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Implicit learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331549/is-sequence-awareness-mandatory-for-perceptual-sequence-learning-an-assessment-using-a-pure-perceptual-sequence-learning-design
#1
Natacha Deroost, Daphné Coomans
We examined the role of sequence awareness in a pure perceptual sequence learning design. Participants had to react to the target's colour that changed according to a perceptual sequence. By varying the mapping of the target's colour onto the response keys, motor responses changed randomly. The effect of sequence awareness on perceptual sequence learning was determined by manipulating the learning instructions (explicit versus implicit) and assessing the amount of sequence awareness after the experiment. In the explicit instruction condition (n = 15), participants were instructed to intentionally search for the colour sequence, whereas in the implicit instruction condition (n = 15), they were left uninformed about the sequenced nature of the task...
January 10, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331253/evaluation-of-three-machine-learning-models-for-self-referral-decision-support-on-low-back-pain-in-primary-care
#2
Wendy Oude Nijeweme-d'Hollosy, Lex van Velsen, Mannes Poel, Catharina G M Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Remko Soer, Hermie Hermens
BACKGROUND: Most people experience low back pain (LBP) at least once in their life and for some patients this evolves into a chronic condition. One way to prevent acute LBP from transiting into chronic LBP, is to ensure that patients receive the right interventions at the right moment. We started research in the design of a clinical decision support system (CDSS) to support patients with LBP in their self-referral to primary care. For this, we explored the possibilities of using supervised machine learning...
February 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313740/the-influence-of-personality-and-working-memory-capacity-on-implicit-learning
#3
Francisco Javier Guzmán Muñoz
The main objective of this study was to influence implicit learning through two different classical manipulations and to inspect whether working memory capacity (WMC) and personality were related to the different measures of learning. With that purpose, in Experiment 1 we asked 172 undergraduate students of psychology to perform a serial reaction time (SRT) task under single- or dual-task conditions and to complete a WMC task and a personality test. In Experiment 2, 164 students performed the SRT task under incidental or intentional conditions and also filled a WMC task and a personality test...
January 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288270/unstable-binocular-fixation-affects-reaction-times-but-not-implicit-motor-learning-in-dyslexia
#4
Anna Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Alicja Brenk-Krakowska, Pawel Nawrot, Patrycja Rusiak, Ryszard Naskrecki
Purpose: Individuals with developmental dyslexia suffer not only from reading problems as more general motor deficits can also be observed in this patient group. Both psychometric clinical tests and objective eyetracking methods suggest that unstable binocular fixation may contribute to reading problems. Because binocular instability may cause poor eye-hand coordination and impair motor control, the primary aim of this study was to explore in dyslexic subjects the influence of unstable binocular fixation on reaction times (RTs) and implicit motor learning (IML), which is one of the fundamental cerebellar functions...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283625/the-implicit-revolution-reconceiving-the-relation-between-conscious-and-unconscious
#5
Anthony G Greenwald, Mahzarin R Banaji
In the 1970s, memory researchers converged on interesting phenomena observed in Korsakoff-syndrome amnesic patients. These patients' performances on difficult tasks were reliably improved by practice sessions from which they could recall nothing. Related findings of indirect memory effects in college students triggered wide attention to phenomena that, in 1985, were first identified as implicit memory. Within a decade, the indirect measurement methods of implicit memory research had spread to social psychologists' studies of attitudes and stereotypes...
December 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279297/working-smarter-not-harder-coupling-implementation-to-de-implementation
#6
Virginia Wang, Matthew L Maciejewski, Christian D Helfrich, Bryan J Weiner
In this paper, we discuss de-implementation as an implicit part of implementation and organizational change, and consider its underlying processes of unlearning to discontinue or deviate from ineffective practice and learning to applying newer, more effective practices. We describe a typology of de-implementation that represents four types of change: partial reduction, complete reversal, substitution with related replacement and substitution with unrelated replacement of existing practice. We also explicate how learning and unlearning needed for effective change vary in these four types of de-implementation...
December 23, 2017: Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250874/children-retain-implicitly-learned-phonological-sequences-better-than-adults-a-longitudinal-study
#7
Eleonore H M Smalle, Mike P A Page, Wouter Duyck, Martin Edwards, Arnaud Szmalec
Whereas adults often rely on explicit memory, children appear to excel in implicit memory, which plays an important role in the acquisition of various cognitive skills, such as those involved in language. The current study aimed to test the assertion of an age-dependent shift in implicit versus explicit learning within a theoretical framework that explains the link between implicit sequence memory and word-form acquisition, using the Hebb repetition paradigm. We conducted a one-year, multiple-session longitudinal study in which we presented auditory sequences of syllables, co-presented with pictures of aliens, for immediate serial recall by a group of children (8-9 years) and by an adult group...
