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pneumonia pediatrics in review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091700/computed-tomography-localization-of-the-appendix-in-the-pediatric-population-relative-to-the-lumbar-spine
#1
John Davis, Albert T Roh, Matthew B Petterson, Tammy R Kopelman, Samantha L Matz, Daniel G Gridley, Mary J Connell
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to evaluate suspected acute appendicitis. Although very effective, CT uses ionizing radiation, exposing patients to an increased risk of cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the potential for decreasing the field of view of the CT (and therefore the dose to the patient) in the evaluation of suspected acute appendicitis in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from 212 consecutive patients who underwent CT for suspected acute appendicitis...
January 14, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049113/update-on-pediatric-overuse
#2
Eric R Coon, Paul C Young, Ricardo A Quinonez, Daniel J Morgan, Sanket S Dhruva, Alan R Schroeder
As concerns over health care-related harms and costs continue to mount, efforts to identify and combat medical overuse are needed. Although much of the recent attention has focused on health care for adults, children are also harmed by overuse. Using a structured PubMed search and manual tables of contents review, we identified important articles on pediatric overuse published in 2015. These articles were evaluated according to the quality of the methods, the magnitude of clinical effect, and the number of patients potentially affected and were categorized into overdiagnosis, overtreatment, and overutilization...
January 3, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039666/use-of-ceftaroline-fosamil-in-children-review-of-current-knowledge-and-its-application
#3
REVIEW
Juwon Yim, Leah M Molloy, Jason G Newland
Ceftaroline is a novel cephalosporin recently approved in children for treatment of acute bacterial skin and soft tissue infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and other susceptible bacteria. With a favorable tolerability profile and efficacy proven in pediatric patients and excellent in vitro activity against resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, ceftaroline may serve as a therapeutic option for polymicrobial infections, CABP caused by penicillin- and ceftriaxone-resistant S...
December 30, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032483/indirect-effects-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-in-national-immunization-programs-for-children-on-adult-pneumococcal-disease
#4
REVIEW
Young Keun Kim, David LaFon, Moon H Nahm
The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was developed to overcome the limitations of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, which produces poor immunogenicity in infants younger than 2 years. As many countries have included PCVs in national immunization programs for children, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine type Streptococcus pneumoniae has declined markedly, not only among the vaccinated pediatric population, but also among unvaccinated adults. In this review, we present a concise overview of the indirect effects of mass pediatric PCV immunization on unvaccinated adults...
December 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027187/analysis-of-morbidity-readmission-and-reoperation-after-craniosynostosis-repair-in-children
#5
Kevin T Jubbal, Nikhil Agrawal, Larry H Hollier
The impact of specific patient comorbidities on outcomes in craniosynostosis surgical repair is not well defined. The aim of this retrospective review was to evaluate the short-term 30-day reoperation rate, unplanned readmission rate, and overall morbidity of craniosynostosis surgical repair using the 2012 through 2014 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatrics (ACS NSQIP-Pediatric) database. Overall morbidity included pneumonia, wound occurrence, shock/sepsis, venous thromboembolism, cardiac complication, renal and urinary complications, or nerve injury...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005691/clinical-and-bacterial-risk-factors-for-mortality-in-children-with-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-bloodstream-infections-in-india
#6
Laura E B Nabarro, Chaitra Shankar, Akila Prakasam, Georgekutty Mathew, Visali Jeyaseelan, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Valsan P Verghese
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are an increasing cause of nosocomial infection in hospitalized children worldwide. Few studies have investigated risk factors for mortality in children with CRE bloodstream infection (BSI). Data are particularly scarce in areas where NDM and OXA carbapenemases predominate. Here, we investigate mortality rates, clinical and microbiologic risk factors for mortality in 50 pediatric patients with CRBSI in India. METHOD: Children younger than 17 years old with meropenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae or Escherichia coli isolated from blood culture in 2014 and 2015 were identified from laboratory records...
December 21, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974990/pediatric-heart-failure-lagging-and-sagging-of-care-in-low-income-settings-a-hospital-based-review-of-cases-in-ethiopia
#7
Solmon Gebremariam, Tamirat Moges
Introduction. Causes of acute heart failure in children range from simple myocarditis complicating chest infection to complex structural heart diseases. Objective. To describe patterns, predictors of mortality, and management outcomes of acute heart failure in children. Methods. In retrospective review, between February 2012 and October 2015 at a tertiary center, 106 admitted cases were selected consecutively from discharge records. Data were extracted from patients chart and analyzed using SPSS software package...
