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pneumonia pediatrics in review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889372/-non-invasive-ventilation-in-children-do-we-need-more-evidence
#1
G Mortamet, G Emeriaud, P Jouvet, B Fauroux, S Essouri
Respiratory failure is the leading cause of hospital admissions in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Mechanical ventilation, preferentially delivered by a non-invasive route (NIV), is currently the first-line treatment for respiratory failure since it is associated with a reduction in the intubation rate. This ventilatory support is increasingly used in the PICU, but its wider use contrasts with the paucity of studies in this field. This review aims to describe the main indications of NIV in acute settings: (i) bronchiolitis; (ii) postextubation respiratory failure; (iii) acute respiratory distress syndrome; (iv) pneumonia; (v) status asthmaticus; (vi) acute chest syndrome; (vii) left heart failure; (viii) exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure; (ix) upper airway obstruction and (x) end-of-life care...
November 23, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843091/cause-of-death-in-children-with-mitochondrial-diseases
#2
Soyong Eom, Ha Neul Lee, Sunho Lee, Hoon-Chul Kang, Joon Soo Lee, Heung Dong Kim, Young-Mock Lee
BACKGROUND: We investigated the clinical characteristics that represent risk factors for death in pediatric patients with mitochondrial diseases. METHODS: The medical records of mitochondrial disease pediatric patients attended between 2006 and 2015 (n = 221) were reviewed for clinical characteristics, diagnosis, hospitalization, follow-up, survival, and cause of death. RESULTS: The global mortality rate in the cohort was 14% (average age at death, six years)...
October 13, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836006/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-associated-mild-encephalitis-encephalopathy-with-a-reversible-splenial-lesion-report-of-two-pediatric-cases-and-a-comprehensive-literature-review
#3
Norishi Ueda, Satoshi Minami, Manabu Akimoto
BACKGROUND: No literature review exists on Mycoplasma pneumoniae-associated mild encephalitis/encepharopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS). METHODS: M.pneumoniae-associated MERS cases were searched till August 2016 using PubMed/Google for English/other-language publications and Ichushi ( http://www.jamas.or.jp/ ) for Japanese-language publications. Inclusion criteria were children fulfilling definition for encephalitis, M.pneumoniae infection, and neuroimaging showing hyperintensity in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) alone (type I) or SCC/other brain areas (type II)...
November 11, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823773/surgical-management-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-gerd-in-children-a-systematic-review
#4
Tim Jancelewicz, Monica E Lopez, Cynthia D Downard, Saleem Islam, Robert Baird, Shawn J Rangel, Regan F Williams, Meghan A Arnold, Dave Lal, Elizabeth Renaud, Julia Grabowski, Roshni Dasgupta, Mary Austin, Julia Shelton, Danielle Cameron, Adam B Goldin
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this systematic review by the American Pediatric Surgical Association Outcomes and Evidence-Based Practice Committee was to derive recommendations from the medical literature regarding the surgical treatment of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). METHODS: Five questions were addressed by searching the MEDLINE, Cochrane, Embase, Central, and National Guideline Clearinghouse databases using relevant search terms. Consensus recommendations were derived for each question based on the best available evidence...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765020/demographic-and-mortality-analysis-of-hospitalized-children-at-a-referral-hospital-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#5
J A Bohn, B M Kassaye, D Record, B C Chou, I L Kraft, J C Purdy, K A Hilton, D A Miller, S Getachew, A Addissie, J A Robison
BACKGROUND: Global childhood mortality rates remain high. Millennium Development Goal 4 focused efforts on reducing rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In Ethiopia, child mortality rates dropped 71 % from 1990 to 2015, however it is estimated that 184,000 Ethiopian children die each year. There is limited information about pediatric hospital admissions in Ethiopia. Our aims were to examine the temporal relationship of mortality to admission, describe the demographics, and identify cause mortality of children admitted to the Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755118/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-post-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#6
Erin E Shaughnessy, Erika L Stalets, Samir S Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review covers the outpatient management of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), discussing the changing microbiology of CAP since the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, and providing an overview of national guideline recommendations for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal antibiotic resistance have plummeted since widespread 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747174/ravitch-versus-nuss-procedure-for-pectus-excavatum-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Aran Kanagaratnam, Steven Phan, Vakhtang Tchantchaleishvilli, Kevin Phan
BACKGROUND: Pectus excavatum is the most common congenital chest wall deformity. The two most common surgical techniques for its correction are the modified Ravitch technique and the minimally invasive Nuss technique. Despite both procedures being used widely, data comparing them are scarce. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies to evaluate these procedures. A systematic search of the literature was performed from six electronic databases...
