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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160007/identification-of-factors-contributing-to-successful-self-directed-weight-loss-a-qualitative-study
#1
N Rafiei, T Gill
BACKGROUND: Despite the number of weight management programmes and their wide promotion, most overweight and obese individuals tend to lose weight on their own. The present study aimed to understand the characteristics and strategies of those who successfully engage in self-directed weight loss, which could empower other overweight and obese individuals with information and strategies to manage their weight on their own. METHODS: Men and women who had lost at least 5% of their body weight without direct interaction with professionals or weight management programmes were recruited...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154616/do-we-see-it-or-not-sensory-attenuation-in-the-visual-domain
#2
Katharina A Schwarz, Roland Pfister, Michel Kluge, Lisa Weller, Wilfried Kunde
Sensory consequences of an agent's actions are perceived less intensely than sensory stimuli that are not caused (and thus not predicted) by the observer. This effect of sensory attenuation has been discussed as a key principle of perception, potentially mediating various crucial functions such as agency and the discrimination of self-caused sensory stimulation from stimuli caused by external factors. Precise models describe the theoretical underpinnings of this phenomenon across a variety of modalities, especially the auditory, tactile, and visual domain...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154576/unique-effects-and-moderators-of-effects-of-sources-on-self-efficacy-a-model-based-meta-analysis
#3
Angela Byars-Winston, Jacob Diestelmann, Julia N Savoy, William T Hoyt
Self-efficacy beliefs are strong predictors of academic pursuits, performance, and persistence, and in theory are developed and maintained by 4 classes of experiences Bandura (1986) referred to as sources: performance accomplishments (PA), vicarious learning (VL), social persuasion (SP), and affective arousal (AA). The effects of sources on self-efficacy vary by performance domain and individual difference factors. In this meta-analysis (k = 61 studies of academic self-efficacy; N = 8,965), we employed B. J...
November 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142741/statistical-sleep-pattern-modelling-for-sleep-quality-assessment-based-on-sound-events
#4
Hongle Wu, Takafumi Kato, Masayuki Numao, Ken-Ichi Fukui
A good sleep is important for a healthy life. Recently, several consumer sleep devices have emerged on the market claiming that they can provide personal sleep monitoring; however, many of them require additional hardware or there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding their reliability. In this paper we proposed a novel method to assess the sleep quality through sound events recorded in the bedroom. We used subjective sleep quality as training label, combined several machine learning approaches including kernelized self organizing map, hierarchical clustering and hidden Markov model, obtained the models to indicate the sleep pattern of specific quality level...
December 2017: Health Information Science and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139337/do-people-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-benefit-from-making-errors-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-error-based-and-errorless-learning
#5
Tamara Ownsworth, Jennifer Fleming, Robyn Tate, Elizabeth Beadle, Janelle Griffin, Melissa Kendall, Julia Schmidt, Amanda Lane-Brown, Mathilde Chevignard, David H K Shum
BACKGROUND: Errorless learning (ELL) and error-based learning (EBL) are commonly used approaches to rehabilitation for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, it is unknown whether making errors is beneficial in the learning process to promote skills generalization after severe TBI. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of ELL and EBL for improving skills generalization, self-awareness, behavioral competency, and psychosocial functioning after severe TBI...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139213/heterogeneous-neuronal-activity-in-the-lateral-habenula-after-short-and-long-term-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#6
Ping Gao, Henk J Groenewegen, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Pieter Voorn
Cocaine addiction is thought to be the result of drug-induced functional changes in a neural network implicated in emotions, learning, and cognitive control. Recent studies have implicated the lateral habenula (LHb) in drug-directed behavior, especially its aversive aspects. Limited cocaine exposure has been shown to alter neuronal activity in the LHb, but the impact of long-term drug exposure on habenula function has not been determined. Therefore, using c-fos as a marker, we here examined neuronal activity in LHb in rats that self-administered cocaine for either 10 or 60 days...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138998/crafting-socialist-embryology-dialectics-aquaculture-and-the-diverging-discipline-in-maoist-china-1950-1965
#7
Lijing Jiang
In the 1950s, embryology in socialist China underwent a series of changes that adjusted the disciplinary apparatus to suit socialism and the national goal of self-reliance. As the Communist state called on scientists to learn from the Soviets, embryologists' comprehensive view on heredity, which did not contradict Trofim Lysenko (1898-1976)'s doctrines, provided a space for them to advance their discipline. Leading scientists, often trained abroad in the tradition of experimental embryology, rode on the tides of Maoist ideology and repositioned their research...
