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Serine protease copd

Matthias Griese, Gerhard Scheuch
Treatment with exogenous alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), a potent serine protease inhibitor, was developed originally for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with AAT deficiency; however, other lung conditions involving neutrophilic inflammation and proteolytic tissue injury related to neutrophil elastase and other serine proteases may also be considered for AAT therapy. These conditions include bronchiectasis caused by primary ciliary dyskinesia, cystic fibrosis, and other diseases associated with an increased free elastase activity in the airways...
August 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Kevin Ni, Karina A Serban, Chanan Batra, Irina Petrache
Animal models of disease help accelerate the translation of basic science discoveries to the bedside, because they permit experimental interrogation of mechanisms at relatively high throughput, while accounting for the complexity of an intact organism. From the groundbreaking observation of emphysema-like alveolar destruction after direct instillation of elastase in the lungs to the more clinically relevant model of airspace enlargement induced by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke, animal models have advanced our understanding of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) function...
August 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Sabina Janciauskiene, Tobias Welte
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) is an acute-phase protein, and is best known as an inhibitor of the serine proteases, specifically, neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G. The discovery of the connection between inherited A1AT deficiency and emphysema resulted in the concept of a proteinase-antiproteinase imbalance to explain the pathogenic mechanisms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as the concomitant development of augmentation therapy with plasma-purified human A1AT. This proteinase-antiproteinase imbalance concept has been difficult to prove, as no single mechanism can account for the complex pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
August 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Andrea Di Francesco, Clara Di Germanio, Amaresh C Panda, Phu Huynh, Robert Peaden, Ignacio Navas-Enamorado, Paul Bastian, Elin Lehrmann, Alberto Diaz-Ruiz, David Ross, David Siegel, Jennifer L Martindale, Michel Bernier, Myriam Gorospe, Kotb Abdelmohsen, Rafael de Cabo
NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) is essential for cell defense against reactive oxidative species, cancer, and metabolic stress. Recently, NQO1 was found in ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, but NQO1-interacting mRNAs and the functional impact of such interactions are not known. Here, we used ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation (RIP) and microarray analysis to identify comprehensively the subset of NQO1 target mRNAs in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. One of its main targets, SERPINA1 mRNA, encodes the serine protease inhibitor α-1-antitrypsin, A1AT, which is associated with disorders including obesity-related metabolic inflammation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma...
August 8, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Arif Bashir, Naveed Nazir Shah, Younis Mohammad Hazari, Mudasir Habib, Samirul Bashir, Nazia Hilal, Mariam Banday, Syed Asrafuzzaman, Khalid Majid Fazili
Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) is one of the major circulating anti-protease whose levels in circulation are raised during excessive amount of proteases, especially neutrophil elastase (NE) released during the course of inflammation. Proteolytic attack of NE on peripheral organs, more exclusively on lung parenchyma has severe consequence that may precipitate pulmonary emphysema. Normally, human body has its own molecular and physiological mechanisms to synthesize and regulate the production of anti-protease like AAT to mitigate the extent of inflammatory damage...
August 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Eduardo F P Ruivo, Lídia M Gonçalves, Luís A R Carvalho, Rita C Guedes, Stefan Hofbauer, José A Brito, Margarida Archer, Rui Moreira, Susana D Lucas
Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a serine protease associated with several inflammatory processes such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The precise involvement of HNE in COPD and other inflammatory disease mechanisms has yet to be clarified. Herein we report a copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC, or 'click' chemistry) approach based on the 4-oxo-β-lactam warhead that yielded potent HNE inhibitors containing a triazole moiety. The resulting structure-activity relationships set the basis to develop fluorescent and biotinylated activity-based probes as tools for molecular functional analysis...
September 20, 2016: ChemMedChem
Siva Kumar Solleti, Sorachai Srisuma, Soumyaroop Bhattacharya, Javier Rangel-Moreno, Kaiser M Bijli, Troy D Randall, Arshad Rahman, Thomas J Mariani
Serine proteinase inhibitor, clade E, member 2 (SERPINE2), is a cell- and extracellular matrix-associated inhibitor of thrombin. Although SERPINE2 is a candidate susceptibility gene for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the physiologic role of this protease inhibitor in lung development and homeostasis is unknown. We observed spontaneous monocytic-cell infiltration in the lungs of Serpine2-deficient (SE2(-/-)) mice, beginning at or before the time of lung maturity, which resulted in lesions that resembled bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT)...
