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Implicit learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151360/balancing-the-playing-field-collaborative-gaming-for-physical-training
#1
Michael Mace, Nawal Kinany, Paul Rinne, Anthony Rayner, Paul Bentley, Etienne Burdet
BACKGROUND: Multiplayer video games promoting exercise-based rehabilitation may facilitate motor learning, by increasing motivation through social interaction. However, a major design challenge is to enable meaningful inter-subject interaction, whilst allowing for significant skill differences between players. We present a novel motor-training paradigm that allows real-time collaboration and performance enhancement, across a wide range of inter-subject skill mismatches, including disabled vs...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146567/self-guided-web-based-interventions-scoping-review-on-user-needs-and-the-potential-of-embodied-conversational-agents-to-address-them
#2
REVIEW
Mark R Scholten, Saskia M Kelders, Julia Ewc Van Gemert-Pijnen
BACKGROUND: Web-based mental health interventions have evolved from innovative prototypes to evidence-based and clinically applied solutions for mental diseases such as depression and anxiety. Open-access, self-guided types of these solutions hold the promise of reaching and treating a large population at a reasonable cost. However, a considerable factor that currently hinders the effectiveness of these self-guided Web-based interventions is the high level of nonadherence. The absence of a human caregiver apparently has a negative effect on user adherence...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142098/the-acquisition-of-skilled-finger-movements-is-accompanied-by-the-reorganization-of-the-corticospinal-system
#3
Masato Hirano, Shinji Kubota, Shinichi Furuya, Yoshiki Koizume, Shinya Tanaka, Kozo Funase
Dexterous finger movements are often characterized by highly coordinated movements. Such coordination might be derived from reorganization of the corticospinal system. In this study, we investigated 1) the manner in which finger movement covariation patterns are acquired by examining the effects of the implicit and explicit learning of a serial reaction time task (SRTT), and 2) how such changes in finger coordination are represented in the corticospinal system. The subjects learned a button press sequence in both implicit and explicit learning conditions...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134484/the-role-of-feedback-in-implicit-and-explicit-artificial-grammar-learning-a-comparison-between-dyslexic-and-non-dyslexic-adults
#4
Rachel Schiff, Ayelet Sasson, Galit Star, Shani Kahta
The importance of feedback for learning has been firmly established over the past few decades. The question of whether feedback plays a significant role in the statistical learning abilities of adults with dyslexia, however, is currently unresolved. Here, we examined the role of feedback in grammaticality judgment, type of structural knowledge, and confidence rating in both typically developed and dyslexic adults. We implemented two artificial grammar learning experiments: implicit and explicit. The second experiment was directly analogous to the first experiment in all respects except training format: the standard memorization instruction was replaced with an explicit rule-search instruction...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128978/on-the-influence-of-informational-content-and-key-response-effect-mapping-on-implicit-learning-and-error-monitoring-in-the-serial-reaction-time-srt-task
#5
Jascha Rüsseler, Thomas F Münte, Daniel Wiswede
The present experiment was designed to enhance our understanding of how response effects with varying amounts of useful information influence implicit sequence learning. We recorded event-related brain potentials, while participants performed a modified version of the serial reaction time task (SRTT). In this task, participants have to press one of four keys corresponding to four letters on a computer screen. Unknown to participants, in some parts of the experimental blocks, the stimuli appear in a repetitive (structured) deterministic sequence, whereas in other parts, stimuli were determined randomly...
November 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128736/optimal-practice-conditions-enhance-the-benefits-of-gradually-increasing-error-opportunities-on-retention-of-a-stepping-sequence-task
#6
Danielle Levac, Kate Driscoll, Jessica Galvez, Kathleen Mercado, Lindsey O'Neil
INTRODUCTION: Physical therapists should implement practice conditions that promote motor skill learning after neurological injury. Errorful and errorless practice conditions are effective for different populations and tasks. Errorful learning provides opportunities for learners to make task-relevant choices. Enhancing learner autonomy through choice opportunities is a key component of the Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning (OPTIMAL) theory of motor learning...
