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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781982/the-motor-in-implicit-motor-sequence-learning-a-foot-stepping-serial-reaction-time-task
#1
Yue Du, Jane E Clark
This protocol describes a modified serial reaction time (SRT) task used to study implicit motor sequence learning. Unlike the classic SRT task that involves finger-pressing movements while sitting, the modified SRT task requires participants to step with both feet while maintaining a standing posture. This stepping task necessitates whole body actions that impose postural challenges. The foot-stepping task complements the classic SRT task in several ways. The foot-stepping SRT task is a better proxy for the daily activities that require ongoing postural control, and thus may help us better understand sequence learning in real-life situations...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762867/shaping-memory-consolidation-via-targeted-memory-reactivation-during-sleep
#2
REVIEW
Nicola Cellini, Alessandra Capuozzo
Recent studies have shown that the reactivation of specific memories during sleep can be modulated using external stimulation. Specifically, it has been reported that matching a sensory stimulus (e.g., odor or sound cue) with target information (e.g., pairs of words, pictures, and motor sequences) during wakefulness, and then presenting the cue alone during sleep, facilitates memory of the target information. Thus, presenting learned cues while asleep may reactivate related declarative, procedural, and emotional material, and facilitate the neurophysiological processes underpinning memory consolidation in humans...
May 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757142/autistic-traits-but-not-schizotypy-predict-increased-weighting-of-sensory-information-in-bayesian-visual-integration
#3
Povilas Karvelis, Aaron R Seitz, Stephen M Lawrie, Peggy Seriès
Recent theories propose that schizophrenia/schizotypy and autistic spectrum disorder are related to impairments in Bayesian inference i.e. how the brain integrates sensory information (likelihoods) with prior knowledge. However existing accounts fail to clarify: i) how proposed theories differ in accounts of ASD vs. schizophrenia and ii) whether the impairments result from weaker priors or enhanced likelihoods. Here, we directly address these issues by characterizing how 91 healthy participants, scored for autistic and schizotypal traits, implicitly learned and combined priors with sensory information...
May 14, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745430/working-memory-dependence-of-spatial-contextual-cueing-for-visual-search
#4
Stefan Pollmann
When spatial stimulus configurations repeat in visual search, a search facilitation, resulting in shorter search times, can be observed that is due to incidental learning. This contextual cueing effect appears to be rather implicit, uncorrelated with observers' explicit memory of display configurations. Nevertheless, as I review here, this search facilitation due to contextual cueing depends on visuospatial working memory resources, and it disappears when visuospatial working memory is loaded by a concurrent delayed match to sample task...
May 10, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742112/time-course-variation-of-statistics-embedded-in-music-corpus-study-on-implicit-learning-and-knowledge
#5
Tatsuya Daikoku
Learning and knowledge of transitional probability in sequences like music, called statistical learning and knowledge, are considered implicit processes that occur without intention to learn and awareness of what one knows. This implicit statistical knowledge can be alternatively expressed via abstract medium such as musical melody, which suggests this knowledge is reflected in melodies written by a composer. This study investigates how statistics in music vary over a composer's lifetime. Transitional probabilities of highest-pitch sequences in Ludwig van Beethoven's Piano Sonata were calculated based on different hierarchical Markov models...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740127/spatial-representations-of-the-viewer-s-surroundings
#6
Satoshi Shioiri, Masayuki Kobayashi, Kazumichi Matsumiya, Ichiro Kuriki
Spatial representation surrounding a viewer including outside the visual field is crucial for moving around the three-dimensional world. To obtain such spatial representations, we predict that there is a learning process that integrates visual inputs from different viewpoints covering all the 360° visual angles. We report here the learning effect of the spatial layouts on six displays arranged to surround the viewer, showing shortening of visual search time on surrounding layouts that are repeatedly used (contextual cueing effect)...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740029/random-feedback-makes-listeners-tone-deaf
#7
Dominique T Vuvan, Benjamin Rich Zendel, Isabelle Peretz
The mental representation of pitch structure (tonal knowledge) is a core component of musical experience and is learned implicitly through exposure to music. One theory of congenital amusia (tone deafness) posits that conscious access to tonal knowledge is disrupted, leading to a severe deficit of music cognition. We tested this idea by providing random performance feedback to neurotypical listeners while they listened to melodies for tonal incongruities and had their electrical brain activity monitored. The introduction of random feedback was associated with a reduction of accuracy and confidence, and a suppression of the late positive brain response usually elicited by conscious detection of a tonal violation...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734019/embedding-fundamental-care-in-the-pre-registration-nursing-curriculum-results-from-a-pilot-study
#8
Rebecca Feo, Frank Donnelly, Lauren Frensham, Tiffany Conroy, Alison Kitson
International evidence suggests nursing is not providing fundamental care consistently or adequately, resulting in poor outcomes for patients and healthcare systems. One possible reason for this inadequate care delivery is nursing education, with fundamental care often implicit or invisible in nursing curricula. To understand how best to teach fundamental care to pre-registration (pre-licensure) students, we developed and piloted a six-week intervention that incorporated into the first-year curriculum a more explicit focus on fundamental care...
