keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Implicit learning

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424645/cerebellar-tdcs-does-not-enhance-performance-in-an-implicit-categorization-learning-task
#1
Marie C Verhage, Eric O Avila, Maarten A Frens, Opher Donchin, Jos N van der Geest
Background: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a form of non-invasive electrical stimulation that changes neuronal excitability in a polarity and site-specific manner. In cognitive tasks related to prefrontal and cerebellar learning, cortical tDCS arguably facilitates learning, but the few studies investigating cerebellar tDCS, however, are inconsistent. Objective: We investigate the effect of cerebellar tDCS on performance of an implicit categorization learning task. Methods: Forty participants performed a computerized version of an implicit categorization learning task where squares had to be sorted into two categories, according to an unknown but fixed rule that integrated both the size and luminance of the square...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422653/learning-compositional-sparse-bimodal-models
#2
Suren Kumar, Vikas Dhiman, Parker A Koch, Jason J Corso
Various perceptual domains have underlying compositional semantics that are rarely captured in current models. We suspect this is because directly learning the compositional structure has evaded these models. Yet, the compositional structure of a given domain can be grounded in a separate domain thereby simplifying its learning. To that end, we propose a new approach to modeling bimodal perceptual domains that explicitly relates distinct projections across each modality and then jointly learns a bimodal sparse representation...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421018/the-emergence-of-explicit-knowledge-in-a-serial-reaction-time-task-the-role-of-experienced-fluency-and-strength-of-representation
#3
Sarah Esser, Hilde Haider
The Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT) is an important paradigm to study the properties of unconscious learning processes. One specifically interesting and still controversially discussed topic are the conditions under which unconsciously acquired knowledge becomes conscious knowledge. The different assumptions about the underlying mechanisms can contrastively be separated into two accounts: single system views in which the strengthening of associative weights throughout training gradually turns implicit knowledge into explicit knowledge, and dual system views in which implicit knowledge itself does not become conscious...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415910/transfer-of-training-in-simple-addition
#4
Yalin Chen, Jamie I D Campbell
In recent years several researchers have proposed that skilled adults may solve single-digit addition problems (e.g. 3 + 1 = 4, 4 + 3 = 7) using a fast counting procedure. Practicing a procedure, often leads to transfer of learning and faster performance of unpracticed items. Such transfer has been demonstrated using a counting-based alphabet arithmetic task (e.g., B + 4 = C D E F) that indicated robust generalization of practice (i.e., RT gains) when untrained transfer problems at test had been implicitly practiced (e...
April 18, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410109/classification-via-sparse-representation-of-steerable-wavelet-frames-on-grassmann-manifold-application-to-target-recognition-in-sar-image
#5
Ganggang Dong, Gangyao Kuang, Na Wang, Wei Wang
Automatic target recognition has been studied widely over the years, yet it is still an open problem. The main obstacle consists in extended operating conditions, e.g., depression angle change, configuration variation, articulation, occlusion. To deal with them, this paper proposes a new classification strategy. We develop a new representation model via the steerable wavelet frames. The proposed representation model is entirely viewed as an element on Grassmann manifolds. To achieve target classification, we embed Grassmann manifolds into an implicit Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS), where the kernel sparse learning can be applied...
April 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409401/effect-of-chunk-strength-on-the-performance-of-children-with-developmental-dyslexia-on-artificial-grammar-learning-task-may-be-related-to-complexity
#6
Rachel Schiff, Pesia Katan, Ayelet Sasson, Shani Kahta
There's a long held view that chunks play a crucial role in artificial grammar learning performance. We compared chunk strength influences on performance, in high and low topological entropy (a measure of complexity) grammar systems, with dyslexic children, age-matched and reading-level-matched control participants. Findings show that age-matched control participants' performance reflected equivalent influence of chunk strength in the two topological entropy conditions, as typically found in artificial grammar learning experiments...
