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Implicit learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909401/implicit-learning-in-transient-global-amnesia-and-the-role-of-stress
#1
Frauke Nees, Martin Griebe, Anne Ebert, Michaela Ruttorf, Benjamin Gerber, Oliver T Wolf, Lothar R Schad, Achim Gass, Kristina Szabo
Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder with reversible anterograde disturbance of explicit memory, frequently preceded by an emotionally or physically stressful event. By using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following an episode of TGA, small hippocampal lesions have been observed. Hence it has been postulated that the disorder is caused by the stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. In experimental studies, stress has been shown to affect both explicit and implicit learning-the latter defined as learning and memory processes that lack conscious awareness of the information acquired...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907879/language-production-in-a-shared-task-cumulative-semantic-interference-from-self-and-other-produced-context-words
#2
Renske S Hoedemaker, Jessica Ernst, Antje S Meyer, Eva Belke
This study assessed the effects of semantic context in the form of self-produced and other-produced words on subsequent language production. Pairs of participants performed a joint picture naming task, taking turns while naming a continuous series of pictures. In the single-speaker version of this paradigm, naming latencies have been found to increase for successive presentations of exemplars from the same category, a phenomenon known as Cumulative Semantic Interference (CSI). As expected, the joint-naming task showed a within-speaker CSI effect, such that naming latencies increased as a function of the number of category exemplars named previously by the participant (self-produced items)...
November 28, 2016: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906526/statistical-learning-a-powerful-mechanism-that-operates-by-mere-exposure
#3
REVIEW
Richard N Aslin
How do infants learn so rapidly and with little apparent effort? In 1996, Saffran, Aslin, and Newport reported that 8-month-old human infants could learn the underlying temporal structure of a stream of speech syllables after only 2 min of passive listening. This demonstration of what was called statistical learning, involving no instruction, reinforcement, or feedback, led to dozens of confirmations of this powerful mechanism of implicit learning in a variety of modalities, domains, and species. These findings reveal that infants are not nearly as dependent on explicit forms of instruction as we might have assumed from studies of learning in which children or adults are taught facts such as math or problem solving skills...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886079/cerebellar-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-and-motor-control-training-in-individuals-with-cervical-dystonia
#4
Lynley V Bradnam, Michelle N McDonnell, Michael C Ridding
BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that cervical dystonia is a neural network disorder with the cerebellum as a key node. The cerebellum may provide a target for neuromodulation as a therapeutic intervention in cervical dystonia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess effects of intermittent theta-burst stimulation of the cerebellum on dystonia symptoms, quality of life, hand motor dexterity and cortical neurophysiology using transcranial magnetic stimulation...
November 23, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885540/automatic-abdominal-multi-organ-segmentation-using-deep-convolutional-neural-network-and-time-implicit-level-sets
#5
Peijun Hu, Fa Wu, Jialin Peng, Yuanyuan Bao, Feng Chen, Dexing Kong
PURPOSE: Multi-organ segmentation from CT images is an essential step for computer-aided diagnosis and surgery planning. However, manual delineation of the organs by radiologists is tedious, time-consuming and poorly reproducible. Therefore, we propose a fully automatic method for the segmentation of multiple organs from three-dimensional abdominal CT images. METHODS: The proposed method employs deep fully convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for organ detection and segmentation, which is further refined by a time-implicit multi-phase evolution method...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882635/a-bilingual-advantage-in-54-month-olds-use-of-referential-cues-in-fast-mapping
#6
W Quin Yow, Xiaoqian Li, Sarah Lam, Teodora Gliga, Yap Seng Chong, Kenneth Kwek, Birit F P Broekman
Research has demonstrated a bilingual advantage in how young children use referential cues such as eye gaze and pointing gesture to locate an object or to categorize objects. This study investigated the use of referential cues (i.e. eye gaze) in fast mapping in three groups of children that differed in their language exposure. One hundred and seven 54-month-old children who were English monolinguals (n = 28), English-Mandarin bilinguals (n = 48), and English-Mandarin bilinguals with exposure to a third language (i...
