surgical knowledge. We examined the learning curve in 2 centres that initiated dedicated programs in AV repair. METHODS: Prospectively collected data on the first 100 (cohort A) and 150 consecutive patients (cohort B) who underwent AV repair surgery were analyzed. Safety end points included mortality, myocardial infarction or stroke, early AV repeat surgery, re-exploration for bleeding, or pacemaker implantation...
December 2015: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Veena Patel, Prashanth Patel, Rachel Jeffery, James Taylor, Hywel Thomas
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions affect millions of people around the world. Gait, Arms, Legs and Spine (GALS) is a simple and useful screening tool for routine MSK examination in hospitals and general practice and has been integrated into the undergraduate medical curriculum. Despite this, there is evidence that doctors lack competency in MSK examination and that GALS are underperformed routinely. OBJECTIVES: The study explored the views of junior doctors (JDs) on how they were taught MSK examination as undergraduates; the usefulness of GALS as a technique for excluding significant MSK problems; why MSK examination was often poorly carried out and how this could be improved...
August 2015: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Mei Yuit Chan
The oral case presentation is an important communicative activity in the teaching and assessment of students. Despite its importance, not much attention has been paid to providing support for teachers to teach this difficult task to medical students who are novices to this form of communication. As a formalized piece of talk that takes a regularized form and used for a specific communicative goal, the case presentation is regarded as a rhetorical activity and awareness of its rhetorical and linguistic characteristics should be given due consideration in teaching...
2015: Medical Education Online
Ashley P Duggan, Andrea Vicini, Lucas Allen, Allen F Shaughnessy
Patients share straightforward statements with physicians such as describing their fears about their diagnosis. Physicians need to also understanding implicit, indirect, subtle communication cues that give broader context to patients' illness experiences. This project examines physicians' written reflections that offer insight into their interpretation of both the stated and the tacit aspects of their observations about communication, their resulting responses, and their intended actions. Tufts University Family Medicine residents (N = 33) of the Tufts Family Medicine Cambridge Health Alliance completed three reflective exercises each week over the course of 1 year (756 reflective entries)...
2015: Journal of Health Communication
Erik Gustafsson, Julie Brisson, Christelle Beaulieu, Marc Mainville, Dominique Mailloux, Sylvain Sirois
The emergence of joint attention is still a matter of vigorous debate. It involves diverse hypotheses ranging from innate modules dedicated to intention reading to more neuro-constructivist approaches. The aim of this study was to assess whether 12-month-old infants are able to recognize a "joint attention" situation when observing such a social interaction. Using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, we habituated infants to a "joint attention" video and then compared their looking time durations between "divergent attention" videos and "joint attention" ones using a 2 (familiar or novel perceptual component)×2 (familiar or novel conceptual component) factorial design...
August 2015: Infant Behavior & Development
Marcus B Becker, Marianne Behrends, Christoph Barthel, Thomas Kupka, Regina Schmeer, Iris Meyenburg-Altwarg, Michael Marschollek
OBJECTIVE: In complex clinical on-the-job training a seamless and target-oriented incorporation is crucial to assure a good medical care. The reliable transmission of specific and relevant facts, besides education knowledge, is a key factor to ensure sustainable quality in care processes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present the clinical field study WITRA care. A possible way to capture hidden clinical care knowledge with assistance of mobile devices will be described...
2015: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Sietse Wieringa, Trisha Greenhalgh
BACKGROUND: In 2004, Gabbay and le May showed that clinicians generally base their decisions on mindlines-internalised and collectively reinforced tacit guidelines-rather than consulting written clinical guidelines. We considered how the concept of mindlines has been taken forward since. METHODS: We searched databases from 2004 to 2014 for the term 'mindline(s)' and tracked all sources citing Gabbay and le May's 2004 article. We read and re-read papers to gain familiarity and developed an interpretive analysis and taxonomy by drawing on the principles of meta-narrative systematic review...
2015: Implementation Science: IS
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