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Implicit learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936795/the-ugly-truth-about-ourselves-and-our-robot-creations-the-problem-of-bias-and-social-inequity
#1
Ayanna Howard, Jason Borenstein
Recently, there has been an upsurge of attention focused on bias and its impact on specialized artificial intelligence (AI) applications. Allegations of racism and sexism have permeated the conversation as stories surface about search engines delivering job postings for well-paying technical jobs to men and not women, or providing arrest mugshots when keywords such as "black teenagers" are entered. Learning algorithms are evolving; they are often created from parsing through large datasets of online information while having truth labels bestowed on them by crowd-sourced masses...
September 21, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936186/assessing-the-formation-of-experience-based-gender-expectations-in-an-implicit-learning-scenario
#2
Anton Öttl, Dawn M Behne
The present study investigates the formation of new word-referent associations in an implicit learning scenario, using a gender-coded artificial language with spoken words and visual referents. Previous research has shown that when participants are explicitly instructed about the gender-coding system underlying an artificial lexicon, they monitor the frequency of exposure to male vs. female referents within this lexicon, and subsequently use this probabilistic information to predict the gender of an upcoming referent...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935933/exploring-genetic-influences-underlying-acute-aerobic-exercise-effects-on-motor-learning
#3
Cameron S Mang, Lisa M McEwen, Julia L MacIsaac, Nicholas J Snow, Kristin L Campbell, Michael S Kobor, Colin J D Ross, Lara A Boyd
The objective of the current work was to evaluate whether the effects of acute aerobic exercise on motor learning were dependent on genetic variants impacting brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF val66met polymorphism) and the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2/ANKK1 glu713lys polymorphism) in humans. A retrospective analysis was performed to determine whether these polymorphisms influence data from our two previous studies, which both demonstrated that a single bout of aerobic exercise prior to motor practice enhanced implicit motor learning...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934698/visual-artificial-grammar-learning-in-dyslexia-a-meta-analysis
#4
Merel van Witteloostuijn, Paul Boersma, Frank Wijnen, Judith Rispens
BACKGROUND: Literacy impairments in dyslexia have been hypothesized to be (partly) due to an implicit learning deficit. However, studies of implicit visual artificial grammar learning (AGL) have often yielded null results. AIMS: The aim of this study is to weigh the evidence collected thus far by performing a meta-analysis of studies on implicit visual AGL in dyslexia. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Thirteen studies were selected through a systematic literature search, representing data from 255 participants with dyslexia and 292 control participants (mean age range: 8...
September 18, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933901/motivation-to-avoid-loss-improves-implicit-skill-performance
#5
Danbee Chon, Kelsey R Thompson, Paul J Reber
Implicit learning reflects learning from experience that occurs without intention or awareness of the information acquired and is hypothesized to contribute to skill acquisition by improving performance with practice. The role of motivation has not been examined because this kind of memory is represented outside awareness. We manipulated motivation (approach/avoidance) and type of feedback (positive/negative) to measure how these affected a well-studied task of implicit sequence learning. Across 2 experiments, we found a consistent effect that motivation to avoid loss led to much higher levels of sequence-specific task performance...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924328/grammatical-encoding-and-learning-in-agrammatic-aphasia-evidence-from-structural-priming
#6
Soojin Cho-Reyes, Jennifer E Mack, Cynthia K Thompson
The present study addressed open questions about the nature of sentence production deficits in agrammatic aphasia. In two structural priming experiments, 13 aphasic and 13 age-matched control speakers repeated visually- and auditorily-presented prime sentences, and then used visually-presented word arrays to produce dative sentences. Experiment 1 examined whether agrammatic speakers form structural and thematic representations during sentence production, whereas Experiment 2 tested the lasting effects of structural priming in lags of two and four sentences...
December 2016: Journal of Memory and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922988/erognomic-education-on-housework-for-women-with-upper-limb-repetitive-strain-injury-rsi-a-conceptual-representation-of-therapists-clinical-reasoning
#7
Therma W C Cheung, Lindy Clemson, Kate O' Loughlin, Russell Shuttleworth
BACKGROUND: Ergonomic education in housework that aims to facilitate behavior change is important for women with upper limb repetitive strain injury. Therapists usually conduct such programs based on implicit reasoning. Making this reasoning explicit is important in contributing to the profession's knowledge. AIM: To construct a conceptual representation of how occupational therapists make clinical decisions for such program. METHOD: Based on a constructivist-grounded theory methodology, data were collected through in-depth interviewing with 14 occupational therapists from a major hospital in Singapore...