April 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408601/semantics-derived-automatically-from-language-corpora-contain-human-like-biases
#7
Aylin Caliskan, Joanna J Bryson, Arvind Narayanan
Machine learning is a means to derive artificial intelligence by discovering patterns in existing data. Here, we show that applying machine learning to ordinary human language results in human-like semantic biases. We replicated a spectrum of known biases, as measured by the Implicit Association Test, using a widely used, purely statistical machine-learning model trained on a standard corpus of text from the World Wide Web. Our results indicate that text corpora contain recoverable and accurate imprints of our historic biases, whether morally neutral as toward insects or flowers, problematic as toward race or gender, or even simply veridical, reflecting the status quo distribution of gender with respect to careers or first names...
April 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408582/machines-learn-what-people-know-implicitly
#8
EDITORIAL
Gilbert Chin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406662/explicit-and-implicit-reinforcement-learning-across-the-psychosis-spectrum
#9
Deanna M Barch, Cameron S Carter, James M Gold, Sheri L Johnson, Ann M Kring, Angus W MacDonald, Diego A Pizzagalli, J Daniel Ragland, Steven M Silverstein, Milton E Strauss
Motivational and hedonic impairments are core features of a variety of types of psychopathology. An important aspect of motivational function is reinforcement learning (RL), including implicit (i.e., outside of conscious awareness) and explicit (i.e., including explicit representations about potential reward associations) learning, as well as both positive reinforcement (learning about actions that lead to reward) and punishment (learning to avoid actions that lead to loss). Here we present data from paradigms designed to assess both positive and negative components of both implicit and explicit RL, examine performance on each of these tasks among individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder with psychosis, and examine their relative relationships to specific symptom domains transdiagnostically...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404830/implications-of-plan-based-generalization-in-sensorimotor-adaptation
#10
Samuel David McDougle, Krista M Bond, Jordan A Taylor
Generalization is a fundamental aspect of behavior, allowing for the transfer of knowledge from one context to another. The details of this transfer are thought to reveal how the brain represents what it learns. Generalization has been a central focus in studies of sensorimotor adaptation, and its pattern has been well-characterized: learning of new dynamic and kinematic transformations in one region of space tapers off in a Gaussian-like fashion to neighboring untrained regions, echoing tuned population codes in the brain...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404819/deimatism-a-neglected-component-of-antipredator-defence
#11
REVIEW
Kate D L Umbers, Sebastiano De Bona, Thomas E White, Jussi Lehtonen, Johanna Mappes, John A Endler
Deimatic or 'startle' displays cause a receiver to recoil reflexively in response to a sudden change in sensory input. Deimatism is sometimes implicitly treated as a form of aposematism (unprofitability associated with a signal). However, the fundamental difference is, in order to provide protection, deimatism does not require a predator to have any learned or innate aversion. Instead, deimatism can confer a survival advantage by exploiting existing neural mechanisms in a way that releases a reflexive response in the predator...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394158/long-term-memory-biases-auditory-spatial-attention
#12
Jacqueline F Zimmermann, Morris Moscovitch, Claude Alain
Long-term memory (LTM) has been shown to bias attention to a previously learned visual target location. Here, we examined whether memory-predicted spatial location can facilitate the detection of a faint pure tone target embedded in real world audio clips (e.g., soundtrack of a restaurant). During an initial familiarization task, participants heard audio clips, some of which included a lateralized target (p = 50%). On each trial participants indicated whether the target was presented from the left, right, or was absent...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392082/neglect-as-a-violation-of-species-expectant-experience-neurodevelopmental-consequences
#13
REVIEW
Katie A McLaughlin, Margaret A Sheridan, Charles A Nelson
The human brain requires a wide variety of experiences and environmental inputs in order to develop normally. Children who are neglected by caregivers or raised in institutional environments are deprived of numerous types of species-expectant environmental experiences. In this review, we articulate a model of how the absence of cognitive stimulation and sensory, motor, linguistic, and social experiences common among children raised in deprived early environments constrains early forms of learning, producing long-term deficits in complex cognitive function and associative learning...
