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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226659/automatic-and-continuous-assessment-of-erps-for-mismatch-negativity-detection
#1
Narges Armanfard, Majid Komeili, James P Reilly, Richard Mah, John F Connolly, Narges Armanfard, Majid Komeili, James P Reilly, Richard Mah, John F Connolly, John F Connolly, Majid Komeili, Narges Armanfard, James P Reilly, Richard Mah
Accurate and fast detection of event related potential (ERP) components is an unresolved issue in neuroscience and critical health care. Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a component of the ERP to an odd stimulus in a sequence of identical stimuli which has good correlation with coma awakening. All of the previous studies for MMN detection are based on visual inspection of the averaged ERPs (over a long recording time) by a skilled neurophysiologist. However, in practical situations, such an expert may not be available or familiar with all aspects of evoked potential methods...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212388/multiple-processes-in-two-dimensional-visual-statistical-learning
#2
Eiichi Hoshino, Ken Mogi
Knowledge about the arrangement of visual elements is an important aspect of perception. This study investigates whether humans learn rules of two-dimensional abstract patterns (exemplars) generated from Reber's artificial grammar. The key question is whether the subjects can implicitly learn them without explicit instructions, and, if so, how they use the acquired knowledge to judge new patterns (probes) in relation to their finite experience of the exemplars. The analysis was conducted using dissimilarities among patterns, which are defined with n-gram probabilities and the Levenshtein distance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207842/evaluating-evidence-based-health-care-teaching-and-learning-in-the-undergraduate-human-nutrition-occupational-therapy-physiotherapy-and-speech-language-and-hearing-therapy-programs-at-a-sub-saharan-african-academic-institution
#3
Anel Schoonees, Anke Rohwer, Taryn Young
BACKGROUND: It is important that all undergraduate healthcare students are equipped with evidence-based health care (EBHC) knowledge and skills to encourage evidence-informed decision-making after graduation. We assessed EBHC teaching and learning in undergraduate human nutrition (HN); occupational therapy (OT); physiotherapy (PT); and speech, language and hearing therapy (SPLH) programs at a sub-Saharan African university. METHODS: We used methodological triangulation to obtain a comprehensive understanding of EBHC teaching and learning: (1) through a document review of module guides, we identified learning outcomes related to pre-specified EBHC competencies; we conducted (2) focus group discussions and interviews of lecturers to obtain their perspectives on EBHC and on EBHC teaching and learning; and we (3) invited final year students (2013) and 2012 graduates to complete an online survey on EBHC attitudes, self-perceived EBHC competence, and their experience of EBHC teaching and learning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203531/an-fmri-study-of-implicit-language-learning-in-developmental-language-impairment
#4
Elena Plante, Dianne Patterson, Michelle Sandoval, Christopher J Vance, Arve E Asbjørnsen
Individuals with developmental language impairment can show deficits into adulthood. This suggests that neural networks related to their language do not normalize with time. We examined the ability of 16 adults with and without impaired language to learn individual words in an unfamiliar language. Adults with impaired language were able to segment individual words from running speech, but needed more time to do so than their normal-language peers. ICA analysis of fMRI data indicated that adults with language impairment activate a neural network that is comparable to that of adults with normal language...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195523/characteristics-of-implicit-sensorimotor-adaptation-revealed-by-task-irrelevant-clamped-feedback
#5
John Ryan Morehead, Jordan A Taylor, Darius Parvin, Richard B Ivry
Sensorimotor adaptation occurs when there is a discrepancy between the expected and actual sensory consequences of a movement. This learning can be precisely measured, but its source has been hard to pin down because standard adaptation tasks introduce two potential learning signals: task performance errors and sensory prediction errors. Here we employed a new method that induces sensory prediction errors without task performance errors. This method combines the use of clamped visual feedback that is angularly offset from the target and independent of the direction of motion, along with instructions to ignore this feedback while reaching to targets...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176012/implicit-learning-of-a-finger-motor-sequence-by-patients-with-cerebral-palsy-after-neurofeedback
#6
Ana Alves-Pinto, Varvara Turova, Tobias Blumenstein, Conny Hantuschke, Renée Lampe
Facilitation of implicit learning of a hand motor sequence after a single session of neurofeedback training of alpha power recorded from the motor cortex has been shown in healthy individuals (Ros et al., Biological Psychology 95:54-58, 2014). This facilitation effect could be potentially applied to improve the outcome of rehabilitation in patients with impaired hand motor function. In the current study a group of ten patients diagnosed with cerebral palsy trained reduction of alpha power derived from brain activity recorded from right and left motor areas...
