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pneumonia pediatrics in review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665442/carbapenems-versus-alternative-%C3%AE-lactams-for-the-treatment-of-nosocomial-pneumonia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
J Nicholas O'Donnell, Nathaniel J Rhodes, Jenna Lopez, Rebecca Jett, Marc H Scheetz
BACKGROUND: Carbapenems have demonstrated efficacy in treating nosocomial pneumonias in clinical trials despite a reported low lung penetration compared to other β-lactams. Preserving the clinical activity of carbapenems through stewardship efforts is essential. This review aims to identify if differences in outcomes exist, potentially as a function of decreased penetration. METHODS: PubMed and Cochrane Library were systematically searched for clinical trials comparing carbapenems to other anti-pseudomonal β-lactams for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia through December 2016...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658199/the-added-value-of-the-lateral-chest-radiograph-for-diagnosing-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#2
Michalle Soudack, Semion Plotkin, Aviva Ben-Shlush, Lisa Raviv-Zilka, Jeffrey M Jacobson, Michael Benacon, Arie Augarten
BACKGROUND: Opinions differ as to the need of a lateral radiograph for diagnosing community acquired pneumonia in children referred to the emergency department. A lateral radiograph increases the ionizing radiation burden but at the same time may improve specificity and sensitivity in this population. OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of the frontal and lateral chest radiographs compared to frontal view stand-alone images for the management of children with suspected community acquired pneumonia seen in a pediatric emergency department...
January 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620631/pediatric-hyperimmunoglobulin-e-syndrome-a-case-series-of-4-children-in-china
#3
Huifeng Fan, Li Huang, Diyuan Yang, Yunting Lin, Gen Lu, Yaping Xie, Jialu Yu, Dongwei Zhang
Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndromes (HIES) are rare primary immunodeficiency diseases characterized by markedly elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E, recurrent pneumonia, and chronic eczema. To date, information about pediatric HIES is limited. We aimed to evaluate the spectrum of clinical and immunological features in pediatric patients with HIES in China.We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 4 pediatric patients with HIES followed at the Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center from May 2013 to September 2017...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605210/a-review-of-the-etiology-and-clinical-presentation-of-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-a-tertiary-care-experience
#4
Ozlem Satırer, Ayse Mete Yesil, Nagehan Emiralioglu, Gökcen Dilsa Tugcu, Ebru Yalcın, Deniz Dogru, Nural Kiper, Ugur Ozcelik
INTRODUCTION: Non-cystic fibrosis(CF) bronchiectasis has been recognized in children for the past 200 years. Early childhood pneumonia and underlying conditions such as immunodeficiency, primary ciliary dyskinesia(PCD), and congenital lung pathology should be considered in the etiology. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical characteristics, laboratory, and radiological findings of a large population of patients with non-CF bronchiectasis at a tertiary center. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical findings of 187 patients diagnosed with non-CF bronchiectasis over a period of 10 years (January 2005-December 2015) at the Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pediatric Pulmonology...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602553/surgical-lung-biopsy-in-children-after-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#5
Lucia Ortega-Laureano, Teresa Santiago, Gabriela Maron, Andrew M Davidoff, Israel Fernandez-Pineda
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Pulmonary complications are some of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised pediatric patients. We sought to assess the value of surgical lung biopsy (SLB) in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) pediatric patients. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients who underwent SLB within one year of HCT between 1999 and 2015 was performed. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients (15 females, 14 males) with a median age of 10years (range, 0...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559786/epidemiology-microbiology-and-treatment-patterns-of-pediatric-patients-hospitalized-with-pneumonia-at-two-hospitals-in-china-a-patient-chart-review-study
#6
Zehuai Wen, Jia Wei, Huiling Xue, Yunqin Chen, David Melnick, Jesus Gonzalez, Judith Hackett, Xiaoyan Li, Zhaolong Cao
Background: The etiology, epidemiology, treatment patterns, and clinical outcomes of neonatal and pediatric pneumonia patients in China are not well reported. This retrospective chart review study aimed to describe such information among neonatal (0 to 27 days) and pediatric (28 days to <18 years) pneumonia patients in two regions of China. Methods: Electronic medical records of pneumonia hospitalizations (aged <18 years) admitted between 2008 and 2013 from four hospitals under Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine (Southern China) and between 2010 and 2014 at Peking University People's Hospital (Beijing, Northern China) were reviewed...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547457/retrospective-application-of-new-pediatric-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-criteria-identifies-a-high-risk-population
