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Implicit learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728547/community-based-initiatives-improving-critical-health-literacy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-synthesis-of-qualitative-evidence
#1
Liesbeth de Wit, Christine Fenenga, Cinzia Giammarchi, Lucia di Furia, Inge Hutter, Andrea de Winter, Louise Meijering
BACKGROUND: Critical health literacy enables older adults to make informed health decisions and take actions for the health and wellbeing of themselves and their community, within their own social and cultural context. A community-based approach has the potential to improve the critical health literacy of older adults and their communities. However, it is not clear how such initiatives consider critical health literacy. Therefore, this study explored how community-based initiatives address the critical health literacy of older adults and their communities...
July 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726438/superior-pattern-detectors-efficiently-learn-activate-apply-and-update-social-stereotypes
#2
David J Lick, Adam L Alter, Jonathan B Freeman
Superior cognitive abilities are generally associated with positive outcomes such as academic achievement and social mobility. Here, we explore the darker side of cognitive ability, highlighting robust links between pattern detection and stereotyping. Across 6 studies, we find that superior pattern detectors efficiently learn and use stereotypes about social groups. This pattern holds across explicit (Studies 1 and 2), implicit (Studies 2 and 4), and behavioral measures of stereotyping (Study 3). We also find that superior pattern detectors readily update their stereotypes when confronted with new information (Study 5), making them particularly susceptible to counterstereotype training (Study 6)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720087/resident-perceptions-of-the-impact-of-duty-hour-restrictions-on-resident-attending-interactions-an-exploratory-study
#3
Kristen A Gerjevic, Marcy E Rosenbaum, Manish Suneja
BACKGROUND: The institution of duty hour reforms by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in 2003 has created a learning environment where residents are consistently looking for input from attending physicians with regards to balancing duty hour regulations and providing quality patient care. There is a paucity of literature regarding resident perceptions of attending physician actions or attitudes towards work hour restrictions. The purpose of this study was to identify attending physician behaviors that residents perceived as supportive or unsupportive of their compliance with duty hour regulations...
July 18, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719661/minimizing-endpoint-variability-through-reinforcement-learning-during-reaching-movements-involving-shoulder-elbow-and-wrist
#4
David Marc Anton Mehler, Alexandra Reichenbach, Julius Klein, Jörn Diedrichsen
Reaching movements are comprised of the coordinated action across multiple joints. The human skeleton is redundant for this task because different joint configurations can lead to the same endpoint in space. How do people learn to use combinations of joints that maximize success in goal-directed motor tasks? To answer this question, we used a 3-degree-of-freedom manipulandum to measure shoulder, elbow and wrist joint movements during reaching in a plane. We tested whether a shift in the relative contribution of the wrist and elbow joints to a reaching movement could be learned by an implicit reinforcement regime...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715694/associative-cueing-of-attention-through-implicit-feature-location-binding
#5
Giovanna Girardi, Daniele Nico
In order to assess associative learning between two task-irrelevant features in cueing spatial attention, we devised a task in which participants have to make an identity comparison between two sequential visual stimuli. Unbeknownst to them, location of the second stimulus could be predicted by the colour of the first or a concurrent sound. Albeit unnecessary to perform the identity-matching judgment the predictive features thus provided an arbitrary association favouring the spatial anticipation of the second stimulus...
July 14, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713303/investigating-thematic-roles-through-implicit-learning-evidence-from-light-verb-constructions
#6
Eva Wittenberg, Manizeh Khan, Jesse Snedeker
The syntactic structure of a sentence is usually a strong predictor of its meaning: Each argument noun phrase (i.e., Subject and Object) should map onto exactly one thematic role (i.e., Agent and Patient, respectively). Some constructions, however, are exceptions to this pattern. This paper investigates how the syntactic structure of an utterance contributes to its construal, using ditransitive English light verb constructions, such as "Nils gave a hug to his brother," as an example of such mismatches: Hugging is a two-role event, but the ditransitive syntactic structure suggests a three-role event...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711114/the-effects-of-training-contingency-awareness-during-attention-bias-modification-on-learning-and-stress-reactivity
#7
Amit Lazarov, Rany Abend, Shiran Seidner, Daniel S Pine, Yair Bar-Haim
Current attention bias modification (ABM) procedures are designed to implicitly train attention away from threatening stimuli with the hope of reducing stress reactivity and anxiety symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying effective ABM delivery are not well understood, with awareness of the training contingency suggested as one possible factor contributing to ABM efficacy. Here, 45 high-anxious participants were trained to divert attention away from threat in two ABM sessions. They were randomly assigned to one of three training protocols: an implicit protocol, comprising two standard implicit ABM training sessions; an explicit protocol, comprising two sessions with explicit instruction as to the attention training contingency; and an implicit-explicit protocol, in which participants were not informed of the training contingency in the first ABM session and informed of it at the start of the second session...