September 2016: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709281/stratifying-fibrinolytic-dosing-in-pediatric-parapneumonic-effusion-based-on-ultrasound-grade-correlation
#8
Charles A James, Leah E Braswell, Amir H Pezeshkmehr, Paula K Roberson, James A Parks, Mary B Moore
BACKGROUND: Complicated pleural effusion prolongs the hospital course of pneumonia. Chest tube placement with instillation of fibrinolytic medication allows efficient drain output and decreases hospital stay. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate experience with lower fibrinolytic dose for parapneumonic effusions and to assess potential dose stratification based on a simple ultrasound grading system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical record to identify children and young adults who received fibrinolytic therapy for parapneumonic effusion and had chest tube placement by an interventional radiology service at a single children's hospital...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661056/two-case-reports-whole-genome-sequencing-of-two-clinical-macrolide-resistant-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-isolates-with-different-responses-to-azithromycin
#9
Shaoli Li, Hongmei Sun, Fei Liu, Yanling Feng, Hanqing Zhao, Guanhua Xue, Chao Yan
BACKGROUND: Cases of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae have increased rapidly since 2000, especially in Asia. Patients infected with macrolide-resistant M pneumoniae usually present with severe M pneumoniae pneumonia. The aim of this study was to identify indicators for whether children at an early stage of M pneumoniae infection develop mild or severe pneumonia. CASE SUMMARY: Herein, we retrospectively reviewed 2 pediatric cases caused by macrolide-resistant M pneumoniae, but with markedly different severity of pneumonia...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593940/role-of-lactoferrin-in-neonatal-care-a-systematic-review
#10
Deepak Sharma, Sweta Shastri, Pradeep Sharma
BACKGROUND: Lactoferrin (LF) is present in breast milk and have numerous properties including antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-fungal, and anti-cancer. Recent studies have emphasized the role of LF in neonatal care Aims and objective: To evaluate the various roles of Lactoferrin in Neonatal care in preterm infants. SEARCH METHODS: The literature search was done for this systematic review by searching the electronic data base namely Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, Index Copernicus, African Index Medicus (AIM), Thomson Reuters (ESCI), Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), SCIWIN (Scientific World Index), Google Scholar, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Information System (LILACS), Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), Index Medicus for the South-East Asian Region (IMSEAR), Western Pacific Region Index Medicus (WPRIM), various sites for ongoing trials namely clinical trial registry ( www...
September 4, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575742/etiologies-of-hemoptysis-in-children-a-systematic-review-of-171-patients
#11
Debra R Simon, Stephen C Aronoff, Michael T Del Vecchio
OBJECTIVE: To provide prevalence rates for the most common causes of hemoptysis in children. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of articles from PubMed, the OVID Cochrane Reviews (1960-2015), and EMBASE (1991-2015) was undertaken. Additional articles were identified by reviewing the bibliographies of selected studies. Search terms included hemoptysis, children, and humans. STUDY SELECTION: Only case studies and cohorts that examined the causes of hemoptysis in children (birth to 21 years) were included; at least 10 patients were required of each study...
August 29, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559759/vital-signs-epidemiology-of-sepsis-prevalence-of-health-care-factors-and-opportunities-for-prevention
#12
Shannon A Novosad, Mathew R P Sapiano, Cheri Grigg, Jason Lake, Misha Robyn, Ghinwa Dumyati, Christina Felsen, Debra Blog, Elizabeth Dufort, Shelley Zansky, Kathryn Wiedeman, Lacey Avery, Raymund B Dantes, John A Jernigan, Shelley S Magill, Anthony Fiore, Lauren Epstein
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a serious and often fatal clinical syndrome, resulting from infection. Information on patient demographics, risk factors, and infections leading to sepsis is needed to integrate comprehensive sepsis prevention, early recognition, and treatment strategies. METHODS: To describe characteristics of patients with sepsis, CDC and partners conducted a retrospective chart review in four New York hospitals. Random samples of medical records from adult and pediatric patients with administrative codes for severe sepsis or septic shock were reviewed...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522636/human-metapneumovirus-hmpv-infection-in-immunocompromised-children
#13
Oded Scheuerman, Galia Barkai, Michal Mandelboim, Hagit Mishali, Gabriel Chodick, Itzhak Levy
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infection (URTI, LRTI) in children. The prognosis of hMPV is unclear in immunocompromised patients. OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of hMPV infection in immunocompromised pediatric patients and to review the literature. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective study included 39 immunocompromised children (age 0-18 years) with proven hMPV infection attending two tertiary pediatric medical centers in 2004-2014...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497409/etiology-and-long-term-functional-swallow-outcomes-in-pediatric-unilateral-vocal-fold-immobility
#14
Kathleen M Tibbetts, Derek Wu, Jeffrey V Hsu, William B Burton, Michel Nassar, Melin Tan
OBJECTIVE: Unilateral vocal fold immobility (UVFI) results in deficits in phonatory, respiratory, and swallow function of the pediatric patient. Little is known about long-term functional swallow outcomes. METHODS: Medical records of children diagnosed with UVFI between 2005 and 2014 at a tertiary children's hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Etiology, laryngoscopy findings, and swallow status at diagnosis and follow-up were recorded. Swallow outcomes were compared by etiology using Fisher's exact test...