May 1, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725313/what-is-the-influence-of-morphological-knowledge-in-the-early-stages-of-reading-acquisition-among-low-ses-children-a-graphical-modeling-approach
#9
Pascale Colé, Eddy Cavalli, Lynne G Duncan, Anne Theurel, Edouard Gentaz, Liliane Sprenger-Charolles, Abdessadek El-Ahmadi
Children from low-SES families are known to show delays in aspects of language development which underpin reading acquisition such as vocabulary and listening comprehension. Research on the development of morphological skills in this group is scarce, and no studies exist in French. The present study investigated the involvement of morphological knowledge in the very early stages of reading acquisition (decoding), before reading comprehension can be reliably assessed. We assessed listening comprehension, receptive vocabulary, phoneme awareness, morphological awareness as well as decoding, word reading and non-verbal IQ in 703 French first-graders from low-SES families after 3 months of formal schooling (November)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723711/implicit-sequence-learning-of-chunking-and-abstract-structures
#10
Qiufang Fu, Huiming Sun, Zoltán Dienes, Xiaolan Fu
The current study investigated whether people can simultaneously acquire knowledge about concrete chunks and abstract structures in implicit sequence learning; and whether the degree of abstraction determines the conscious status of the acquired knowledge. We adopted three types of stimuli in a serial reaction time task in three experiments. The RT results indicated that people could simultaneously acquire knowledge about concrete chunks and abstract structures of the temporal sequence. Generation performance revealed that ability to control was mainly based on abstract structures rather than concrete chunks...
April 30, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721781/implicit-video-feedback-produces-positive-changes-in-landing-mechanics
#11
Tijana Popovic, Shane V Caswell, Anne Benjaminse, Tarique Siragy, Jatin Ambegaonkar, Nelson Cortes
BACKGROUND: Implicit (IF) and explicit (EF) feedback are two motor learning strategies demonstrated to alter movement patterns. There is conflicting evidence on which strategy produces better outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reduced IF and EF video feedback on lower extremity landing mechanics. METHODS: Thirty participants (24 ± 2 years, 1.7 ± 0.1 m, 70 ± 11 kg) were randomly assigned to three groups: IF (n = 10), EF (n = 10), and control (CG) (n = 10)...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709764/episodic-traces-and-statistical-regularities-paired-associate-learning-in-typical-and-dyslexic-readers
#12
Manon Wyn Jones, Jan-Rouke Kuipers, Sinead Nugent, Angelina Miley, Gary Oppenheim
Learning visual-phonological associations is a key skill underlying successful reading acquisition. However, we are yet to understand the cognitive mechanisms that enable efficient learning in good readers, and those which are aberrant in individuals with developmental dyslexia. Here, we use a repeated cued-recall task to examine how typical and reading-impaired adults acquire novel associations between visual and phonological stimuli, incorporating a looking-at-nothing paradigm to probe implicit memory for target locations...
April 27, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699533/process-evaluation-of-two-home-based-bimanual-training-programs-in-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy-the-coad-study-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-study
#13
Laura Beckers, Jan van der Burg, Yvonne Janssen-Potten, Eugène Rameckers, Pauline Aarts, Rob Smeets
BACKGROUND: As part of the COAD-study two home-based bimanual training programs for young children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (uCP) have been developed, both consisting of a preparation phase and a home-based training phase. Parents are coached to use either an explicit or implicit motor learning approach while teaching bimanual activities to their child. A process evaluation of these complex interventions is crucial in order to draw accurate conclusions and provide recommendations for implementation in clinical practice and further research...