November 23, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872376/the-multi-component-nature-of-statistical-learning
#7
REVIEW
Joanne Arciuli
The central argument presented in this paper is that statistical learning (SL) is an ability comprised of multiple components that operate largely implicitly. Components relating to the stimulus encoding, retention and abstraction required for SL may include, but are not limited to, certain types of attention, processing speed and memory. It is likely that individuals vary in terms of the efficiency of these underlying components, and in patterns of connectivity among these components, and that SL tasks differ from one another in how they draw on certain underlying components more than others...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870614/active-inference-a-process-theory
#8
Karl Friston, Thomas FitzGerald, Francesco Rigoli, Philipp Schwartenbeck, Giovanni Pezzulo
This article describes a process theory based on active inference and belief propagation. Starting from the premise that all neuronal processing (and action selection) can be explained by maximizing Bayesian model evidence-or minimizing variational free energy-we ask whether neuronal responses can be described as a gradient descent on variational free energy. Using a standard (Markov decision process) generative model, we derive the neuronal dynamics implicit in this description and reproduce a remarkable range of well-characterized neuronal phenomena...
November 21, 2016: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869776/complementary-feeding-strategies-to-facilitate-acceptance-of-fruits-and-vegetables-a-narrative-review-of-the-literature
#9
Sophie Nicklaus
Complementary feeding (CF), which should begin after exclusive breastfeeding for six months, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), or after four months and before six months according to the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN), is a period when the infant implicitly learns what, when, how, and how much to eat. At the onset of CF, the brain and the gut are still developing and maturing, and food experiences contribute to shaping brain connections involved in food hedonics and in the control of food intake...
November 19, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859578/incidental-learning-of-melodic-structure-of-north-indian-music
#10
Martin Rohrmeier, Richard Widdess
Musical knowledge is largely implicit. It is acquired without awareness of its complex rules, through interaction with a large number of samples during musical enculturation. Whereas several studies explored implicit learning of mostly abstract and less ecologically valid features of Western music, very little work has been done with respect to ecologically valid stimuli as well as non-Western music. The present study investigated implicit learning of modal melodic features in North Indian classical music in a realistic and ecologically valid way...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858279/the-effect-of-encoding-conditions-on-learning-in-the-prototype-distortion-task
#11
Jessica C Lee, Evan J Livesey
The prototype distortion task demonstrates that it is possible to learn about a category of physically similar stimuli through mere observation. However, there have been few attempts to test whether different encoding conditions affect learning in this task. This study compared prototypicality gradients produced under incidental learning conditions in which participants performed a visual search task, with those produced under intentional learning conditions in which participants were required to memorize the stimuli...
November 17, 2016: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847488/the-influence-of-tactile-cognitive-maps-on-auditory-space-perception-in-sighted-persons
#12
Alessia Tonelli, Monica Gori, Luca Brayda
We have recently shown that vision is important to improve spatial auditory cognition. In this study, we investigate whether touch is as effective as vision to create a cognitive map of a soundscape. In particular, we tested whether the creation of a mental representation of a room, obtained through tactile exploration of a 3D model, can influence the perception of a complex auditory task in sighted people. We tested two groups of blindfolded sighted people - one experimental and one control group - in an auditory space bisection task...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832611/individual-differences-in-implicit-motor-learning-task-specificity-in-sensorimotor-adaptation-and-sequence-learning
#13
Alit Stark-Inbar, Meher Raza, Jordan A Taylor, Richard B Ivry
In standard taxonomies, motor skills are typically treated as representative of implicit or procedural memory. We examined two emblematic tasks of implicit motor learning, sensorimotor adaptation and sequence learning, asking whether individual differences in learning are correlated between these tasks, as well as how individual differences within each task are related to different performance variables. As a prerequisite, it was essential to establish the reliability of learning measures for each task. Participants were tested twice on a visuomotor adaptation task and on one of two sequence learning tasks, the serial reaction time task or the alternating reaction time task...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826071/possible-roles-for-fronto-striatal-circuits-in-reading-disorder
#14
REVIEW
Roeland Hancock, Fabio Richlan, Fumiko Hoeft
Several studies have reported hyperactivation in frontal and striatal regions in individuals with reading disorder (RD) during reading-related tasks. Hyperactivation in these regions is typically interpreted as a form of neural compensation and related to articulatory processing. Fronto-striatal hyperactivation in RD can however, also arise from fundamental impairment in reading related processes, such as phonological processing and implicit sequence learning relevant to early language acquisition. We review current evidence for the compensation hypothesis in RD and apply large-scale reverse inference to investigate anatomical overlap between hyperactivation regions and neural systems for articulation, phonological processing, implicit sequence learning...