December 17, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247750/attentional-responses-to-stimuli-associated-with-a-reward-can-occur-in-the-absence-of-knowledge-of-their-predictive-values
#8
Mateo Leganes Fonteneau, Ryan Scott, Theodora Duka
Classical conditioning theories of addiction suggest that stimuli associated with rewards acquire incentive salience, inducing emotional and attentional conditioned responses. It is not clear whether those responses occur without contingency awareness (CA), i.e. are based on explicit or implicit learning processes. Examining implicit aspects of stimulus-reward associations can improve our understanding of addictive behaviours, supporting treatment and prevention strategies. However, the acquisition of conditioned responses without CA has yet to be rigorously demonstrated, as the existing literature shows a lack of methodological agreement regarding the measurement of implicit and explicit processes...
December 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247667/making-predictable-unpredictable-with-style-behavioral-and-electrophysiological-evidence-for-the-critical-role-of-prosodic-expectations-in-the-perception-of-prominence-in-speech
#9
Sofoklis Kakouros, Nelli Salminen, Okko Räsänen
Perceptual prominence of linguistic units such as words has been earlier connected to the concepts of predictability and attentional orientation. One hypothesis is that low-probability prosodic or lexical content is perceived as prominent due to the surprisal and high information value associated with the stimulus. However, the existing behavioral studies have used stimulus manipulations that follow or violate typical linguistic patterns present in the listeners' native language, i.e., assuming that the listeners have already established a model for acceptable prosodic patterns in the language...
December 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244641/pavlovian-control-of-escape-and-avoidance
#10
Alexander J Millner, Samuel J Gershman, Matthew K Nock, Hanneke E M den Ouden
To survive in complex environments, animals need to have mechanisms to select effective actions quickly, with minimal computational costs. As perhaps the computationally most parsimonious of these systems, Pavlovian control accomplishes this by hardwiring specific stereotyped responses to certain classes of stimuli. It is well documented that appetitive cues initiate a Pavlovian bias toward vigorous approach; however, Pavlovian responses to aversive stimuli are less well understood. Gaining a deeper understanding of aversive Pavlovian responses, such as active avoidance, is important given the critical role these behaviors play in several psychiatric conditions...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244611/learning-new-letter-like-writing-patterns-explicitly-and-implicitly-in-children-and-adults
#11
M Jongbloed-Pereboom, A Overvelde, M W G Nijhuis-van der Sanden, B Steenbergen
A handwriting task was used to test the assumption that explicit learning is dependent on age and working memory, while implicit learning is not. The effect of age was examined by testing both, typically developing children (5-12 years old, n = 81) and adults (n = 27) in a counterbalanced within-subjects design. Participants were asked to repeatedly write letter-like patterns on a digitizer with a non-inking pen. Reproduction of the pattern was better after explicit learning compared to implicit learning. Age had positive effects on both explicit and implicit learning; working memory did not affect learning in either conditions...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242555/intrinsic-interactive-reinforcement-learning-using-error-related-potentials-for-real-world-human-robot-interaction
#12
Su Kyoung Kim, Elsa Andrea Kirchner, Arne Stefes, Frank Kirchner
Reinforcement learning (RL) enables robots to learn its optimal behavioral strategy in dynamic environments based on feedback. Explicit human feedback during robot RL is advantageous, since an explicit reward function can be easily adapted. However, it is very demanding and tiresome for a human to continuously and explicitly generate feedback. Therefore, the development of implicit approaches is of high relevance. In this paper, we used an error-related potential (ErrP), an event-related activity in the human electroencephalogram (EEG), as an intrinsically generated implicit feedback (rewards) for RL...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239647/the-transfer-of-category-knowledge-by-macaques-macaca-mulatta-and-humans-homo-sapiens
#13
Alexandria C Zakrzewski, Barbara A Church, J David Smith
Cognitive psychologists distinguish implicit, procedural category learning (stimulus-response associations learned outside declarative cognition) from explicit-declarative category learning (conscious category rules). These systems are dissociated by category learning tasks with either a multidimensional, information-integration (II) solution or a unidimensional, rule-based (RB) solution. In the present experiments, humans and two monkeys learned II and RB category tasks fostering implicit and explicit learning, respectively...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238346/generating-a-tolerogenic-cell-therapy-knowledge-graph-from-literature
#14
Andre Lamurias, João D Ferreira, Luka A Clarke, Francisco M Couto