November 9, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127720/breaking-the-polar-nonpolar-division-in-solvation-free-energy-prediction
#7
Bao Wang, Chengzhang Wang, Kedi Wu, Guo-Wei Wei
Implicit solvent models divide solvation free energies into polar and nonpolar additive contributions, whereas polar and nonpolar interactions are inseparable and nonadditive. We present a feature functional theory (FFT) framework to break this ad hoc division. The essential ideas of FFT are as follows: (i) representability assumption: there exists a microscopic feature vector that can uniquely characterize and distinguish one molecule from another; (ii) feature-function relationship assumption: the macroscopic features, including solvation free energy, of a molecule is a functional of microscopic feature vectors; and (iii) similarity assumption: molecules with similar microscopic features have similar macroscopic properties, such as solvation free energies...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119874/using-helping-skills-with-korean-clients-the-perspectives-of-korean-counselors
#8
Eunsun Joo, Clara E Hill, Young Hwa Kim
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate how Korean counselors modify the helping skills they learned during training in their work with Korean clients. METHOD: Thirteen practicing Korean therapists who had taken two master's level courses in the Hill helping skills model were interviewed about their experiences in applying the model in their work with clients. Data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research (CQR). RESULTS: Several characteristics were noted of Korean clients that might influence the appropriateness of the helping skills model (e...
November 9, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110668/measuring-the-bias-against-low-income-country-research-an-implicit-association-test
#9
Matthew Harris, James Macinko, Geronimo Jimenez, Pricila Mullachery
BACKGROUND: With an increasing array of innovations and research emerging from low-income countries there is a growing recognition that even high-income countries could learn from these contexts. It is well known that the source of a product influences perception of that product, but little research has examined whether this applies also in evidence-based medicine and decision-making. In order to examine likely barriers to learning from low-income countries, this study uses established methods in cognitive psychology to explore whether healthcare professionals and researchers implicitly associate good research with rich countries more so than with poor countries...
November 6, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108530/battle-of-plates-a-pilot-study-of-an-approach-avoidance-training-for-overweight-children-and-adolescents
#10
Petra Warschburger, Michaela Gmeiner, Marisa Morawietz, Mike Rinck
OBJECTIVE: Approach-avoidance training (AAT) is a promising approach in obesity treatment. The present study examines whether an AAT is feasible and able to influence approach tendencies in children and adolescents, comparing implicit and explicit training approaches. Design/Setting/Subjects Fifty-nine overweight children and adolescents (aged 8-16 years; twenty-six boys) participated in an AAT for food cues, learning to reject snack items and approach vegetable items. Reaction times in the AAT and an implicit association test (IAT) were assessed pre- and post-intervention...
November 7, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107970/motor-expertise-facilitates-the-accuracy-of-state-extrapolation-in-perception
#11
Nicolas Ludolph, Jannis Plöger, Martin A Giese, Winfried Ilg
Predicting the behavior of objects in the environment is an important requirement to overcome latencies in the sensorimotor system and realize precise actions in rapid situations. Internal forward models that were acquired during motor training might not only be used for efficiently controlling fast motor behavior but also to facilitate extrapolation performance in purely perceptual tasks. In this study, we investigated whether preceding virtual cart-pole balancing training facilitates the ability to extrapolate the virtual pole motion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104963/multi-stage-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-with-incomplete-multimodal-data-via-multi-task-deep-learning
#12
Kim-Han Thung, Pew-Thian Yap, Dinggang Shen
Utilization of biomedical data from multiple modalities improves the diagnostic accuracy of neurodegenerative diseases. However, multi-modality data are often incomplete because not all data can be collected for every individual. When using such incomplete data for diagnosis, current approaches for addressing the problem of missing data, such as imputation, matrix completion and multi-task learning, implicitly assume linear data-to-label relationship, therefore limiting their performances. We thus propose multi-task deep learning for incomplete data, where prediction tasks that are associated with different modality combinations are learnt jointly to improve the performance of each task...
September 2017: Deep Learn Med Image Anal Multimodal Learn Clin Decis Support (2017)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102805/from-altered-synaptic-plasticity-to-atypical-learning-a-computational-model-of-down-syndrome
#13
Ángel Eugenio Tovar, Gert Westermann, Alvaro Torres
Learning and memory rely on the adaptation of synaptic connections. Research on the neurophysiology of Down syndrome has characterized an atypical pattern of synaptic plasticity with limited long-term potentiation (LTP) and increased long-term depression (LTD). Here we present a neurocomputational model that instantiates this LTP/LTD imbalance to explore its impact on tasks of associative learning. In Study 1, we ran a series of computational simulations to analyze the learning of simple and overlapping stimulus associations in a model of Down syndrome compared with a model of typical development...