April 24, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699472/increases-in-emotional-intelligence-after-an-online-training-program-are-associated-with-better-decision-making-on-the-iowa-gambling-task
#14
Anna Alkozei, Ryan Smith, Lauren A Demers, Mareen Weber, Sarah M Berryhill, William D S Killgore
Higher levels of emotional intelligence have been associated with better inter and intrapersonal functioning. In the present study, 59 healthy men and women were randomized into either a three-week online training program targeted to improve emotional intelligence ( n = 29), or a placebo control training program targeted to improve awareness of nonemotional aspects of the environment ( n = 30). Compared to placebo, participants in the emotional intelligence training group showed increased performance on the total emotional intelligence score of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, a performance measure of emotional intelligence, as well as subscales of perceiving emotions and facilitating thought...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698844/increased-practice-of-a-standing-motor-sequence-task-in-healthy-young-and-healthy-elders-short-communication
#15
Heather Anne Hayes, Shantae George, Leland Eric Dibble
BACKGROUND: Sequence-specific learning (SSL); the ability to implicitly integrate repeated sequences compared to random sequences during a motor sequence paradigm, is impaired in healthy elders (HE) compared to healthy young (HY). Prior studies have provided limited practice (small repetitions and only 1 to 3 days). RESEARCH QUESTION: Using a standing, postural control task we sought to assess if more practice (7 days) would remediate the differences observed in SSL for HE...
April 21, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698207/globally-variance-constrained-sparse-representation-and-its-application-in-image-set-coding
#16
Xiang Zhang, Jiarui Sun, Siwei Ma, Zhouchen Lin, Jian Zhang, Shiqi Wang, Wen Gao
Sparse representation leads to an efficient way to approximately recover a signal by the linear composition of a few bases from a learnt dictionary based on which various successful applications have been achieved. However, in the scenario of data compression, its efficiency and popularity are hindered. It is because of the fact that encoding sparsely distributed coefficients may consume more bits for representing the index of nonzero coefficients. Therefore, introducing an accurate rate constraint in sparse coding and dictionary learning becomes meaningful, which has not been fully exploited in the context of sparse representation...
August 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691796/mentorship-in-medicine-and-other-health-professions
#17
Nayanee Henry-Noel, Maria Bishop, Clement K Gwede, Ekaterina Petkova, Ewa Szumacher
Mentoring skills are valuable assets for academic medicine and allied health faculty, who influence and help shape the careers of the next generation of healthcare providers. Mentors are role models who also act as guides for students' personal and professional development over time. Mentors can be instrumental in conveying explicit academic knowledge required to master curriculum content. Importantly, they can enhance implicit knowledge about the "hidden curriculum" of professionalism, ethics, values, and the art of medicine not learned from texts...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689336/implicit-relational-learning-in-a-multiple-object-tracking-task
#18
Olga F Lazareva, John McInnerney, Tiffany Williams
We studied implicit relational learning by embedding contextual relational information into a multiple-object tracking task. In two experiments, participants were instructed to track two or four out of eight moving objects and report at the end of the trial whether a single cued object was among those they tracked (yes/no task). The stimulus display also contained two background strips of different width. In the informative condition, the location of the cued object predicted the correct choice: If the answer was "yes", then the cued object was always located next to the narrower strip; otherwise, it was always located next to the wider strip (or vice versa)...
April 21, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688082/evidence-of-a-diurnal-rhythm-in-implicit-reward-learning
#19
Alexis E Whitton, Malavika Mehta, Manon L Ironside, Greg Murray, Diego A Pizzagalli
Many aspects of hedonic behavior, including self-administration of natural and drug rewards, as well as human positive affect, follow a diurnal cycle that peaks during the species-specific active period. This variation has been linked to circadian modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system, and is hypothesized to serve an adaptive function by driving an organism to engage with the environment during times where the opportunity for obtaining rewards is high. However, relatively little is known about whether more complex facets of hedonic behavior - in particular, reward learning - follow the same diurnal cycle...
April 24, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687188/orienting-to-medicine-scripting-professionalism-hierarchy-and-social-difference-at-the-start-of-medical-school
#20
Sienna R Craig, Rebekah Scott, Kristy Blackwood
Nascent medical students' first view into medical school orients them toward what is considered important in medicine. Based on ethnography conducted over 18 months at a New England medical school, this article explores themes which emerged during a first-year student orientation and examines how these scripts resurface across a four-year curriculum, revealing dynamics of enculturation into an institution and the broader profession. We analyze orientation activities as discursive and embodied fields which serve "practical" purposes of making new social geographies familiar, but which also frame institutional values surrounding "soft" aspects of medicine: professionalism; dynamics of hierarchy and vulnerability; and social difference...
April 23, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
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