September 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710940/procedural-learning-in-tourette-syndrome-adhd-and-comorbid-tourette-adhd-evidence-from-a-probabilistic-sequence-learning-task
#8
Ádám Takács, Yuval Shilon, Karolina Janacsek, Andrea Kóbor, Antoine Tremblay, Dezső Németh, Michael T Ullman
Procedural memory, which is rooted in the basal ganglia, plays an important role in the implicit learning of motor and cognitive skills. Few studies have examined procedural learning in either Tourette syndrome (TS) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), despite basal ganglia abnormalities in both of these neurodevelopmental disorders. We aimed to assess procedural learning in children with TS (n=13), ADHD (n=22), and comorbid TS-ADHD (n=20), as well as in typically developing children (n=21). Procedural learning was measured with a well-studied implicit probabilistic sequence learning task, the alternating serial reaction time task...
July 12, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697690/try-and-try-again-post-error-boost-of-an-implicit-measure-of-agency
#9
S Di Costa, H Théro, V Chambon, P Haggard
The sense of agency refers to the feeling that we control our actions and, through them, effects in the outside world. Reinforcement learning provides an important theoretical framework for understanding why people choose to make particular actions. Few previous studies have considered how reinforcement and learning might influence the subjective experience of agency over actions and outcomes. In two experiments, participants chose between two action alternatives, which differed in reward probability. Occasional reversals of action-reward mapping required participants to monitor outcomes and adjust action selection processing accordingly...
July 12, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686607/cerebellar-anodal-tdcs-increases-implicit-learning-when-strategic-re-aiming-is-suppressed-in-sensorimotor-adaptation
#10
Li-Ann Leow, Welber Marinovic, Stephan Riek, Timothy J Carroll
Neurophysiological and neuroimaging work suggests that the cerebellum is critically involved in sensorimotor adaptation. Changes in cerebellar function alter behaviour when compensating for sensorimotor perturbations, as shown by non-invasive stimulation of the cerebellum and studies involving patients with cerebellar degeneration. It is known, however, that behavioural responses to sensorimotor perturbations reflect both explicit processes (such as volitional aiming to one side of a target to counteract a rotation of visual feedback) and implicit, error-driven updating of sensorimotor maps...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679567/effort-and-trust-the-underpinnings-of-active-learning
#11
EDITORIAL
Seana Adams, Krish Bilimoria, Neha Malhotra, P K Rangachari
Three undergraduate students and their teacher discuss two crucial issues that form the implicit basis of active learning: effort and trust. They use a single course in a Health Sciences Program to anchor their comments.
September 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678704/auto-context-convolutional-neural-network-auto-net-for-brain-extraction-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#12
Seyed Sadegh Mohseni Salehi, Deniz Erdogmus, Ali Gholipour
Brain extraction or whole brain segmentation is an important first step in many of the neuroimage analysis pipelines. The accuracy and robustness of brain extraction, therefore, is crucial for the accuracy of the entire brain analysis process. State-of-the-art brain extraction techniques rely heavily on the accuracy of alignment or registration between brain atlases and query brain anatomy, and/or make assumptions about the image geometry; therefore have limited success when these assumptions do not hold or image registration fails...
June 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675116/acute-alcohol-effects-on-explicit-and-implicit-motivation-to-drink-alcohol-in-socially-drinking-adolescents
#13
Elisabeth Jünger, Amir-Homayoun Javadi, Corinde E Wiers, Christian Sommer, Maria Garbusow, Nadine Bernhardt, Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Michael N Smolka, Ulrich S Zimmermann
Alcohol-related cues can evoke explicit and implicit motivation to drink alcohol. Concerning the links between explicit and implicit motivation, there are mixed findings. Therefore, we investigated both concepts in 51 healthy 18- to 19-year-old males, who are less affected by neuropsychological deficits in decision-making that are attributed to previous alcohol exposure than older participants. In a randomized crossover design, adolescents were infused with either alcohol or placebo. Self-ratings of alcohol desire, thirst, well-being and alcohol effects comprised our explicit measures of motivation...
July 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663547/explicit-instructions-and-consolidation-promote-rewiring-of-automatic-behaviors-in-the-human-mind
#14
Emese Szegedi-Hallgató, Karolina Janacsek, Teodóra Vékony, Lia Andrea Tasi, Leila Kerepes, Emőke Adrienn Hompoth, Anna Bálint, Dezső Németh
One major challenge in human behavior and brain sciences is to understand how we can rewire already existing perceptual, motor, cognitive, and social skills or habits. Here we aimed to characterize one aspect of rewiring, namely, how we can update our knowledge of sequential/statistical regularities when they change. The dynamics of rewiring was explored from learning to consolidation using a unique experimental design which is suitable to capture the effect of implicit and explicit processing and the proactive and retroactive interference...