November 2, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096874/altering-spatial-priority-maps-via-statistical-learning-of-target-selection-and-distractor-filtering
#14
Oscar Ferrante, Alessia Patacca, Valeria Di Caro, Chiara Della Libera, Elisa Santandrea, Leonardo Chelazzi
The cognitive system has the capacity to learn and make use of environmental regularities - known as statistical learning (SL), including for the implicit guidance of attention. For instance, it is known that attentional selection is biased according to the spatial probability of targets; similarly, changes in distractor filtering can be triggered by the unequal spatial distribution of distractors. Open questions remain regarding the cognitive/neuronal mechanisms underlying SL of target selection and distractor filtering...
October 9, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091241/teaching-strategies-to-increase-nursing-student-acceptance-and-management-of-unconscious-bias
#15
Paula L Schultz, Janet Baker
BACKGROUND: Medical providers' unconscious biases may contribute to health disparities. Awareness and self-reflection strategies commonly used to teach cultural competence in academic settings are generally ineffective in reducing unconscious bias or motivating change. METHOD: This article describes the innovative teaching strategies implemented in a graduate setting (N = 75) to increase nursing learners' acceptance and management of unconscious bias. Strategies used guided the debriefing and feedback that incorporated implicit association testing, interactive audience polling, categorized management strategies, and perspective taking...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Nursing Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075834/sequence-specific-implicit-motor-learning-using-whole-arm-three-dimensional-reach-movements
#16
Jessica Baird, Jill Campbell Stewart
Implicit motor learning is essential to the acquisition of motor skills. Examination of implicit motor learning, however, has largely involved single-finger button presses or two-dimensional movements of a computer mouse or joystick. The purpose of this study was to examine sequence-specific implicit motor learning during practice of  a three-dimensional (3D) whole-arm reach task. Fifteen young, non-disabled individuals completed two consecutive days of practice of a 3D target task presented in a virtual environment with the dominant, right arm...
October 26, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070879/language-learning-in-the-adult-brain-disrupting-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-facilitates-word-form-learning
#17
Eleonore H M Smalle, Muriel Panouilleres, Arnaud Szmalec, Riikka Möttönen
Adults do not learn languages as easily as children do. It has been hypothesized that the late-developing prefrontal cortex that supports executive functions competes with procedural learning mechanisms that are important for language learning. To address this hypothesis, we tested whether a temporary neural disruption of the left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) can improve implicit, procedural learning of word-forms in adults. Young adults were presented with repeating audio-visual sequences of syllables for immediate serial recall in a Hebb repetition learning task that simulates word-form learning...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068761/implicit-statistical-learning-in-real-world-environments-leads-to-ecologically-rational-decision-making
#18
Sonja Perkovic, Jacob Lund Orquin
Ecological rationality results from matching decision strategies to appropriate environmental structures, but how does the matching happen? We propose that people learn the statistical structure of the environment through observation and use this learned structure to guide ecologically rational behavior. We tested this hypothesis in the context of organic foods. In Study 1, we found that products from healthful food categories are more likely to be organic than products from nonhealthful food categories. In Study 2, we found that consumers' perceptions of the healthfulness and prevalence of organic products in many food categories are accurate...
October 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056895/the-role-of-the-baldwin-effect-in-the-evolution-of-human-musicality
#19
Piotr Podlipniak
From the biological perspective human musicality is the term referred to as a set of abilities which enable the recognition and production of music. Since music is a complex phenomenon which consists of features that represent different stages of the evolution of human auditory abilities, the question concerning the evolutionary origin of music must focus mainly on music specific properties and their possible biological function or functions. What usually differentiates music from other forms of human sound expressions is a syntactically organized structure based on pitch classes and rhythmic units measured in reference to musical pulse...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040494/beyond-reward-prediction-errors-human-striatum-updates-rule-values-during-learning
#20
Ian Ballard, Eric M Miller, Steven T Piantadosi, Noah D Goodman, Samuel M McClure
Humans naturally group the world into coherent categories defined by membership rules. Rules can be learned implicitly by building stimulus-response associations using reinforcement learning or by using explicit reasoning. We tested if the striatum, in which activation reliably scales with reward prediction error, would track prediction errors in a task that required explicit rule generation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a categorization task, we show that striatal responses to feedback scale with a "surprise" signal derived from a Bayesian rule-learning model and are inconsistent with RL prediction error...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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