Tolerogenic cell therapies provide an alternative to conventional immunosuppressive treatments of autoimmune disease and address, among other goals, the rejection of organ or stem cell transplants. Since various methodologies can be followed to develop tolerogenic therapies, it is important to be aware and up to date on all available studies that may be relevant to their improvement. Recently, knowledge graphs have been proposed to link various sources of information, using text mining techniques. Knowledge graphs facilitate the automatic retrieval of information about the topics represented in the graph...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235174/big-data-and-medicine-a-big-deal
#15
Viktor Mayer-Schönberger, Erik Ingelsson
Big Data promises huge benefits for medical research. Looking beyond superficial increases in the amount of data collected, we identify three key areas where Big Data differs from conventional analyses of data samples: (1) data is captured more comprehensively relative to the phenomenon under study; this reduces some bias but surfaces important tradeoffs, such as between data quantity and data quality; (2) data is often analyzed using machine learning tools, such as neural networks rather than conventional statistical methods resulting in systems that over time capture insights implicit in data, but remain black boxes, rarely revealing causal connections; and (3) the purpose of the analyses of data is no longer simply answering existing questions, but hinting at novel ones and generating promising new hypotheses...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232616/towards-understanding-sparse-filtering-a-theoretical-perspective
#16
Fabio Massimo Zennaro, Ke Chen
In this paper we present a theoretical analysis to understand sparse filtering, a recent and effective algorithm for unsupervised learning. The aim of this research is not to show whether or how well sparse filtering works, but to understand why and when sparse filtering does work. We provide a thorough theoretical analysis of sparse filtering and its properties, and further offer an experimental validation of the main outcomes of our theoretical analysis. We show that sparse filtering works by explicitly maximizing the entropy of the learned representations through the maximization of the proxy of sparsity, and by implicitly preserving mutual information between original and learned representations through the constraint of preserving a structure of the data...
December 9, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220702/the-effect-of-subjective-awareness-measures-on-performance-in-artificial-grammar-learning-task
#17
Ivan I Ivanchei, Nadezhda V Moroshkina
Systematic research into implicit learning requires well-developed awareness-measurement techniques. Recently, trial-by-trial measures have been widely used. However, they can increase complexity of a study because they are an additional experimental variable. We tested the effects of these measures on performance in artificial grammar learning study. Four groups of participants were assigned to different awareness measures conditions: confidence ratings, post-decision wagering, decision strategy attribution or none...
December 5, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213525/motor-learning-characterization-in-people-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review
#18
Íbis Ariana Peña de Moraes, Thais Massetti, Tânia Brusque Crocetta, Talita Dias da Silva, Lilian Del Ciello de Menezes, Carlos Bandeira de Mello Monteiro, Fernando Henrique Magalhães
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder primarily characterized by deficits in social interaction, communication and implicit skill learning. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the results of research on "motor learning" and the means used for measuring "autistic disorder". METHODS: A systematic literature search was done using Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, BVS (virtual health library), and PsycINFO. We included articles that contained the keywords "autism" and "motor learning"...
July 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208726/how-parents-of-children-with-cancer-learn-about-their-children-s-prognosis
#19
Bryan A Sisk, Tammy I Kang, Jennifer W Mack
OBJECTIVES: To determine which prognostic information sources parents find informative and which are associated with better parental understanding of prognosis. METHODS: Prospective, questionnaire-based cohort study of parents and physicians of children with cancer at 2 academic pediatric hospitals. We asked parents how they learned about prognoses and evaluated relationships between information sources and prognostic understanding, defined as accuracy versus optimism...
January 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196661/fmri-investigation-on-gradual-change-of-awareness-states-in-implicit-sequence-learning
#20
Jianping Huang, Yingli Li, Jianxin Zhang, Xiangpeng Wang, Chunlu Huang, Antao Chen, Dianzhi Liu
Awareness of implicit knowledge is a changing process. Previous studies have examined brain activation patterns corresponding to the start and end stages of implicit learning, but failed to reveal the gradual changing course of awareness in implicit learning. The present study explored brain activation changes corresponding to different awareness states elicited by two different stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA, 850 ms and 1350 ms) over the whole course of implicit sequence learning (i.e., divided into three phases), by using a process dissociation procedure (PDP) paradigm and the technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
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