June 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662479/intact-implicit-statistical-learning-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#15
Zsolt Unoka, Gabriella Vizin, Anna Bjelik, Dóra Radics, Dezso Nemeth, Karolina Janacsek
Wide-spread neuropsychological deficits have been identified in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Previous research found impairments in decision making, declarative memory, working memory and executive functions; however, no studies have focused on implicit learning in BPD yet. The aim of our study was to investigate implicit statistical learning by comparing learning performance of 19 BPD patients and 19 healthy, age-, education- and gender-matched controls on a probabilistic sequence learning task. Moreover, we also tested whether participants retain the acquired knowledge after a delay period...
June 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658015/a-framework-for-integrating-implicit-bias-recognition-into-health-professions-education
#16
Javeed Sukhera, Chris Watling
Existing literature on implicit bias is fragmented and comes from a variety of fields like cognitive psychology, business ethics, and higher education, but implicit-bias-informed educational approaches have been underexplored in health professions education and are difficult to evaluate using existing tools. Despite increasing attention to implicit bias recognition and management in health professions education, many programs struggle to meaningfully integrate these topics into curricula. The authors propose a six-point actionable framework for integrating implicit bias recognition and management into health professions education that draws on the work of previous researchers and includes practical tools to guide curriculum developers...
June 27, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648566/disrupted-implicit-motor-sequence-learning-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-revealed-with-ambidextrous-serial-reaction-time-task
#17
Adrian Andrzej Chrobak, Katarzyna Siuda-Krzywicka, Grzegorz Przemysław Siwek, Anna Tereszko, Weronika Janeczko, Anna Starowicz-Filip, Marcin Siwek, Dominika Dudek
BACKGROUND: Impairment of implicit motor sequence learning was shown in schizophrenia (SZ) and, most recently, in bipolar disorder (BD), and was connected to cerebellar abnormalities. The goal of this study was to compare implicit motor sequence learning in BD and SZ. METHODS: We examined 33 patients with BD, 33 patients with SZ and 31 healthy controls with a use of ambidextrous Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT), which allows exploring asymmetries in performance depending on the hand used...
June 23, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647389/improving-abnormality-detection-on-chest-radiography-using-game-like-reinforcement-mechanics
#18
Po-Hao Chen, Howard Roth, Maya Galperin-Aizenberg, Alexander T Ruutiainen, Warren Gefter, Tessa S Cook
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Despite their increasing prevalence, online textbooks, question banks, and digital references focus primarily on explicit knowledge. Implicit skills such as abnormality detection require repeated practice on clinical service and have few digital substitutes. Using mechanics traditionally deployed in video games such as clearly defined goals, rapid-fire levels, and narrow time constraints may be an effective way to teach implicit skills. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We created a freely available, online module to evaluate the ability of individuals to differentiate between normal and abnormal chest radiographs by implementing mechanics, including instantaneous feedback, rapid-fire cases, and 15-second timers...
June 21, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646763/deep-neural-mapping-support-vector-machines
#19
Yujian Li, Ting Zhang
The choice of kernel has an important effect on the performance of a support vector machine (SVM). The effect could be reduced by NEUROSVM, an architecture using multilayer perceptron for feature extraction and SVM for classification. In binary classification, a general linear kernel NEUROSVM can be theoretically simplified as an input layer, many hidden layers, and an SVM output layer. As a feature extractor, the sub-network composed of the input and hidden layers is first trained together with a virtual ordinary output layer by backpropagation, then with the output of its last hidden layer taken as input of the SVM classifier for further training separately...
June 21, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644809/structured-kernel-dictionary-learning-with-correlation-constraint-for-object-recognition
#20
Zhengjue Wang, Yinghua Wang, Hongwei Liu, Hao Zhang
In this paper, we propose a new discriminative non-linear dictionary learning approach, called correlation constrained structured kernel KSVD, for object recognition. The objective function for dictionary learning contains a reconstructive term and a discriminative term. In the reconstructive term, signals are implicitly non-linearly mapped into a space, where a structured kernel dictionary, each sub-dictionary of which lies in the span of the mapped signals from the corresponding class, is established. In the discriminative term, by analyzing the classification mechanism, the correlation constraint is proposed in kernel form, constraining the correlations between different discriminative codes, and restricting the coefficient vectors to be transformed into a feature space, where the features are highly correlated inner-class and nearly independent between-classes...
June 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
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