November 7, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132630/evaluating-e-consultation-implementations-based-on-use-and-time-line-across-various-specialties
#8
Pratik J Parikh, Corinne Mowrey, Jennie Gallimore, Stephen Harrell, Brian Burke
BACKGROUND: Electronic Consultation (e-consults) can provide improved access, enhance patient and provider satisfaction, and reduce beneficiary travel expenses. We explored how e-consults were implemented across three specialty areas, diabetes (Diab), gastroenterology (GI), and neurosurgery (Neuro), at two Veterans Affairs hospitals in terms of strategies for use and time-lines. METHODS: We conducted observations and electronically shadowed patient e-consultations submitted to a specialty care service by primary care provider(s) at the two sites during a thirteen-month period...
December 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132340/what-do-japanese-residents-learn-from-treating-dying-patients-the-implications-for-training-in-end-of-life-care
#9
Kazuko Arai, Takuya Saiki, Rintaro Imafuku, Chihiro Kawakami, Kazuhiko Fujisaki, Yasuyuki Suzuki
BACKGROUND: How medical residents' experiences with care for dying patients affect their emotional well-being, their learning outcomes, and the formation of their professional identities is not fully understood. We examine residents' emotional states and learning occurring during the provision of care to dying patients and specifically discuss the impact of providing end-of-life (EOL) care on professional identity formation. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 residents who had graduated in the last 3 to 5 years...
November 13, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132327/explaining-variance-in-self-directed-learning-readiness-of-first-year-students-in-health-professional-programs
#10
Craig E Slater, Anne Cusick, Jimmy C Y Louie
BACKGROUND: Self-directed learning (SDL) is expected of health science graduates; it is thus a learning outcome in many pre-certification programs. Previous research identified age, gender, discipline and prior education as associated with variations in students' self-directed learning readiness (SDLR). Studies in other fields also propose personality as influential. METHOD: This study investigated relationships between SDLR and age, gender, discipline, previous education, and personality traits...
November 13, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132076/kinematic-analysis-of-direct-pointing-in-projection-based-stereoscopic-environments
#11
Chiuhsiang Joe Lin, Bereket Haile Woldegiorgis
This work investigated the effects of visual information, parallax, and target positions on movement performances in projection-based stereoscopic displays (PSDs). Fifteen (26.5 ± 3.83 years) self-declared right-handed individuals, with normal or corrected to normal visual acuity, completed pointing tasks in stereoscopic and real environments (RE). Three-dimensional spatial data, recorded by a motion system composed of six infrared cameras, was used to compute kinematics of reaching a real/virtual object at a combination of three parallax and nine frontal planar positions...
November 10, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127077/is-connected-health-contributing-to-a-healthier-population
#12
Carmen G Loiselle, Saima Ahmed
Connected health tools, including mobile phones, incorporate various functions that capture events, direct actions, and make informed decisions based on complex sources of data. Connected health, a term recently proposed by some academics and industry, refers to the development, testing, and integration of smart technology tools into health care. Through these means, connected health creates interconnectivity across various environments, profoundly changing the way we learn, self-regulate, and communicate with one another...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125507/self-management-and-health-care-transition-trials-tribulations-and-triumphs
#13
Cecily L Betz
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to provide perspectives pertaining to the importance of fostering comprehensive self-management competencies of AEA-SHCN, with attention directed to AEA with spina bifida based upon the Health Care Transition Research Consortium Health Care Transition model. This article is based upon the plenary presentation given at the Spina Bifida 3rd World Congress, entitled, Self-Management and Health Care Transition: Trials, Tribulations and Triumphs. METHOD: A historical perspective of healthcare transition initiatives and best practice guidelines is provided that have influenced the field of research and practice...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121790/knowledge-skills-and-attitudes-regarding-the-use-of-medical-cannabis-in-the-hospice-population-an-educational-intervention
#14
Kelly S Mendoza, Mary Lynn McPherson
BACKGROUND: Currently, 28 states and the District of Columbia have legalized cannabis for medical use despite its remaining Schedule I federally. Benefits of medical cannabis (MC) have been demonstrated in nausea/vomiting associated with chemotherapy, cachexia associated with HIV/AIDS, and certain types of neuropathic pain. However, it is unclear how comfortable hospice providers are with the concept of MC. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine changes in knowledge, self-perceived skills, and attitudes (KSA) of hospice providers regarding MC after an online educational intervention...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113565/using-learning-analytics-to-evaluate-a-video-based-lecture-series
#15
K H Vincent Lau, Pue Farooque, Gary Leydon, Michael L Schwartz, R Mark Sadler, Jeremy J Moeller
BACKGROUND: The video-based lecture (VBL), an important component of the flipped classroom (FC) and massive open online course (MOOC) approaches to medical education, has primarily been evaluated through direct learner feedback. Evaluation may be enhanced through learner analytics (LA) - analysis of quantitative audience usage data generated by video-sharing platforms. METHODS AND RESULTS: We applied LA to an experimental series of ten VBLs on electroencephalography (EEG) interpretation, uploaded to YouTube in the model of a publicly accessible MOOC...
