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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045513/dpyd-genotype-guided-dose-individualization-to-improve-patient-safety-of-fluoropyrimidine-therapy-call-for-a-drug-label-update
#1
L M Henricks, F L Opdam, J H Beijnen, A Cats, J H M Schellens
The fluoropyrimidine anticancer drugs, especially 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and capecitabine, are frequently prescribed for several types of cancer, including breast, colorectal, head and neck and gastric cancer. In the current drug labels of 5-FU and capecitabine in the European Union and the United States of America no adaptive dosing strategies are incorporated for polymorphic metabolism of 5-FU.Although treatment with fluoropyrimidines is generally well tolerated, a major clinical limitation is that a proportion of the treated population experiences severe, sometimes life-threatening, fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity...
August 2, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038151/obesity-and-cancer-evidence-impact-and-future-directions
#2
REVIEW
Graham A Colditz, Lindsay L Peterson
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence, particularly from prospective epidemiologic studies but with additional support from animal models and mechanistic studies, supported conclusions in 2016 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)(3) in their review of the preventive effects of weight control on cancer risk. CONTENT: The workgroup concluded that obesity is causally related to cancer at 13 anatomic sites (esophagus: adenocarcinoma; gastric cardia; colon and rectum; liver; gallbladder; pancreas; breast: postmenopausal; uterine endometrial; ovary; kidney: renal cell; meningioma; thyroid; and multiple myeloma)...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033240/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-the-acylphosphatase-2-gene-and-the-snp-snp-interactions-on-the-risk-of-breast-cancer-in-chinese-han-women
#3
Junben Wu, Shujing Wang, Fanglan Liu, Shuluan Li
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the acylphosphatase 2 gene and the SNP-SNP interactions on breast cancer (BC) risk in Chinese Han women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A logistic regression model was used to examine the association between SNPs and BC risk. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction was employed to analyze the SNP-SNP interaction...
September 19, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025449/incidence-of-chemotherapy-induced-neutropenia-in-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-patients-with-breast-cancer-receiving-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#4
Sithembile Ngidi, Nombulelo Magula, Ben Sartorius, Pooven Govender, Thandinkosi E Madiba
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN) can result in poor tolerance of chemotherapy, leading to dose reductions, delays in therapy schedules, morbidity and mortality. Actively identifying predisposing risk factors before treatment is of paramount importance. We hypothesised that chemotherapy is associated with a greater increase in CIN and its complications in HIV-infected patients than in those who are not infected. OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of CIN in HIV-infected and uninfected patients undergoing chemotherapy...
June 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022187/assessing-the-role-of-reversible-contraceptives-in-the-health-care-of-women-as-it-pertains-to-cancer-prevention
#5
REVIEW
Carolyn M Ross, Lee P Shulman
The use of effective and reversible contraception is characterized by many non-contraceptive benefits distinct from its ability to prevent pregnancy. Notably, the use of hormonal and non-hormonal birth control methods is known to impact the risk for developing certain female genital cancers as well as breast and colon cancers. We present here the current understanding of the role of effective and reversible contraceptives in the prevention and development of female genital cancers along with breast and colon cancers...
October 11, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985515/geographical-differences-in-risk-of-advanced-breast-cancer-limited-evidence-for-reductions-over-time-queensland-australia-1997-2014
#6
Paramita Dasgupta, Philippa H Youl, Joanne F Aitken, Gavin Turrell, Peter Baade
BACKGROUND: Reducing geographical inequalities in breast cancer stage remains a key focus of public health policy. We explored whether patterns of advanced breast cancer by residential accessibility and disadvantage in Queensland, Australia, have changed over time. METHODS: Population-based cancer registry study of 38,706 women aged at least 30 years diagnosed with a first primary invasive breast cancer of known stage between 1997 and 2014. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine temporal changes in associations of area-level factors with odds of advanced disease after adjustment for individual-level factors...
October 3, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978566/nrg-oncology-national-surgical-adjuvant-breast-and-bowel-project-decision-making-project-1-results-decision-making-in-breast-cancer-risk-reduction
#7
Christine Holmberg, Hanna Bandos, Angela Fagerlin, Therese B Bevers, Tracy A Battaglia, D Lawrence Wickerham, Worta J McCaskill-Stevens
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) reduce breast cancer risk. Adoption of SERMs as prevention medication remains low. This is the first study to quantify social, cultural, and psychologic factors driving decision making regarding SERM use in women counseled on breast cancer prevention options. A survey study was conducted with women counseled by a health care provider (HCP) about SERMs. A statistical comparison of responses was performed between those who decided to use and those who decided not to use SERMs...