February 7, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167910/adaptive-baseline-enhances-em-based-policy-search-validation-in-a-view-based-positioning-task-of-a-smartphone-balancer
#7
Jiexin Wang, Eiji Uchibe, Kenji Doya
EM-based policy search methods estimate a lower bound of the expected return from the histories of episodes and iteratively update the policy parameters using the maximum of a lower bound of expected return, which makes gradient calculation and learning rate tuning unnecessary. Previous algorithms like Policy learning by Weighting Exploration with the Returns, Fitness Expectation Maximization, and EM-based Policy Hyperparameter Exploration implemented the mechanisms to discard useless low-return episodes either implicitly or using a fixed baseline determined by the experimenter...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166495/beyond-a-gaussian-denoiser-residual-learning-of-deep-cnn-for-image-denoising
#8
Kai Zhang, Wangmeng Zuo, Yunjin Chen, Deyu Meng, Lei Zhang
Discriminative model learning for image denoising has been recently attracting considerable attentions due to its favorable denoising performance. In this paper, we take one step forward by investigating the construction of feed-forward denoising convolutional neural networks (DnCNNs) to embrace the progress in very deep architecture, learning algorithm, and regularization method into image denoising. Specifically, residual learning and batch normalization are utilized to speed up the training process as well as boost the denoising performance...
February 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154546/the-role-and-reprocessing-of-attitudes-in-fostering-employee-work-happiness-an-intervention-study
#9
Paige Williams, Margaret L Kern, Lea Waters
This intervention study examines the iterative reprocessing of explicit and implicit attitudes as the process underlying associations between positive employee attitudes (PsyCap), perception of positive organization culture (organizational virtuousness, OV), and work happiness. Using a quasi-experimental design, a group of school staff (N = 69) completed surveys at three time points. After the first assessment, the treatment group (n = 51) completed a positive psychology training intervention. Results suggest that employee PsyCap, OV, and work happiness are associated with one another through both implicit and explicit attitudes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150963/a-specific-implicit-sequence-learning-deficit-as-an-underlying-cause-of-dyslexia-investigating-the-role-of-attention-in-implicit-learning-tasks
#10
Eva Staels, Wim Van den Broeck
OBJECTIVE: Recently, a general implicit sequence learning deficit was proposed as an underlying cause of dyslexia. This new hypothesis was investigated in the present study by including a number of methodological improvements, for example, the inclusion of appropriate control conditions. The second goal of the study was to explore the role of attentional functioning in implicit and explicit learning tasks. METHOD: In a 2 × 2 within-subjects design 4 tasks were administered in 30 dyslexic and 38 control children: an implicit and explicit serial reaction time (RT) task and an implicit and explicit contextual cueing task...
February 2, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149391/spatial-control-of-reflexes-posture-and-movement-in-normal-conditions-and-after-neurological-lesions
#11
Anatol G Feldman, Mindy F Levin
Control of reflexes is usually associated with central modulation of their sensitivity (gain) or phase-dependent inhibition and facilitation of their influences on motoneurons (reflex gating). Accumulated empirical findings show that the gain modulation and reflex gating are secondary, emergent properties of central control of spatial thresholds at which reflexes become functional. In this way, the system pre-determines, in a feedforward and task-specific way, where, in a spatial domain or a frame of reference, muscles are allowed to work without directly prescribing EMG activity and forces...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141803/brain-computer-interface-based-communication-in-the-completely-locked-in-state
#12
Ujwal Chaudhary, Bin Xia, Stefano Silvoni, Leonardo G Cohen, Niels Birbaumer
Despite partial success, communication has remained impossible for persons suffering from complete motor paralysis but intact cognitive and emotional processing, a state called complete locked-in state (CLIS). Based on a motor learning theoretical context and on the failure of neuroelectric brain-computer interface (BCI) communication attempts in CLIS, we here report BCI communication using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and an implicit attentional processing procedure. Four patients suffering from advanced amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-two of them in permanent CLIS and two entering the CLIS without reliable means of communication-learned to answer personal questions with known answers and open questions all requiring a "yes" or "no" thought using frontocentral oxygenation changes measured with fNIRS...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134543/repeated-evaluative-pairings-and-evaluative-statements-how-effectively-do-they-shift-implicit-attitudes
#13
Benedek Kurdi, Mahzarin R Banaji
Six experiments, involving a total of 6,492 participants, were conducted to investigate the relative effectiveness of repeated evaluative pairings (REP; exposure to category members paired with pleasant or unpleasant images), evaluative statements (ES; verbally signaling upcoming pairings without actual exposure), and their combination (ES + REP) in shifting implicit social and nonsocial attitudes. Learning modality (REP, ES, and ES + REP) was varied between participants and implicit attitudes were assessed using an Implicit Association Test (IAT)...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131810/the-effector-independent-nature-of-motor-imagery-evidence-from-rtms-induced-inhibition-to-the-primary-motor-cortices