February 27, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383991/measuring-and-filtering-reactive-inhibition-is-essential-for-assessing-serial-decision-making-and-learning
#14
Balázs Török, Karolina Janacsek, Dávid G Nagy, Gergő Orbán, Dezso Nemeth
Learning complex structures from stimuli requires extended exposure and often repeated observation of the same stimuli. Learning induces stimulus-dependent changes in specific performance measures. The same performance measures, however, can also be affected by processes that arise because of extended training (e.g., fatigue) but are otherwise independent from learning. Thus, a thorough assessment of the properties of learning can only be achieved by identifying and accounting for the effects of such processes...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383954/the-different-time-course-of-phonotactic-constraint-learning-in-children-and-adults-evidence-from-speech-errors
#15
Eleonore H M Smalle, Merel Muylle, Arnaud Szmalec, Wouter Duyck
Speech errors typically respect the speaker's implicit knowledge of language-wide phonotactics (e.g., /t/ cannot be a syllable onset in the English language). Previous work demonstrated that adults can learn novel experimentally induced phonotactic constraints by producing syllable strings in which the allowable position of a phoneme depends on another phoneme within the sequence (e.g., /t/ can only be an onset if the medial vowel is /i/), but not earlier than the second day of training. Thus far, no work has been done with children...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383932/who-needs-innate-ability-to-succeed-in-math-and-literacy-academic-domain-specific-theories-of-intelligence-about-peers-versus-adults
#16
Elizabeth A Gunderson, Noora Hamdan, Nicole S Sorhagen, Alexander P D'Esterre
Individuals' implicit theories of intelligence exist on a spectrum, from believing intelligence is fixed and unchangeable, to believing it is malleable and can be improved with effort. A belief in malleable intelligence leads to adaptive responses to challenge and higher achievement. However, surprisingly little is known about the development of academic-domain-specific theories of intelligence (i.e., math vs. reading and writing). The authors examined this in a cross-section of students from 1st grade to college (N = 523)...
April 6, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382314/training-a-cell-level-classifier-for-detecting-basal-cell-carcinoma-by-combining-human-visual-attention-maps-with-low-level-handcrafted-features
#17
Germán Corredor, Jon Whitney, Viviana Arias, Anant Madabhushi, Eduardo Romero
Computational histomorphometric approaches typically use low-level image features for building machine learning classifiers. However, these approaches usually ignore high-level expert knowledge. A computational model (M_im) combines low-, mid-, and high-level image information to predict the likelihood of cancer in whole slide images. Handcrafted low- and mid-level features are computed from area, color, and spatial nuclei distributions. High-level information is implicitly captured from the recorded navigations of pathologists while exploring whole slide images during diagnostic tasks...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381930/interference-effect-of-prior-explicit-information-on-motor-sequence-learning-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#18
Nahid Zahiri, Iraj Abollahi, Seyed Massood Nabavi, Fatemeh Ehsani, Amir Masoud Arab, Ina Shaw, Ardalan Shariat, Brandon S Shaw, Maryam Dastoorpoor, Mahmoud Danaee, Bahram Sangelaji
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most widespread disabling neurological condition in young adults around the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of explicit information (EI) on motor-sequence learning in MS patients. METHODS: Thirty patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), age: 29.5 (SD = 5.6) years and 30 healthy gender-, age-, and education-matched control group participants, age: 28.8 (SD = 6.0) years, were recruited for this study...
March 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379932/toward-an-optimal-pedagogy-for-teamwork
#19
Mark A Earnest, Jason Williams, Eva M Aagaard
Teamwork and collaboration are increasingly listed as core competencies for undergraduate health professions education. Despite the clear mandate for teamwork training, the optimal method for providing that training is much less certain. In this Perspective, the authors propose a three-level classification of pedagogical approaches to teamwork training based on the presence of two key learning factors: interdependent work and explicit training in teamwork. In this classification framework, level 1-minimal team learning-is where learners work in small groups but neither of the key learning factors is present...
April 4, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377732/shared-book-reading-promotes-not-only-language-development-but-also-grapheme-awareness-in-german-kindergarten-children
#20
Patricia B C Wesseling, Corinna A Christmann, Thomas Lachmann
Effects of shared book reading on expressive vocabulary and grapheme awareness without letter instruction in German kindergarteners (longitudinal; N = 69, 3;0-4;8 years) were investigated. Expressive vocabulary was measured by using a standardized test; grapheme awareness was measured by asking children to identify one grapheme per trial presented amongst non-letter distractors. Two methods of shared book reading were investigated, literacy enrichment (additional books) and teacher training in shared book reading strategies, both without explicit letter instruction...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
keyword
keyword
97890
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"