October 4, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976793/association-between-precautionary-behaviors-and-breast-cancer-related-lymphedema-in-patients-undergoing-bilateral-surgery
#8
Maria S Asdourian, Meyha N Swaroop, Hoda E Sayegh, Cheryl L Brunelle, Amir I Mina, Hui Zheng, Melissa N Skolny, Alphonse G Taghian
Purpose This study examined the lifestyle and clinical risk factors for lymphedema in a cohort of patients who underwent bilateral breast cancer surgery. Patients and Methods Between 2013 and 2016, 327 patients who underwent bilateral breast cancer surgery were prospectively screened for arm lymphedema as quantified by the weight-adjusted volume change (WAC) formula. Arm perometry and subjective data were collected preoperatively and at regular intervals postoperatively. At the time of each measurement, patients completed a risk assessment survey that reported the number of blood draws, injections, blood pressure readings, trauma to the at-risk arm, and number of flights since the previous measurement...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974856/cardiac-dose-reduction-with-deep-inspiratory-breath-hold-technique-of-radiotherapy-for-left-sided-breast-cancer
#9
Lalitha Kameshwari Sripathi, Parveen Ahlawat, David K Simson, Chira Ranjan Khadanga, Lakshmipathi Kamarsu, Shital Kumar Surana, Kavi Arasu, Harpreet Singh
INTRODUCTION: Different techniques of radiation therapy have been studied to reduce the cardiac dose in left breast cancer. AIM: In this prospective dosimetric study, the doses to heart as well as other organs at risk (OAR) were compared between free-breathing (FB) and deep inspiratory breath hold (DIBH) techniques in intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and opposed-tangent three-dimensional radiotherapy (3DCRT) plans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with left-sided breast cancer underwent computed tomography simulation and images were obtained in both FB and DIBH...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973708/early-postoperative-complications-after-oncoplastic-reduction
#10
Anne E Mattingly, Zhenjun Ma, Paul D Smith, John V Kiluk, Nazanin Khakpour, Susan J Hoover, Christine Laronga, M Catherine Lee
BACKGROUND: Breast-conserving surgery with adjuvant radiation therapy (BCT) has been established as safe oncologically. Oncoplastic breast surgery uses both oncologic and plastic surgery techniques for breast conservation to improve cosmetic outcomes. We evaluated the risk factors associated with complications after oncoplastic breast reduction. METHODS: A single-institution, institutional review board-approved, retrospective review of electronic medical records of female patients with breast cancer who underwent oncoplastic breast reduction from 2008 to 2014...
October 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950673/epidemiological-evidences-on-dietary-flavonoids-and-breast-cancer-risk-a-narrative-review
#11
Katrin Sak
Epidemiological studies on associations between intake of flavonoids and breast cancer risk are highly needed to assess the actual effects of flavonoids in humans. Experimental investigations in vitro conditions cannot detect and model the real action of these phytochemicals due to the limitations to consider absorption and metabolic biotransformation as well as several complex interactions. Therefore, the data about association findings between intake of flavonoids and breast cancer risk are compiled and analyzed in the current review by evaluating both the results obtained using food composition databases as well as different biomarkers...
September 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943990/motivators-and-barriers-of-tamoxifen-use-as-risk-reducing-medication-amongst-women-at-increased-breast-cancer-risk-a-systematic-literature-review
#12
REVIEW
B Meiser, W K T Wong, M Peate, C Julian-Reynier, J Kirk, G Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as tamoxifen, reduce breast cancer risk by up to 50% in women at increased risk for breast cancer. Despite tamoxifen's well-established efficacy, many studies show that most women are not taking up tamoxifen. This systematic literature review aimed to identify the motivators and barriers to tamoxifen use 's amongst high-risk women. METHODS: Using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase plus reviewing reference lists of relevant articles published between 1995 and 2016, 31 studies (published in 35 articles) were identified, which addressed high-risk women's decisions about risk-reducing medication to prevent breast cancer and were peer-reviewed primary clinical studies...
2017: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943130/estimation-and-reduction-of-the-radiation-dose-to-the-fetus-from-external-beam-radiotherapy
#13
REVIEW
Michalis Mazonakis, John Damilakis
The appearance of a malignant disease during pregnancy is relatively rare. The use of external-beam radiation therapy is limited to non-pelvic tumors which are usually located above the diaphragm. However, supradiaphragmatic radiotherapy unavoidably exposes the fetus to secondary radiation due to head leakage, scatter from the machine and scatter produced inside the patient. This fetal exposure may be associated with an elevated risk for the development of deterministic harmful effects and/or carcinogenesis...
