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Implicit learning

Nathaniel D Anderson, Gary S Dell
Speakers implicitly learn novel phonotactic patterns by producing strings of syllables. The learning is revealed in their speech errors. First-order patterns, such as "/f/ must be a syllable onset," can be distinguished from contingent, or second-order, patterns, such as "/f/ must be an onset if the vowel is /a/, but a coda if the vowel is /o/." A metaanalysis of 19 experiments clearly demonstrated that first-order patterns affect speech errors to a very great extent in a single experimental session, but second-order vowel-contingent patterns only affect errors on the second day of testing, suggesting the need for a consolidation period...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sébastien Pacton, Amandine Afonso Jaco, Marion Nys, Jean Noël Foulin, Rebecca Treiman, Ronald Peereman
We examined whether French children in Grades 3 and 5 (aged ∼ 8-11 years) benefit from morphological relatedness beyond orthographic relatedness in the implicit learning of new spellings. Children silently read stories that included two target nonwords. One nonword was in an opaque condition in that nothing in the story could justify the spelling of its final sound. The other nonword was in either a morphological condition (for children in the morphological group) or an orthographic condition (for children in the orthographic group)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Kelsey E Klein, Elizabeth A Walker, J Bruce Tomblin
The authors tested the hypothesis that children with cochlear implants (CIs) experience domain-general deficits in sequential learning. Twenty children with CIs and 40 children with normal hearing (NH) participated. Participants completed a serial reaction time task that measured implicit sequential learning. During random sequence phases, the CI group had significantly slower reaction times than the NH group. However, there were no significant differences in the rates of sequential learning between groups...
March 15, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Holly Lear, Winifred Eboh, Lesley Diack
BACKGROUND: In a wider doctoral study related to unfavourable experiences of nursing students studying abroad, the researcher undertook a reflexive interview to reduce the potential for bias. AIM: To discuss a method for conducting reflexive interviews and recommend their use to nurse researchers. DISCUSSION: A reflexive interview was undertaken to reduce bias and pilot an original interview instrument. A senior researcher interviewed the researcher using original questions that would be used to interview participants in the wider doctoral study...
March 16, 2018: Nurse Researcher
Caio M Moreira, Max Rollwage, Kristin Kaduk, Melanie Wilke, Igor Kagan
Humans and other animals constantly evaluate their decisions in order to learn and behave adaptively. Experimentally, such evaluation processes are accessed using metacognitive reports made after decisions, typically using verbally formulated confidence scales. When subjects report high confidence, it reflects a high certainty of being correct, but a low confidence might signify either low certainty about the outcome, or a high certainty of being incorrect. Hence, metacognitive reports might reflect not only different levels of decision certainty, but also two certainty directions (certainty of being correct and certainty of being incorrect)...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
Xiujun Li, Xudong Zhao, Wendian Shi, Yang Lu, Christopher M Conway
A current controversy in the area of implicit statistical learning (ISL) is whether this process consists of a single, central mechanism or multiple modality-specific ones. To provide insight into this question, the current study involved three ISL experiments to explore whether multimodal input sources are processed separately in each modality or are integrated together across modalities. In Experiment 1, visual and auditory ISL were measured under unimodal conditions, with the results providing a baseline level of learning for subsequent experiments...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Dragana Milutinović, Robert Lovrić, Dragana Simin
BACKGROUND: There is an implicit expectation for medical sciences students to work together effectively as members of health-care team, and interprofessional education is therefore widely accepted. Students' attitudes, which are affected by various factors, have been recognized as the most important predictors of successful implementation of interprofessional education with the aim of developing collaborative practice. The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale has often been used in studies to measure these perspectives...
March 8, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Fuqiang Qiao, Fenfen Sun, Fengying Li, Xiaoli Ling, Li Zheng, Lin Li, Xiuyan Guo, Zoltan Dienes
Fluency influences grammaticality judgments of visually presented strings in artificial grammar learning (AGL). Of many potential sources that engender fluency, symmetry is considered to be an important factor. However, symmetry may function differently for visual and auditory stimuli, which present computationally different problems. Thus, the current study aimed to examine whether objectively manipulating fluency by speeding up perception (i.e., manipulating the inter-stimulus interval, ISI, between each syllable of a string) influenced judgments of tonal strings; and thus how symmetry-based fluency might influence judgments...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Vidula Purohit, Abhay Kudale, Neisha Sundaram, Saju Joseph, Christian Schaetti, Mitchell G Weiss
BACKGROUND: Prior experience and the persisting threat of influenza pandemic indicate the need for global and local preparedness and public health response capacity. The pandemic of 2009 highlighted the importance of such planning and the value of prior efforts at all levels. Our review of the public health response to this pandemic in Pune, India, considers the challenges of integrating global and national strategies in local programmes and lessons learned for influenza pandemic preparedness...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Jocelyn Breton, Edwin M Robertson
Our brains are constantly processing past events [1]. These off-line processes consolidate memories, leading in the case of motor skill memories to an enhancement in performance between training sessions. A similar magnitude of enhancement develops over a night of sleep following an implicit task, when a sequence of movements is acquired unintentionally, or following an explicit task, when the same sequence is acquired intentionally [2]. What remains poorly understood, however, is whether these similar offline improvements are supported by similar circuits, or through distinct circuits...