September 18, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917135/failing-to-learn-from-negative-prediction-errors-obesity-is-associated-with-alterations-in-a-fundamental-neural-learning-mechanism
#8
David Mathar, Jane Neumann, Arno Villringer, Annette Horstmann
Prediction errors (PEs) encode the difference between expected and actual action outcomes in the brain via dopaminergic modulation. Integration of these learning signals ensures efficient behavioral adaptation. Obesity has recently been linked to altered dopaminergic fronto-striatal circuits, thus implying impairments in cognitive domains that rely on its integrity. 28 obese and 30 lean human participants performed an implicit stimulus-response learning paradigm inside an fMRI scanner. Computational modeling and psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis was utilized for assessing PE-related learning and associated functional connectivity...
August 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916843/the-implicit-learning-of-metrical-and-non-metrical-rhythms-in-blind-and-sighted-adults
#9
Claudia Carrara-Augustenborg, Benjamin G Schultz
Forming temporal expectancies plays a crucial role in our survival as it allows us to identify the occurrence of temporal deviants that might signal potential dangers. The dynamic attending theory suggests that temporal expectancies are formed more readily for rhythms that imply a beat (i.e., metrical rhythms) compared to those that do not (i.e., nonmetrical rhythms). Moreover, metrical frameworks can be used to detect temporal deviants. Although several studies have demonstrated that congenital or early blindness correlates with modality-specific neural changes that reflect compensatory mechanisms, few have examined whether blind individuals show a learning advantage for auditory rhythms and whether learning can occur unintentionally and without awareness, that is, implicitly...
September 15, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910771/a-general-framework-for-linear-distance-preserving-hashing
#10
Min Wang, Wengang Zhou, Qi Tian, Houqiang Li
Binary hashing approaches the approximate nearest neighbor search problem by transferring the data to Hamming space with explicit or implicit distance preserving constraint. With compact data representation, binary hashing identifies the approximate nearest neighbors via very efficient Hamming distance computation. In this paper, we propose a generic hashing framework with a new linear pairwise distance preserving objective and point-wise constraint. In our framework, the direct distance preserving objective aims to keep the linear relationship between the Euclidean distance and the Hamming distance of data points...
September 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901038/the-developmental-trajectory-of-children-s-auditory-and-visual-statistical-learning-abilities-modality-based-differences-in-the-effect-of-age
#11
Limor Raviv, Inbal Arnon
Infants, children and adults are capable of extracting recurring patterns from their environment through statistical learning (SL), an implicit learning mechanism that is considered to have an important role in language acquisition. Research over the past 20 years has shown that SL is present from very early infancy and found in a variety of tasks and across modalities (e.g., auditory, visual), raising questions on the domain generality of SL. However, while SL is well established for infants and adults, only little is known about its developmental trajectory during childhood, leaving two important questions unanswered: (1) Is SL an early-maturing capacity that is fully developed in infancy, or does it improve with age like other cognitive capacities (e...
September 12, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900409/learning-to-dislike-chocolate-conditioning-negative-attitudes-toward-chocolate-and-its-effect-on-chocolate-consumption
#12
Yan Wang, Guosen Wang, Dingyuan Zhang, Lei Wang, Xianghua Cui, Jinglei Zhu, Yuan Fang
Evaluative conditioning (EC) procedures can be used to form and change attitudes toward a wide variety of objects. The current study examined the effects of a negative EC procedure on attitudes toward chocolate, and whether it influenced chocolate evaluation and consumption. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental condition in which chocolate images were paired with negative stimuli, or the control condition in which chocolate images were randomly paired with positive stimuli (50%) and negative stimuli (50%)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892513/placebo-can-enhance-creativity
#13
Liron Rozenkrantz, Avraham E Mayo, Tomer Ilan, Yuval Hart, Lior Noy, Uri Alon
BACKGROUND: The placebo effect is usually studied in clinical settings for decreasing negative symptoms such as pain, depression and anxiety. There is interest in exploring the placebo effect also outside the clinic, for enhancing positive aspects of performance or cognition. Several studies indicate that placebo can enhance cognitive abilities including memory, implicit learning and general knowledge. Here, we ask whether placebo can enhance creativity, an important aspect of human cognition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889063/controlled-and-implicit-processes-in-evaluative-conditioning-on-implicit-and-explicit-attitudes-toward-alcohol-and-intentions-to-drink
#14
Oulmann Zerhouni, Laurent Bègue, Francisco Comiran, Reinout W Wiers
Since implicit attitudes (i.e. evaluations occurring outside of complete awareness) are highly predictive of alcohol consumption, we tested an evaluative learning procedure based on repeated pairing to a critical stimulus (i.e. alcohol, the CS) with a valenced stimulus (the US) in order to modify implicit attitudes (i.e. evaluative conditioning; EC). We hypothesized that manipulating the learning context to bolster implicit affect misattribution should strengthen EC effects on implicit attitudes toward alcohol, while encouraging deliberate processing of CS-US pairs, should strengthen EC effects on explicit attitudes...