#7
Ashley Gionfriddo, Mika L Nonoyama, Peter C Laussen, Peter N Cox, Megan Clarke, Alejandro A Floh
OBJECTIVES: To promote standardization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention introduced a new ventilator-associated pneumonia classification, which was modified for pediatrics (pediatric ventilator-associated pneumonia according to proposed criteria [PVAP]). We evaluated the frequency of PVAP in a cohort of children diagnosed with ventilator-associated pneumonia according to traditional criteria and compared their strength of association with clinically relevant outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528891/complicated-pneumonia-current-concepts-and-state-of-the-art
#8
Michael C Tracy, Roshni Mathew
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide clinicians engaged in the care of infants and children an update on the current understanding of the epidemiology, etiology, diagnostic evaluation, and clinical management of complicated pneumonia. The review provides timely information surrounding areas of consensus and ongoing research. RECENT FINDINGS: The epidemiology and etiologies of complicated pneumonia continue to evolve over the past several decades in context of the introduction of new vaccines...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510484/trends-in-pediatric-complicated-pneumonia-in-an-ontario-local-health-integration-network
#9
Tahereh Haji, Adam Byrne, Tom Kovesi
Following the introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7), while overall rates of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal pneumonia in children declined, rates of empyema increased. We examined changes in the incidence of hospitalization for pediatric complicated pneumonia (PCOMP) in Eastern Ontario, Canada, particularly since the introduction of the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13). A retrospective chart review was carried out evaluating previously healthy children admitted with PCOMP, which included empyema, parapneumonic effusion, necrotizing pneumonia, and lung abscess between 2002 and 2015...
March 3, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488551/-incidence-of-multi-resistant-bacteria-in-intensive-care-units-of-chilean-hospitals
#10
M Paz Acuña, Marcela Cifuentes, Francisco Silva, Álvaro Rojas, Jaime Cerda, Jaime Labarca
INTRODUCTION: Incidence of multi-resistant bacteria is an indicator that permits better estimation of the magnitude of bacterial resistance in hospitals. AIM: To evaluate the incidence of relevant multi-drug resistant bacteria in intensive care units (ICUs) of Chile. METHODS: Participating hospitals submitted information about the number of isolates from infected or colonized patients with 7 epidemiologically relevant multi-resistant bacteria in adult and pediatric ICUs between January 1, 2014 and October 31, 2015 and the number of bed days occupied in these units in the same period was requested...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483801/evaluation-of-febrile-neutropenic-attacks-of-pediatric-hematology-oncology-patients
#11
Yeter Düzenli Kar, Zeynep Canan Özdemir, Özcan Bör
Aim: Febrile neutropenia is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in hematology-oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate febrile neutropenic episodes in children with malignancy. Material and Methods: Sixty-eight children who received chemotherapy for malignancy between 2010 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The demographic characteristics, laboratory data, infection foci, and frequency of microorganisms grown in culture were examined...
December 2017: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463113/pediatric-lip-adhesion-following-bullous-erythema-multiforme-and-review-of-similar-oral-complications
#12
Rosalind Ashton, Karen W Wong, Miriam Weinstein
BACKGROUND: Erythema multiforme (EM) is a mucocutaneous disease most often associated with preceding herpes simplex virus or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. It is characterized by targetoid lesions occurring on the limbs and head and neck. Mucosal involvement can be extensive. OBJECTIVE: We report a case of lip adhesion as a complication of EM in a child who required corrective surgery and review similar oral commissure complications. METHODS: We completed a review of the literature for similar cases using PubMed and Medline...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450676/comorbid-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-increased-risk-for-sickle-cell-disease-morbidity
#13
Tal Katz, Jeffrey Schatz, Carla W Roberts
PURPOSE: Sickle cell disease (SCD) imparts an increased risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in childhood. Studies of pediatric SCD have identified an increased risk for pain and neurologic complications with comorbid OSA. We determined the rate of a broad range of SCD-related medical complications to better characterize the spectrum of SCD complications related to OSA. METHODS: Retrospective chart review at a single hematology clinic identified 641 youth with SCD who received consistent screenings for OSA as part of routine hematological health maintenance visits over an 11-year period...