July 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Ioana Craciun, Amanda M Fenner, Robert J Kerns
The balance between neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs) and protease inhibitors (PIs) in the lung is a critical determinant for a number of chronic inflammatory lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis and acute lung injury. During activation at inflammatory sites, excessive release of NSPs such as human neutrophil elastase (HNE), proteinase 3 (Pr3) and cathepsin G (CatG), leads to destruction of the lung matrix and continued propagation of acute inflammation. Under normal conditions, PIs counteract these effects by inactivating NSPs; however, in chronic inflammatory lung diseases, there are insufficient amounts of PIs to mitigate damage...
July 2016: Glycobiology
Hong Li, Tian Yang, Qian Ning, Feiyan Li, Tianjun Chen, Yan Yao, Zhongmin Sun
OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smoking is the main cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may modulate the immune response of exposed individuals. Mast cell function can be altered by cigarette smoking, but the role of smoking in COPD remains poorly understood. The current study aimed to explore the role of cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-treated mast cells in COPD pathogenesis. METHODS: Cytokine and chemokine expression as well as degranulation of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) were detected in cells exposed to immunoglobulin E (IgE) and various doses of CSE...
2015: Inhalation Toxicology
Guyan Liang, J Phillip Bowen
There has been a revolution in the development of effective, small-molecule anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents. Numerous trypsin-like serine proteases have been under active pursuit as therapeutic targets. Important examples include thrombin, factor VIIa, factor Xa, and β-tryptase with indications ranging from thrombosis and inflammation to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Trypsin-like serine proteases exhibit a highly similar tertiary folding pattern, especially for the region near the substrate binding pocket that includes the conserved catalytic triad consisting of histidine 57, aspartic acid 102, and serine 195...
2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Fabien Lecaille, Gilles Lalmanach, Pierre-Marie Andrault
Lung antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs) are major sentinels of innate immunity by preventing microbial colonization and infection. Nevertheless bactericidal activity of AMPs against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is compromised in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis (CF) and asthma. Evidence is accumulating that expression of harmful human serine proteases, matrix metalloproteases and cysteine cathepsins is markedely increased in these chronic lung diseases...
March 2016: Biochimie
Shashi Chillappagari, Jenni Preuss, Sebastian Licht, Christian Müller, Poornima Mahavadi, Gaurav Sarode, Claus Vogelmeier, Andreas Guenther, Lutz Nahrlich, Bruce K Rubin, Markus O Henke
BACKGROUND: Proteases have been shown to degrade airway mucin proteins and to damage the epithelium impairing mucociliary clearance. There are increased proteases in the COPD airway but changes in protease-antiprotease balance and mucin degradation have not been investigated during the course of a COPD exacerbation. We hypothesized that increased protease levels would lead to mucin degradation in acute COPD exacerbations. METHODS: We measured neutrophil elastase (NE) and alpha 1 protease inhibitor (A1-PI) levels using immunoblotting, and conducted protease inhibitor studies, zymograms, elastin substrate assays and cigarette smoke condensate experiments to evaluate the stability of the gel-forming mucins, MUC5AC and MUC5B, before and 5-6 weeks after an acute pulmonary exacerbation of COPD (n = 9 subjects)...
2015: Respiratory Research
Katrin Milger, Lesca Miriam Holdt, Daniel Teupser, Rudolf Maria Huber, Jürgen Behr, Nikolaus Kneidinger
Deficiency in the serine protease inhibitor, alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), is known to cause emphysema and liver disease. Other manifestations, including airway disease or skin disorders, have also been described. A 44-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with dyspnea and respiratory insufficiency. She had never smoked, and had been diagnosed with COPD 9 years earlier. Three months previously, she had suffered a pulmonary embolism. Chest computed tomography scan revealed severe cystic bronchiectasis with destruction of the lung parenchyma...
2015: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Giuseppe Ercoli, Chiara Tani, Alfredo Pezzicoli, Irene Vacca, Manuele Martinelli, Simone Pecetta, Roberto Petracca, Rino Rappuoli, Mariagrazia Pizza, Nathalie Norais, Marco Soriani, Beatrice Aricò
UNLABELLED: LytM proteins belong to a family of bacterial metalloproteases. In Gram-negative bacteria, LytM factors are mainly reported to have a direct effect on cell division by influencing cleavage and remodeling of peptidoglycan. In this study, mining nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) genomes, three highly conserved open reading frames (ORFs) containing a LytM domain were identified, and the proteins encoded by the ORFs were named YebA, EnvC, and NlpD on the basis of their homology with the Escherichia coli proteins...