2016: Cardiology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940507/titanium-dioxide-in-toothpaste-causing-yellow-nail-syndrome
#8
Ting-Yuan Hsu, Chun-Chen Lin, Ming-Dar Lee, Brian Pin-Hsuan Chang, Jeng-Daw Tsai
Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is an uncommon disorder, the classic triad of which consists of yellow nails, lymphedema, and respiratory symptoms. Few pediatric cases have been reported. We report a 9-year-old girl with yellowish nail discoloration for 1 year accompanied by respiratory symptoms, including chronic cough, recurrent pneumonia, bronchiectasis, and chronic sinusitis. The patient was diagnosed with YNS. Knowing that a relationship between YNS and titanium has been reported, we collected her nail clippings and detected titanium in them by energy dispersive radiograph fluorescence...
January 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933286/viral-infection-in-the-development-and-progression-of-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Steven Nye, Richard J Whitley, Michele Kong
Viral infections are an important cause of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Numerous viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A (H1N1) virus, have been implicated in the progression of pneumonia to ARDS; yet the incidence of progression is unknown. Despite acute and chronic morbidity associated with respiratory viral infections, particularly in "at risk" populations, treatment options are limited. Thus, with few exceptions, care is symptomatic. In addition, mortality rates for viral-related ARDS have yet to be determined...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929695/secondhand-smoke-exposure-illness-severity-and-resource-utilization-in-pediatric-emergency-department-patients-with-respiratory-illnesses
#10
Ashley L Merianos, Cinnamon A Dixon, E Melinda Mahabee-Gittens
OBJECTIVE: Hospital-based data reveal that children who have secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) experience severe respiratory illnesses and greater resource utilization. Our objective was to assess the relationship between SHSe and illness severity/resource utilization among children presenting to the pediatric emergency department (PED) with three common respiratory conditions - asthma, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective review of a yearlong consecutive sample of PED patients with SHSe status documentation and asthma, bronchiolitis, or pneumonia diagnoses was performed...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917707/management-of-pneumonia-in-the-pediatric-critical-care-unit-an-area-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#11
Aimee M Dassner, David P Nicolau, Jennifer E Girotto
Pediatric pneumonia is one of the most common causes of childhood infection requiring hospitalization and is a substantial driver of antimicrobial use among hospitalized children. About 12-20% of pediatric patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) require critical care. Additionally, nosocomial pneumonias (i.e. hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonias) are responsible for 15-53% of hospital-associated infections and are the most common indication for empiric antibiotics in the pediatric intensive care unit...
December 4, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889372/-non-invasive-ventilation-in-children-do-we-need-more-evidence
#12
G Mortamet, G Emeriaud, P Jouvet, B Fauroux, S Essouri
Respiratory failure is the leading cause of hospital admissions in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Mechanical ventilation, preferentially delivered by a non-invasive route (NIV), is currently the first-line treatment for respiratory failure since it is associated with a reduction in the intubation rate. This ventilatory support is increasingly used in the PICU, but its wider use contrasts with the paucity of studies in this field. This review aims to describe the main indications of NIV in acute settings: (i) bronchiolitis; (ii) postextubation respiratory failure; (iii) acute respiratory distress syndrome; (iv) pneumonia; (v) status asthmaticus; (vi) acute chest syndrome; (vii) left heart failure; (viii) exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure; (ix) upper airway obstruction and (x) end-of-life care...
January 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843091/cause-of-death-in-children-with-mitochondrial-diseases
#13
Soyong Eom, Ha Neul Lee, Sunho Lee, Hoon-Chul Kang, Joon Soo Lee, Heung Dong Kim, Young-Mock Lee
BACKGROUND: We investigated the clinical characteristics that represent risk factors for death in pediatric patients with mitochondrial diseases. METHODS: The medical records of mitochondrial disease pediatric patients attended between 2006 and 2015 (n = 221) were reviewed for clinical characteristics, diagnosis, hospitalization, follow-up, survival, and cause of death. RESULTS: The global mortality rate in the cohort was 14% (average age at death, six years)...