September 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488325/catheter-related-blood-stream-infection-in-patients-receiving-long-term-home-parenteral-nutrition-tertiary-care-hospital-experience-in-saudi-arabia
#15
Esraa S Al-Tawil, Alanoud M Almuhareb, Hamdy M Amin
BACKGROUND/AIM: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a lifesaving therapy for patients with many severe conditions, including intestinal failure. Some patients require long-term PN therapy, which makes home parenteral nutrition (HPN) an attractive option to improve the quality of life. Among the most common and serious complications observed in these patients are catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSIs). The aim of our study is to determine the frequency of CRBSI among patients receiving long-term HPN...
July 2016: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462353/pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-pediatric-patients-an-analysis-of-15-confirmed-consecutive-cases-during-14-years
#16
Kyung-Ran Kim, Jong Min Kim, Ji-Man Kang, Yae-Jean Kim
PURPOSE: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia occurs in various immunocompromised patients. Despite the prophylaxis strategies in clinical practice, certain patients develop P. jirovecii pneumonia. This study was performed to investigate pediatric cases with P. jirovecii pneumonia in a single center. METHODS: We identified pediatric patients younger than 19 years with microbiologically confirmed P. jirovecii pneumonia from January 2000 to February 2014. A retrospective chart review was performed...
June 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452172/clinical-and-pathogenic-analysis-of-507-children-with-bacterial-meningitis-in-beijing-2010-2014
#17
Ling-Yun Guo, Zhi-Xiao Zhang, Xi Wang, Ping-Ping Zhang, Wei Shi, Kai-Hu Yao, Lin-Lin Liu, Gang Liu, Yong-Hong Yang
OBJECTIVES: To explore the clinical characteristics and analyze the pathogens of bacterial meningitis in children. METHODS: Bacterial meningitis cases occurring from January 2010 through December 2014 at Beijing Children's Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. The records of all patients, including data on clinical features and laboratory information, were obtained and analyzed. RESULTS: In total, the cases of 507 pediatric patients seen over a 5-year period were analyzed; 220 of these cases were etiologically confirmed...
September 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426942/identification-of-biofilms-in-post-tympanostomy-tube-otorrhea
#18
Winslo K Idicula, Joseph A Jurcisek, Nathan D Cass, Syed Ali, Steven D Goodman, Charles A Elmaraghy, Kris R Jatana, Lauren O Bakaletz
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Otitis media is a common problem in the pediatric population. Despite antibiotic therapy, post-tympanostomy otorrhea can be difficult to treat. Biofilms have been shown to play a role in chronic and recurrent otitis media and are implicated in otorrhea. This study investigated both the microbial composition and the presence of biofilm fragments rich in extracellular DNA (eDNA) and the bacterial DNA-binding protein, integration host factor (IHF), in post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea...
August 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426736/predictors-of-airspace-disease-on-chest-x-ray-in-emergency-department-patients-with-clinical-bronchiolitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Jennifer H Chao, Raymond Chou-Jui Lin, Shashidhar Marneni, Shreya Pandya, Sana Alhajri, Richard Sinert
BACKGROUND: An abnormal Chest-X-ray (CXR) inconsistent with simple bronchiolitis is found in 7%-23% of cases. Despite national guidelines stating "current evidence does not support routine radiography in children with bronchiolitis"; the use of CXR in these patients remains high. Inappropriate use of CXR not only exposes children to excess radiation, but also increases medical costs. The majority of the time, CXRs are obtained to diagnose or rule-out pneumonia. We aim to provide an evidence-based approach defining the utility of CXR in bronchiolitis for the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial pneumonia...
July 18, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412744/-bronchitis-obliterans-associated-with-bronchiolitis-obliterans-with-organizing-pneumonia-in-a-child-and-literature-review
#20
Q Han, Y Shi, H X Li, W W Tang, H X Liu, D Y Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical-radiologic-pathologic features of bronchitis obliterans that complicated with bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP). METHOD: The clinical manifestations, characteristic imaging and pathology of a case with pediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) complicated with bronchitis obliterans and BOOP were summarized and relative articles were reviewed. RESULT: A 10-year-old girl complained of recurrent paroxysmal cough and episodes of wheezing with exercise, productive of yellowish sputum, irregular fever for 1 month presented with lower breath sounds of left lower lobe and localized tubular breath sounds...
July 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
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