June 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
Charles Locurto, Alexandra Eckert, Julia Gould, Daniel McMaster, Matthew Morrow
Two experiments used a methodology in which elements in a serially presented sequence of 5 elements were randomly reinforced during training. To assess what was learned, elements were systematically swapped with each other during testing. The usual outcome measures in implicit sequence learning of this type are either a random test in which elements are disarrayed, or pairwise tests in which subjects choose between two elements. Each of these methods possesses shortcomings. The random test is a blunt measure, whereas pairwise tests disrupt the usual flow of elements in a serial sequence...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
Habib Hajimolahoseini, Javad Hashemi, Saeed Gazor, Damian Redfearn
OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm to extract the active intervals of intracardiac electrograms during atrial fibrillation. METHODS: First, we show that the characteristics of the signal waveform at its inflection points are prominent features that are implicitly used by human annotators for distinguishing between active and inactive intervals of IEGMs. Then, we show that the natural logarithm of features corresponding to active and inactive intervals exhibits a mixture of two Gaussian distributions in three dimensional feature space...
March 1, 2018: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
Assaf Soref, Nira Liberman, Amitai Abramovitch, Reuven Dar
Previous studies have shown that individuals diagnosed with OCD tend to rely on explicit processing while performing implicit learning tasks. We sought to investigate whether individuals with OCD are capable of implicit learning, but would demonstrate improved performance when explicit processing strategies are enhanced. Twenty-four participants with OCD and 24 non-psychiatric control (NPC) participants performed an implicit learning task in which they responded to a single target stimulus that successively appears at one of four locations according to an underlying sequence...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Karen L Campbell, Lynn Hasher
We have previously shown that older adults hyper-bind, or form more extraneous associations than younger adults. For instance, when asked to perform a 1-back task on pictures superimposed with distracting words, older adults inadvertently form associations between target-distractor pairs and implicitly transfer these associations to a later paired associate learning task (showing a boost in relearning of preserved over disrupted pairs). We have argued that younger adults are better at suppressing the distracting words and thus, do not form these extraneous associations in the first place...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
Renée K Biss, Gillian Rowe, Jennifer C Weeks, Lynn Hasher, Kelly J Murphy
Forgetting people's names is a common memory complaint among older adults and one that is consistent with experimental evidence of age-related decline in memory for face-name associations. Despite this difficulty intentionally forming face-name associations, a recent study demonstrated that older adults hyperbind distracting names and attended faces, which produces better learning of these face-name pairs when they reappear on a memory test (Weeks, Biss, Murphy, & Hasher, 2016). The current study explored whether this effect could be leveraged as an intervention to reduce older adults' forgetting of face-name associations, using a method previously shown to improve older adults' retention of a word list (Biss, Ngo, Hasher, Campbell, & Rowe, 2013)...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
Nathalie Mandairon, Nicola Kuczewski, Florence Kermen, Jérémy Forest, Maellie Midroit, Marion Richard, Marc Thevenet, Joelle Sacquet, Christiane Linster, Anne Didier
Both passive exposure and active learning through reinforcement enhance fine sensory discrimination abilities. In the olfactory system, this enhancement is thought to occur partially through the integration of adult-born inhibitory interneurons resulting in a refinement of the representation of overlapping odorants. Here, we identify in mice a novel and unexpected dissociation between passive and active learning at the level of adult-born granule cells. Specifically, while both passive and active learning processes augment neurogenesis, adult-born cells differ in their morphology, functional coupling and thus their impact on olfactory bulb output...
February 28, 2018: ELife
Mireille Krischler, Ineke M Pit-Ten Cate, Sabine Krolak-Schwerdt
BACKGROUND: Students with special educational needs (SEN) remain one of the most socially excluded and vulnerable groups. To this extent, negative attitudes and stereotypes may impede their inclusion. Theoretical frameworks have suggested that stereotypes and attitudes elicit differential expectations and judgments, which in turn affect (social) behaviors. AIMS: In this study, we aimed to investigate the stereotypes and implicit attitudes held by a sample of Luxemburgish adults toward students with learning difficulties and challenging behavior...
February 24, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Lisa Soleymani Lehmann, Lois Snyder Sulmasy, Sanjay Desai
Much of what is formally taught in medicine is about the knowledge, skills, and behaviors required of a physician, including how to express compassion and respect for patients at the bedside. What is learned, however, includes not only admirable qualities but also behaviors and qualities that are inconsistent with ethics and professionalism. Positive role models may reinforce the character and values the profession seeks to cultivate; negative ones directly contradict classroom lessons and expectations of patients, society, and medical educators...
February 27, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Susana Silva, Vasiliki Folia, Filomena Inácio, São Luís Castro, Karl Magnus Petersson
Recently, it has been proposed that sequence learning engages a combination of modality-specific operating networks and modality-independent computational principles. In the present study, we compared the behavioural and EEG outcomes of implicit artificial grammar learning in the visual vs. auditory modality. We controlled for the influence of surface characteristics of sequences (Associative Chunk Strength), thus focusing on the strictly structural aspects of sequence learning, and we adapted the paradigms to compensate for known frailties of the visual modality compared to audition (temporal presentation, fast presentation rate)...
February 21, 2018: Brain Research
Amanda O'Connor, Claire Blewitt, Andrea Nolan, Helen Skouteris
Supporting children's social and emotional learning benefits all elements of children's development and has been associated with positive mental health and wellbeing, development of values and life skills. However, literature relating to the creation of interventions designed for use within the early childhood education and care settings to support children's social and emotional skills and learning is lacking. Intervention Mapping (IM) is a systematic intervention development framework, utilising principles centred on participatory co-design methods, multiple theoretical approaches and existing literature to enable effective decision-making during the development process...
February 14, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
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