2015: MBio
Simonetta Baraldo, Graziella Turato, Francesca Lunardi, Erica Bazzan, Marco Schiavon, Ilaria Ferrarotti, Beatrice Molena, Riccardo Cazzuffi, Marco Damin, Elisabetta Balestro, Maurizio Luisetti, Federico Rea, Fiorella Calabrese, Manuel G Cosio, Marina Saetta
RATIONALE: α1-Antitrypsin (AAT) is a potent protease inhibitor, deficiency of which is associated with the presence of emphysema. An imbalance of elastase and antielastase, along with innate inflammation in the lung, is believed to cause lung destruction in α1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). It is now apparent that AAT has important immune-regulatory roles that would be lost in AATD, yet adaptive immune responses in the lung have not been investigated in patients with AATD. OBJECTIVES: To assess the adaptive immune response in severe AATD emphysema and compare it with that present in "usual" chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
February 15, 2015: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Patrick Geraghty, Edward Eden, Manju Pillai, Michael Campos, Noel G McElvaney, Robert F Foronjy
RATIONALE: α1-Antitrypsin (A1AT) was identified as a plasma protease inhibitor; however, it is now recognized as a multifunctional protein that modulates immunity, inflammation, proteostasis, apoptosis, and cellular senescence. Like A1AT, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major serine-threonine phosphatase, regulates similar biologic processes and plays a key role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. OBJECTIVES: Given their common effects, this study investigated whether A1AT acts via PP2A to alter tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling, inflammation, and proteolytic responses in this disease...
December 1, 2014: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Sandra Hodge, Greg Hodge, Mark Holmes, Hubertus Jersmann, Paul N Reynolds
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Corticosteroid resistance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major challenge. We have reported increased bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis and increased airway CD8 T-cell numbers in COPD. Apoptosis can be induced via the serine protease, granzyme B. However, glucocorticosteroids fail to adequately suppress granzyme B production by CD8 T cells. We previously showed that low-dose azithromycin reduced airways inflammation in COPD subjects and we hypothesized that it would also reduce granzyme B production by CD8 T cells...
January 2015: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Clémence Martin, Justine Frija-Masson, Pierre-Régis Burgel
Airway mucus has a key role in protective innate immune responses, but excessive mucus production and secretion in proximal and in distal airways are associated with disabling symptoms (cough and sputum), lung function decline, exacerbations and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to mucin production and secretion have largely been identified using cultured epithelial cells and animal models. Cigarette smoke and microbial products are potent triggers of mucin production, which involves recognition of specific molecular patterns by cognate receptors and activation of metalloproteases at the epithelial cell surface, leading to epidermal growth factor receptor activation and mucin mRNA and protein synthesis...
July 2014: Drugs
Alireza Shahriary, Hossein Mehrani, Mostafa Ghanei, Shahram Parvin
Respiratory disorders in sulfur mustard (SM)-exposed and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are mostly associated with neutrophilic inflammation, severe airflow limitation, and oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to establish whether neutrophil (PMN) proteomes in these diseases were similar or differed. Blood neutrophil proteomes from healthy, SM-exposed, and COPD subjects were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS)...
April 2015: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Philip M Hansbro, Matthew J Hamilton, Michael Fricker, Shaan L Gellatly, Andrew G Jarnicki, Dominick Zheng, Sandra M Frei, G William Wong, Sahar Hamadi, Saijun Zhou, Paul S Foster, Steven A Krilis, Richard L Stevens
Protease serine member S31 (Prss31)/transmembrane tryptase/tryptase-γ is a mast cell (MC)-restricted protease of unknown function that is retained on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane when MCs are activated. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the Prss31 gene in different mouse strains and then used a Cre/loxP homologous recombination approach to create a novel Prss31(-/-) C57BL/6 mouse line. The resulting animals exhibited no obvious developmental abnormality, contained normal numbers of granulated MCs in their tissues, and did not compensate for their loss of the membrane tryptase by increasing their expression of other granule proteases...
June 27, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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