January 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836006/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-associated-mild-encephalitis-encephalopathy-with-a-reversible-splenial-lesion-report-of-two-pediatric-cases-and-a-comprehensive-literature-review
#14
Norishi Ueda, Satoshi Minami, Manabu Akimoto
BACKGROUND: No literature review exists on Mycoplasma pneumoniae-associated mild encephalitis/encepharopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS). METHODS: M.pneumoniae-associated MERS cases were searched till August 2016 using PubMed/Google for English/other-language publications and Ichushi ( http://www.jamas.or.jp/ ) for Japanese-language publications. Inclusion criteria were children fulfilling definition for encephalitis, M.pneumoniae infection, and neuroimaging showing hyperintensity in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) alone (type I) or SCC/other brain areas (type II)...
November 11, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823773/surgical-management-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-gerd-in-children-a-systematic-review
#15
Tim Jancelewicz, Monica E Lopez, Cynthia D Downard, Saleem Islam, Robert Baird, Shawn J Rangel, Regan F Williams, Meghan A Arnold, Dave Lal, Elizabeth Renaud, Julia Grabowski, Roshni Dasgupta, Mary Austin, Julia Shelton, Danielle Cameron, Adam B Goldin
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this systematic review by the American Pediatric Surgical Association Outcomes and Evidence-Based Practice Committee was to derive recommendations from the medical literature regarding the surgical treatment of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). METHODS: Five questions were addressed by searching the MEDLINE, Cochrane, Embase, Central, and National Guideline Clearinghouse databases using relevant search terms. Consensus recommendations were derived for each question based on the best available evidence...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765020/demographic-and-mortality-analysis-of-hospitalized-children-at-a-referral-hospital-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#16
J A Bohn, B M Kassaye, D Record, B C Chou, I L Kraft, J C Purdy, K A Hilton, D A Miller, S Getachew, A Addissie, J A Robison
BACKGROUND: Global childhood mortality rates remain high. Millennium Development Goal 4 focused efforts on reducing rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In Ethiopia, child mortality rates dropped 71 % from 1990 to 2015, however it is estimated that 184,000 Ethiopian children die each year. There is limited information about pediatric hospital admissions in Ethiopia. Our aims were to examine the temporal relationship of mortality to admission, describe the demographics, and identify cause mortality of children admitted to the Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755118/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-post-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#17
Erin E Shaughnessy, Erika L Stalets, Samir S Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review covers the outpatient management of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), discussing the changing microbiology of CAP since the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, and providing an overview of national guideline recommendations for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal antibiotic resistance have plummeted since widespread 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747174/ravitch-versus-nuss-procedure-for-pectus-excavatum-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Aran Kanagaratnam, Steven Phan, Vakhtang Tchantchaleishvili, Kevin Phan
BACKGROUND: Pectus excavatum is the most common congenital chest wall deformity. The two most common surgical techniques for its correction are the modified Ravitch technique and the minimally invasive Nuss technique. Despite both procedures being used widely, data comparing them are scarce. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies to evaluate these procedures. A systematic search of the literature was performed from six electronic databases...
September 2016: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709281/stratifying-fibrinolytic-dosing-in-pediatric-parapneumonic-effusion-based-on-ultrasound-grade-correlation
#19
Charles A James, Leah E Braswell, Amir H Pezeshkmehr, Paula K Roberson, James A Parks, Mary B Moore
BACKGROUND: Complicated pleural effusion prolongs the hospital course of pneumonia. Chest tube placement with instillation of fibrinolytic medication allows efficient drain output and decreases hospital stay. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate experience with lower fibrinolytic dose for parapneumonic effusions and to assess potential dose stratification based on a simple ultrasound grading system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical record to identify children and young adults who received fibrinolytic therapy for parapneumonic effusion and had chest tube placement by an interventional radiology service at a single children's hospital...
January 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661056/two-case-reports-whole-genome-sequencing-of-two-clinical-macrolide-resistant-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-isolates-with-different-responses-to-azithromycin
#20
Shaoli Li, Hongmei Sun, Fei Liu, Yanling Feng, Hanqing Zhao, Guanhua Xue, Chao Yan
BACKGROUND: Cases of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae have increased rapidly since 2000, especially in Asia. Patients infected with macrolide-resistant M pneumoniae usually present with severe M pneumoniae pneumonia. The aim of this study was to identify indicators for whether children at an early stage of M pneumoniae infection develop mild or severe pneumonia. CASE SUMMARY: Herein, we retrospectively reviewed 2 pediatric cases caused by macrolide-resistant M pneumoniae, but with markedly different severity of pneumonia...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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