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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330900/overexpression-of-microrna408-enhances-photosynthesis-growth-and-seed-yield-in-diverse-plants
#1
Jiawei Pan, Dahui Huang, Zhonglong Guo, Zheng Kuang, He Zhang, Xinyu Xie, Zengfeng Ma, Shaopei Gao, Manuel T Lerdau, Chengcai Chu, Lei Li
The ability of a plant to produce grain, fruit, or forage depends ultimately on photosynthesis. There have been few attempts, however, to study microRNAs, which are a class of endogenous small RNAs post-transcriptionally programming gene expression, in relation to photosynthetic traits. We focused on miR408, one of the most conserved plant miRNAs, and overexpressed it in parallel in Arabidopsis, tobacco, and rice. The transgenic plants all exhibited increased copper content in the chloroplast, elevated abundance of plastocyanin, and an induction of photosynthetic genes...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317278/optimizing-self-wicking-nanowire-grids
#2
Hui Wei, Venkata P Dandey, Zhening Zhang, Ashleigh Raczkowski, Willam J Rice, Bridget Carragher, Clinton S Potter
We have developed a self-blotting TEM grid for use with a novel instrument for vitrifying samples for cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM). Nanowires are grown on the copper surface of the grid using a simple chemical reaction and the opposite smooth side is used to adhere to a holey sample substrate support, for example carbon or gold. When small volumes of sample are applied to the nanowire grids the wires effectively act as blotting paper to rapidly wick away the liquid, leaving behind a thin film. In this technical note, we present a detailed description of how we make these grids using a variety of substrates fenestrated with either lacey or regularly spaced holes...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302908/heavy-metals-in-handloom-dyeing-effluents-and-their-biosorption-by-agricultural-byproducts
#3
Kamrun Nahar, Md Abul Khair Chowdhury, Md Akhter Hossain Chowdhury, Afzal Rahman, K M Mohiuddin
The Madhabdi municipality in the Narsingdi district of Bangladesh is a well-known area for textile, handloom weaving, and dyeing industries. These textile industries produce a considerable amount of effluents, sewage sludge, and solid waste materials every day that they directly discharge into surrounding water bodies and agricultural fields. This disposal poses a serious threat to the overall epidemic and socio-economic pattern of the locality. This research entailed the collection of 34 handloom-dyeing effluent samples from different handloom-dyeing industries of Madhabdi, which were then analyzed to determine the contents of the heavy metals iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd)...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210524/tsc1-enables-plastid-development-under-dark-conditions-contributing-to-rice-adaptation-to-transplantation-shock
#4
Xiaoliang Shi, Sunlu Chen, Yu Peng, Yufeng Wang, Jiugeng Chen, Zhanghua Hu, Baohe Wang, Aihong Li, Daiyin Chao, Yuhong Li, Sheng Teng
Since its domestication from wild rice thousands of years ago, rice has been cultivated largely through transplantation. During transplantation from the nursery to the paddy field, rice seedlings experience transplantation shock which affects their physiology and production. However, the mechanisms underlying transplantation shock and rice adaptation to this shock are largely unknown. Here, we isolated a transplant-sensitive chloroplast-deficient (tsc1) rice mutant that produces albino leaves after transplantation...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194641/chemometric-analysis-of-minerals-in-gluten-free-products
#5
Anna Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Inga Klimczak, Iga Rybicka
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies indicate mineral deficiencies in people on a gluten-free (GF) diet. These deficiencies may indicate that GF products are less valuable source of minerals than gluten-containing products. In the study, the nutritional quality of fifty GF products is discussed taking into account the nutritional requirements for minerals expressed as % Recommended Daily Allowance (%RDA) or % Adequate Intake (%AI) for a model celiac patient. Analysed elements were: calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc...
November 30, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169126/effect-of-copper-on-the-translocation-and-transformation-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-rice
#6
Lili Pan, Jianteng Sun, X Chris Le, Lizhong Zhu
Contamination of organic pollutants in the environment is usually accompanied by heavy metals. However, a little information on the influences of heavy metals on the uptake, translocation and transformation of organic pollutants in plants is available. In this study, ten-day hydroponic exposure was conducted to explore the influence of copper (Cu) on the bioaccumulation and biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in intact young rice (Oryza sativa L.). Low dose of Cu (≤100 μmol/L) increased the accumulation of CB-61 in rice plants, while excess concentrations of Cu (>100 μmol/L) inhibited uptake and translocation of CB-61...