September 21, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932368/cancer-risk-among-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-cohort-study-in-isfahan-iran
#14
Masoud Etemadifar, Hamidreza Jahanbani-Ardakani, Sara Ghaffari, Maboobeh Fereidan-Esfahani, Hossein Changaei, Nazila Aghadoost, Ameneh Jahanbani Ardakani, Negin Moradkhani
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS), a central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disorder, affects 2.3 million people around the world. Cancer kills around 7.5 million people annually. Both diseases have similar risks and intertwining molecular causes. Most studies focusing on MS and cancer have found an insignificant difference or reduction in the amount of cancer found in the MS community. METHODS: We performed a cohort study using data from Isfahan Multiple Sclerosis Society (IMSS) and Isfahan cancer society and followed-up for 8 years on average (2006-2014)...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924688/the-barrier-to-informed-choice-in-cancer-screening-statistical-illiteracy-in-physicians-and-patients
#15
Odette Wegwarth, Gerd Gigerenzer
An efficient health care requires both informed doctors and patients. Our current healthcare system falls short on both counts. Most doctors and patients do not understand the available medical evidence. To illustrate the extent of the problem in the setting of cancer screening: In a representative sample of some 5000 women in nine European countries, 92% overestimated the reduction of breast cancer mortality by mammography by a factor of 10-200, or did not know. For a similar sample of about 5000 men with respect to PSA screening, this number was 89%...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918577/microarray-based-snp-genotyping-to-identify-genetic-risk-factors-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer-tnbc-in-south-indian-population
#16
M Aravind Kumar, Vineeta Singh, Shaik Mohammad Naushad, Uday Shanker, M Lakshmi Narasu
In the view of aggressive nature of Triple-Negative Breast cancer (TNBC) due to the lack of receptors (ER, PR, HER2) and high incidence of drug resistance associated with it, a case-control association study was conducted to identify the contributing genetic risk factors for Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). A total of 30 TNBC patients and 50 age and gender-matched controls of Indian origin were screened for 9,00,000 SNP markers using microarray-based SNP genotyping approach. The initial PLINK association analysis (p < 0...
September 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916844/left-sided-breast-cancer-and-risks-of-secondary-lung-cancer-and-ischemic-heart-disease-effects-of-modern-radiotherapy-techniques
#17
Stefanie Corradini, Hendrik Ballhausen, Helmut Weingandt, Philipp Freislederer, Stephan Schönecker, Maximilian Niyazi, Cristoforo Simonetto, Markus Eidemüller, Ute Ganswindt, Claus Belka
PURPOSE: Modern breast cancer radiotherapy techniques, such as respiratory-gated radiotherapy in deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) or volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) have been shown to reduce the high dose exposure of the heart in left-sided breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to comparatively estimate the excess relative and absolute risks of radiation-induced secondary lung cancer and ischemic heart disease for different modern radiotherapy techniques. METHODS: Four different treatment plans were generated for ten computed tomography data sets of patients with left-sided breast cancer, using either three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or VMAT, in free-breathing (FB) or DIBH...
September 15, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915128/polyphenols-dietary-assessment-and-role-in-the-prevention-of-cancers
#18
Joseph A Rothwell, Viktoria Knaze, Raul Zamora-Ros
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Polyphenols are a large and diverse family of phytochemicals widely consumed by humans. Here we summarize the latest epidemiological evidence for associations between cancer risk and polyphenol intake, taking into account difficulties in the accurate estimation of exposure. RECENT FINDINGS: Flavonoids are the most studied subgroup of polyphenols with regard to cancer risk. In recent epidemiological studies, total flavonoid intake has rarely been associated with a reduction in cancer risk...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914396/the-expected-benefit-of-preventive-mastectomy-on-breast-cancer-incidence-and-mortality-in-brca-mutation-carriers-by-age-at-mastectomy
#19
Vasily Giannakeas, Steven A Narod
PURPOSE: Preventive breast surgery is offered to unaffected BRCA mutation carriers to prevent breast cancer incidence and mortality. The clinical benefit of preventive mastectomy can be measured in several ways, including extension of life expectancy (mean years of life gained) and by estimating the probability of surviving until age 80. We sought to estimate the expected benefit of a preventive mastectomy at various ages, using these indices of mortality, by simulating hypothetical cohorts of women...
September 15, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903167/oncologic-safety-of-prophylactic-nipple-sparing-mastectomy-in-a-population-with-brca-mutations-a-multi-institutional-study
#20
James W Jakub, Anne Warren Peled, Richard J Gray, Rachel A Greenup, John V Kiluk, Virgilio Sacchini, Sarah A McLaughlin, Julia C Tchou, Robert A Vierkant, Amy C Degnim, Shawna Willey
Importance: Nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) offers superior cosmetic outcomes and has been gaining wide acceptance; however, its role among patients with BRCA mutations remains controversial. Objective: To report on the oncologic safety of NSM and provide evidence-based data to patients and health care professionals regarding preservation of the nipple-areolar complex during a risk-reducing mastectomy in a population with BRCA mutations. Design, Setting, and Participants: We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of 9 institutions' experience with prophylactic NSM from 1968 to 2013 in a cohort of patients with BRCA mutations...
September 13, 2017: JAMA Surgery
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