February 15, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441651/invasive-pneumococcal-infections-in-pediatric-liver-small-bowel-pancreas-transplant-recipients
#14
Hanh D Vo, Diana F Florescu, Cindy R Brown, Heather E Chambers, David F Mercer, Luciano M Vargas, Wendy J Grant, Alan N Langnas, Ruben E Quiros-Tejeira
Children undergoing LSBPTx are at increased risk of IPI due to splenectomy. We aimed to describe the clinical features and outcomes of IPI in pediatric LSBPTx recipients. Between 2008 and 2016, 122 LSBPTx children at our center were retrospectively reviewed. Nine patients had 12 episodes of IPI; the median age at first infection was 3.5 years (range: 1.5-7.1 years). The median time from transplant to first infection was 3 years (range: 0.8-5.8 years). Clinical presentation included as follows: pneumonia (n = 1), bacteremia/sepsis (n = 7), pneumonia with sepsis (n = 1), meningitis with sepsis (n = 2), pneumonia and meningitis with sepsis (n = 1)...
February 13, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438130/blood-culture-and-pleural-fluid-culture-yields-in-pediatric-empyema-patients-a-retrospective-review-1996-2016
#15
Christina T Stankey, Alicen B Spaulding, Angela Doucette, Karen E S Hamre, William Wheeler, William F Pomputius, Stephen Kurachek
Empyema is a complication of community-acquired pneumonia. We conducted a retrospective analysis of empyema patients discharged from 1996-2016, examining culture results according to timing of antibiotic administration. Blood culture decreased from 45% to 4% after antibiotics, and pleural fluid culture yield decreased from 67% to 30%. More than half of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cases occurred from 2011-2016.
February 12, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434387/antimicrobial-utilization-pattern-in-pediatric-patients-in-tertiary-care-hospital-eastern-ethiopia-the-need-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#16
Samuel Girma, Mekonnen Sisay, Getnet Mengistu, Firehiwot Amare, Dumessa Edessa
Background: Antimicrobials are among the most frequently prescribed medications for pediatric patients. However, inappropriate use of them can increase morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and largely antimicrobial resistance. This study aims to assess the antimicrobial utilization pattern in the pediatric ward of Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the antimicrobial utilization. In this study, 403 pediatric medical records selected by systematic random sampling were reviewed...
February 2018: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432305/pediatric-bronchial-carcinoid-tumors-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Samara L Potter, Josephine HaDuong, Fatih Okcu, Hao Wu, Murali Chintagumpala, Rajkumar Venkatramani
Bronchial carcinoid tumor, while rare, remains the most common primary malignant lung tumor in children. We present a retrospective analysis of 7 patients with typical bronchial carcinoid tumors diagnosed at 2 pediatric tertiary care referral centers between 1990 and 2014. The most common presenting symptom was pneumonia, followed by respiratory distress. Somatostatin scans were performed in selected patients. All patients had negative resection margin following surgery and were alive without disease at last follow-up...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426584/non-invasive-ventilation-in-children-and-adults-in-low-and-low-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Keren Mandelzweig, Aleksandra Leligdowicz, Srinivas Murthy, Rejani Lalitha, Robert A Fowler, Neill K J Adhikari
PURPOSE: We systematically reviewed the effects of NIV for acute respiratory failure (ARF) in low- and low-middle income countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and EMBASE (to January 2016) for observational studies and trials of NIV for ARF or in the peri-extubation period in adults and post-neonatal children. We abstracted outcomes data and assessed quality. Meta-analyses used random-effect models. RESULTS: Fifty-four studies (ten pediatric/n=1099; 44 adult/n=2904), mostly South Asian, were included...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380707/bacterial-conjunctivitis-in-childhood-etiology-clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-and-management
#19
Alexander Kc Leung, Kam Lun Hon, Alex H C Wong, Andrew S Wong
BACKGROUND: Bacterial conjunctivitis is a common reason for children to be seen in pediatric practices A correct diagnosis is important so that appropriate treatment can be instituted. OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis in children. METHODS: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key term "bacterial conjunctivitis". Patents were searched using the key term "bacterial conjunctivitis" from www...
January 29, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373935/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-avibactam-ceftazidime-for-the-treatment-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia
#20
REVIEW
Marco Falcone, Pierluigi Viale, Giusy Tiseo, Manjunath Pai
Ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI) is a combination of a third-generation cephalosporin and a non-β-lactam, β-lactamase inhibitor, recently approved for urinary tract infections and complicated abdominal infections. Moreover, it represents a treatment option for patients with hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP), especially when caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Areas covered: The review focuses on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of CAZ-AVI in HAP and on preclinical and clinical studies evaluating PK/pharmacodynamics (PD) in this field...
March 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
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