November 5, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824129/individual-differences-in-explicit-and-implicit-visuomotor-learning-and-working-memory-capacity
#15
Antonios I Christou, R Chris Miall, Fiona McNab, Joseph M Galea
The theoretical basis for the association between high working memory capacity (WMC) and enhanced visuomotor adaptation is unknown. Visuomotor adaptation involves interplay between explicit and implicit systems. We examined whether the positive association between adaptation and WMC is specific to the explicit component of adaptation. Experiment 1 replicated the positive correlation between WMC and adaptation, but revealed this was specific to the explicit component of adaptation, and apparently driven by a sub-group of participants who did not show any explicit adaptation in the correct direction...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819458/i-saw-mine-first-a-prior-entry-effect-for-newly-acquired-ownership
#16
Grace Truong, Kevin H Roberts, Rebecca M Todd
Previous research has shown that attentional sets can be tuned to implicitly prioritize awareness of universally aversive or rewarding stimuli. But can mere ownership modulate implicit attentional prioritization as well? In Experiments 1 and 2, participants learned whether everyday objects belonged to them (self-owned) or the experimenter (other-owned) and completed a temporal order judgment task in which pairs of stimuli appeared onscreen with staggered timing. Results revealed a prior-entry effect, in which participants were more likely to report seeing a self-owned object first when 2 objects appeared simultaneously...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812961/new-insights-into-statistical-learning-and-chunk-learning-in-implicit-sequence-acquisition
#17
Yue Du, Jane E Clark
Implicit sequence learning is ubiquitous in our daily life. However, it is unclear whether the initial acquisition of sequences results from learning to chunk items (i.e., chunk learning) or learning the underlying statistical regularities (i.e., statistical learning). By grouping responses with or without a distinct chunk or statistical structure into segments and comparing these responses, previous studies have demonstrated both chunk and statistical learning. However, few studies have considered the response sequence as a whole and examined the temporal dependency of the entire sequence, where the temporal dependencies could disclose the internal representations of chunk and statistical learning...
November 3, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812093/eye-hand-coordination-during-visuomotor-adaptation-with-different-rotation-angles-effects-of-terminal-visual-feedback
#18
Miya K Rand, Sebastian Rentsch
This study examined adaptive changes of eye-hand coordination during a visuomotor rotation task under the use of terminal visual feedback. Young adults made reaching movements to targets on a digitizer while looking at targets on a monitor where the rotated feedback (a cursor) of hand movements appeared after each movement. Three rotation angles (30°, 75° and 150°) were examined in three groups in order to vary the task difficulty. The results showed that the 30° group gradually reduced direction errors of reaching with practice and adapted well to the visuomotor rotation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811953/spatiotemporal-neurodynamics-of-automatic-temporal-expectancy-in-9-month-old-infants
#19
Giovanni Mento, Eloisa Valenza
Anticipating events occurrence (Temporal Expectancy) is a crucial capacity for survival. Yet, there is little evidence about the presence of cortical anticipatory activity from infancy. In this study we recorded the High-density electrophysiological activity in 9 month-old infants and adults undergoing an audio-visual S1-S2 paradigm simulating a lifelike "Peekaboo" game inducing automatic temporal expectancy of smiling faces. The results indicate in the S2-preceding Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) an early electrophysiological signature of expectancy-based anticipatory cortical activity...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797009/comparing-the-effects-of-implicit-and-explicit-temporal-expectation-on-choice-response-time-and-response-conflict
#20
Melisa Menceloglu, Marcia Grabowecky, Satoru Suzuki
People can use temporally structured sensory information to anticipate future events. Temporal information can be presented implicitly through probability manipulation without participants' awareness of the manipulation, or explicitly conveyed through instructions. We examined how implicit and explicit temporal information established temporal expectations that influenced choice response times and response conflict (measured as flanker effects). We implicitly manipulated temporal structure by block-wise varying the likely timing of a target...
October 28, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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