August 31, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884209/neural-correlates-of-implicit-knowledge-about-statistical-regularities
#15
Sachio Otsuka, Jun Saiki
In this study, we examined the neural correlates of implicit knowledge about statistical regularities of temporal order and item chunks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a familiarization scan, participants viewed a stream of scenes consisting of structured (i.e., three scenes were always presented in the same order) and random triplets. In the subsequent test scan, participants were required to detect a target scene. Test sequences included both forward order of scenes presented during the familiarization scan and backward order of scenes (i...
September 7, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883201/deep-learning-for-magnetic-resonance-fingerprinting-a-new-approach-for-predicting-quantitative-parameter-values-from-time-series
#16
Elisabeth Hoppe, Gregor Körzdörfer, Tobias Würfl, Jens Wetzl, Felix Lugauer, Josef Pfeuffer, Andreas Maier
The purpose of this work is to evaluate methods from deep learning for application to Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF). MRF is a recently proposed measurement technique for generating quantitative parameter maps. In MRF a non-steady state signal is generated by a pseudo-random excitation pattern. A comparison of the measured signal in each voxel with the physical model yields quantitative parameter maps. Currently, the comparison is done by matching a dictionary of simulated signals to the acquired signals...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882634/learning-stage-dependent-effect-of-m1-disruption-on-value-based-motor-decisions
#17
Gerard Derosiere, Pierre Vassiliadis, Sophie Demaret, Alexandre Zénon, Julie Duque
The present study aimed at characterizing the impact of M1 disruption on the implementation of implicit value information in motor decisions, at both early stages (during reinforcement learning) and late stages (after consolidation) of action value encoding. Fifty subjects performed, over three consecutive days, a task that required them to select between two finger responses according to the color (instruction) and to the shape (implicit, undisclosed rule) of an imperative signal: considering the implicit rule in addition to the instruction allowed subjects to earn more money...
September 5, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878977/how-effective-is-incidental-learning-of-the-shape-of-probability-distributions
#18
Randy Tran, Edward Vul, Harold Pashler
The idea that people learn detailed probabilistic generative models of the environments they interact with is intuitively appealing, and has received support from recent studies of implicit knowledge acquired in daily life. The goal of this study was to see whether people efficiently induce a probability distribution based upon incidental exposure to an unknown generative process. Subjects played a 'whack-a-mole' game in which they attempted to click on objects appearing briefly, one at a time on the screen...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873894/extraction-methodology-of-implicit-didactics-in-math-schoolbooks-for-the-blind
#19
Prajaks Jitngernmadan, Bernhard Stöger, Andrea Petz, Klaus Miesenberger
The implicit didactic information embedded in the theoretical part of math schoolbooks is one of the keys for successful learning mathematics, but mostly reserved for sighted students. Thus, the methodology for analyzing this theoretical part of selected math schoolbooks is developed for extracting this implicit didactic information, which will be made accessible. Combined with the blind students' teaching methods in classrooms, a dialog-based assistant concept is suggested for covering core didactics for teaching the blind...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867539/fear-acquisition-and-liking-of-out-group-and-in-group-members-learning-bias-or-attention
#20
Stephan Koenig, Peter Nauroth, Sara Lucke, Harald Lachnit, Mario Gollwitzer, Metin Uengoer
The present study explores the notion of an out-group fear learning bias that is characterized by facilitated fear acquisition toward harm-doing out-group members. Participants were conditioned with two in-group and two out-group faces as conditioned stimuli. During acquisition, one in-group and one out-group face was paired with an aversive shock whereas the other in-group and out-group face was presented without shock. Psychophysiological measures of fear conditioning (skin conductance and pupil size) and explicit and implicit liking exhibited increased differential responding to out-group faces compared to in-group faces...
September 1, 2017: Biological Psychology
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