#14
Sarah N Kraeutner, Tony G J Ingram, Shaun G Boe
Motor imagery (MI), the mental rehearsal of movement, facilitates learning by driving brain activation similar to that of physical practice (PP). However, a growing body of evidence suggests that learning via MI relies more on effector independent as opposed to effector dependent encoding. One approach to probing the nature of MI based learning is to study the primary motor cortex (MC), a brain region known to be critical to effector dependent encoding, but whose involvement in MI is debatable. The current study sought to inform on the nature of MI-based learning by examining the extent to which participants could learn via MI following inhibition of the MC using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
January 25, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124183/how-can-implicit-and-explicit-attitudes-both-be-changed-testing-two-interventions-to-promote-consumption-of-green-vegetables
#15
Simone Mattavelli, Aya Avishai, Marco Perugini, Juliette Richetin, Paschal Sheeran
BACKGROUND: Although correlational studies have demonstrated that implicit and explicit attitudes are both important in predicting eating behavior, few studies targeting food choice have attempted to change both types of attitudes. PURPOSE: We tested the impact of (a) an evaluative learning intervention that uses the self to change attitudes (i.e., a Self-Referencing task) and (b) a persuasive communication in modifying implicit and explicit attitudes towards green vegetables and promoting readiness to change...
January 25, 2017: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122022/differential-processing-for-actively-ignored-pictures-and-words
#16
Maegen Walker, Margeaux Ciraolo, Andrew Dewald, Scott Sinnett
Previous work suggests that, when attended, pictures may be processed more readily than words. The current study extends this research to assess potential differences in processing between these stimulus types when they are actively ignored. In a dual-task paradigm, facilitated recognition for previously ignored words was found provided that they appeared frequently with an attended target. When adapting the same paradigm here, previously unattended pictures were recognized at high rates regardless of how they were paired with items during the primary task, whereas unattended words were later recognized at higher rates only if they had previously been aligned with primary task targets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121017/information-theoretic-properties-of-auditory-sequences-dynamically-influence-expectation-and-memory
#17
Kat Agres, Samer Abdallah, Marcus Pearce
A basic function of cognition is to detect regularities in sensory input to facilitate the prediction and recognition of future events. It has been proposed that these implicit expectations arise from an internal predictive coding model, based on knowledge acquired through processes such as statistical learning, but it is unclear how different types of statistical information affect listeners' memory for auditory stimuli. We used a combination of behavioral and computational methods to investigate memory for non-linguistic auditory sequences...
January 25, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114605/auditory-stimulus-processing-and-task-learning-are-adequate-in-dyslexia-but-benefits-from-regularities-are-reduced
#18
Luba Daikhin, Ofri Raviv, Merav Ahissar
Purpose: The reading deficit for people with dyslexia is typically associated with linguistic, memory, and perceptual-discrimination difficulties, whose relation to reading impairment is disputed. We proposed that automatic detection and usage of serial sound regularities for individuals with dyslexia is impaired (anchoring deficit hypothesis), leading to the formation of less reliable sound predictions. Agus, Carrión-Castillo, Pressnitzer, and Ramus, (2014) reported seemingly contradictory evidence by showing similar performance by participants with and without dyslexia in a demanding auditory task that contained task-relevant regularities...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113886/a-deep-matrix-factorization-method-for-learning-attribute-representations
#19
George Trigeorgis, Konstantinos Bousmalis, Stefanos Zafeiriou, Bjorn W Schuller
Semi-Non-negative Matrix Factorization is a technique that learns a low-dimensional representation of a dataset that lends itself to a clustering interpretation. It is possible that the mapping between this new representation and our original data matrix contains rather complex hierarchical information with implicit lower-level hidden attributes, that classical one level clustering methodologies can not interpret. In this work we propose a novel model, Deep Semi-NMF, that is able to learn such hidden representations that allow themselves to an interpretation of clustering according to different, unknown attributes of a given dataset...
April 15, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110621/attention-without-intention-explicit-processing-and-implicit-goal-setting-in-family-medicine-residents-written-reflections
#20
Allen F Shaughnessy, Lucas Allen, Ashley Duggan
BACKGROUND: Reflection, a process of self-analysis to promote learning through better understanding of one's experiences, is often used to assess learners' metacognitive ability. However, writing reflective exercises, not submitted for assessment, may allow learners to explore their experiences and indicate learning and professional growth without explicitly connecting to intentional sense-making. AIM: To identify core components of learning about medicine or medical education from family medicine residents' written reflections...
January 23, 2017: Education for Primary Care
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