November 7, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102218/impact-of-an-hpv-education-and-vaccination-campaign-among-canadian-university-students
#16
Sabrina Piedimonte, Annie Leung, Andrew Zakhari, Céline Giordano, Pierre-Paul Tellier, Susie Lau
BACKGROUND: Uptake of HPV vaccination among university students remains low despite risky sexual practices and increased prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes. The study objective was to determine the level of knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer among university students and to subsequently develop a targeted education and vaccination campaign to increase uptake. METHODS: Phase I was a pilot project in which participants were recruited as part of Cervical Cancer Awareness Week 2015 at two universities, one site immediately offering vaccination and the other not...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101843/a-cognitive-behavioral-and-mindfulness-based-group-sleep-intervention-improves-behavior-problems-in-at-risk-adolescents-by-improving-perceived-sleep-quality
#17
Matthew J Blake, Lian Snoep, Monika Raniti, Orli Schwartz, Joanna M Waloszek, Julian G Simmons, Greg Murray, Laura Blake, Elizabeth R Landau, Ronald E Dahl, Richard Bootzin, Dana L McMakin, Paul Dudgeon, John Trinder, Nicholas B Allen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test whether a cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness-based group sleep intervention would improve behavior problems in at-risk adolescents, and whether these improvements were specifically related to improvements in sleep. METHOD: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial conducted with 123 adolescent participants (female = 60%; mean age = 14.48, range 12.04-16.31 years) who had high levels of sleep problems and anxiety symptoms...
October 12, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099337/technology-embedded-health-education-on-nutrition-for-middle-aged-and-older-adults-living-in-the-community
#18
Ching-Ju Chiu, Su-E Kuo, Dai-Chan Lin
Mobile technology provides young adults important support for self-directed learning, but whether there is related support for older adults is not clear. This study aims to determine whether 1) nutrition education combined with mobile technology-supported teaching improves knowledge of and self-efficacy for a healthy diet; 2) if adults who reported reviewing the electronic course material or searching health information online, showed significantly greater progress in knowledge of and self-efficacy for a healthy diet than did those who did not adopt the electronic support...
November 1, 2017: Global Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098048/time-is-of-the-essence-an-observational-time-motion-study-of-internal-medicine-residents-while-they-are-on-duty
#19
Cameron W Leafloor, Erin Yiran Liu, Catherine C Code, Heather A Lochnan, Erin Keely, Deanna M Rothwell, Alan J Forster, Allen R Huang
Background: The effects of changes to resident physician duty hours need to be measureable. This time-motion study was done to record internal medicine residents' workflow while on duty and to determine the feasibility of capturing detailed data using a mobile electronic tool. Methods: Junior and senior residents were shadowed by a single observer during six-hour blocks of time, covering all seven days. Activities were recorded in real-time. Eighty-nine activities grouped into nine categories were determined a priori...
June 2017: Canadian Medical Education Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094646/perceiving-sophisticated-minds-influences-perceptual-individuation
#20
Steven M Almaraz, Kurt Hugenberg, Steven G Young
In six studies, we investigated how ascribing humanlike versus animallike minds to targets influences how easily targets are individuated. Across the studies, participants learned to discriminate among a variety of "aliens" (actually Greebles). Our initial study showed that participants' ability to learn to individuate targets was related to beliefs that targets had sophisticated minds. Investigating the directionality of this relationship, we found that learning to better recognize the targets did not affect perceptions of mind (Study 2)...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
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