November 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133823/identification-of-mirna-mediated-drought-responsive-multi-tiered-regulatory-network-in-drought-tolerant-rice-nagina-22
#7
Sonia Balyan, Mukesh Kumar, Roseeta Devi Mutum, Utkarsh Raghuvanshi, Priyanka Agarwal, Saloni Mathur, Saurabh Raghuvanshi
Comparative characterization of microRNA-mediated stress regulatory networks in contrasting rice cultivars is critical to decipher plant stress response. Consequently, a multi-level comparative analysis, using sRNA sequencing, degradome analysis, enzymatic and metabolite assays and metal ion analysis, in drought tolerant and sensitive rice cultivars was conducted. The study identified a group of miRNAs "Cultivar-specific drought responsive" (CSDR)-miRNAs (osa-miR159f, osa-miR1871, osa-miR398b, osa-miR408-3p, osa-miR2878-5p, osa-miR528-5p and osa-miR397a) that were up-regulated in the flag-leaves of tolerant cultivar, Nagina 22 (N22) and Vandana, but down-regulated in the sensitive cultivar, Pusa Basmati 1 (PB1) and IR64, during drought...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101883/investigating-binding-characteristics-of-cadmium-and-copper-to-dom-derived-from-compost-and-rice-straw-using-eem-parafac-combined-with-two-dimensional-ftir-correlation-analyses
#8
Mei Huang, Zhongwu Li, Bin Huang, Ninglin Luo, Qiu Zhang, Xiuqing Zhai, Guangming Zeng
The binding of Cd and Cu to dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from compost (CP) and rice straw (ST) was studied through an approach combining parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS). Both humic-like and protein-like substances have been observed in CP and ST. Comparing with the Cu, Cd exhibited a lower affinity to DOM, and the quenching curve of Cd failed to be fitted by the Ryan and Weber Model, indicating that the environmental risk caused by applying CP or ST to Cd-polluted soil should be considered...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031483/duox-expression-in-human-keratinocytes-and-bronchial-epithelial-cells-influence-of-vanadate
#9
Thomas Hill, Robert H Rice
Dual oxygenases (DUOX) 1 and 2, expressed in many animal tissues, participate in host defense at mucosal surfaces and may have important signaling roles through generation of reactive oxygen. Present work addresses their expression in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes and effects of cytokines and metal/metalloid compounds. Both DUOX1 and 2 were expressed at much higher levels after confluence than in the preconfluent state. Maximal DUOX1 mRNA levels were 50 fold those of DUOX2. DUOX1 and 2 were induced ≈3 fold by interleukin 4, but only DUOX1 was induced by interferon gamma (IFNγ)...
February 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024290/novel-bisthioether-derivatives-containing-a-1-3-4-oxadiazole-moiety-design-synthesis-antibacterial-and-nematocidal-activities
#10
Pei Li, Pingyi Tian, Yongzhong Chen, Xianpeng Song, Wei Xue, Linhong Jin, Deyu Hu, Song Yang, Baoan Song
BACKGROUND: Literature revealed that bisthioether and 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives exhibited a wide variety of biological activities. In this study, a series of novel bisthioether derivatives containing a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety were synthesized and their antibacterial and nematocidal activities were investigated. RESULTS: Among the title compounds evaluated, compound 4f demonstrated the best antibacterial activities against rice bacterial leaf blight, rice bacterial leaf streak and citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv...
October 12, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979771/biomass-and-elemental-concentrations-of-22-rice-cultivars-grown-under-alternate-wetting-and-drying-conditions-at-three-field-sites-in-bangladesh
#11
Gareth J Norton, Anthony J Travis, John M C Danku, David E Salt, Mahmud Hossain, Md Rafiqul Islam, Adam H Price
As the global population grows, demand on food production will also rise. For rice, one limiting factor effecting production could be availability of fresh water, hence adoption of techniques that decrease water usage while maintaining or increasing crop yield are needed. Alternative wetting and drying (AWD) is one of these techniques. AWD is a method by which the level of water within a rice field cycles between being flooded and nonflooded during the growth period of the rice crop. The degree to which AWD affects cultivars differently has not been adequately addressed to date...
August 2017: Food and Energy Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974021/h%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-is-involved-in-the-metallothionein-mediated-rice-tolerance-to-copper-and-cadmium-toxicity
#12
Hongxiao Zhang, Shufang Lv, Huawei Xu, Dianyun Hou, Youjun Li, Fayuan Wang
Cadmium (Cd) and excess copper (Cu) are toxic to plants, causing a wide range of deleterious effects including the formation of reactive oxygen species. Metallothioneins (MTs) may protect plant cells from heavy metal toxicity by chelating heavy metals via cysteine thiol groups. They may also function as antioxidants. The study investigated the relationship of H₂O₂ production and ricMT expression in rice radicles and rice suspension cells under Cu or Cd stress. The results showed that H₂O₂ production in the rice radicles increased before Cu-induced ricMT expression, and after Cd-induced ricMT expression...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970841/effects-of-surface-charge-and-functional-groups-on-the-adsorption-and-binding-forms-of-cu-and-cd-on-roots-of-indica-and-japonica-rice-cultivars
#13
Zhao-Dong Liu, Qin Zhou, Zhi-Neng Hong, Ren-Kou Xu
This work was designed to understand the mechanisms of adsorption of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on roots of indica and japonica varieties of rice. Six varieties each of indica and japonica rice were grown in hydroponics and the chemical properties of the root surface were analyzed, including surface charges and functional groups (-COO- groups) as measured by the streaming potential and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Binding forms of heavy metals adsorbed on rice roots were identified using sequential extraction methods...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964989/heavy-metals-in-food-crops-soil-and-water-in-the-lihe-river-watershed-of-the-taihu-region-and-their-potential-health-risks-when-ingested
#14
Lian Chen, Shenglu Zhou, Yaxing Shi, Chunhui Wang, Baojie Li, Yan Li, Shaohua Wu
Environmental pollution by heavy metals resulting from rapid economic development is a major concern. Soil, water, wheat, and rice samples were collected from the Lihe River Watershed in the Taihu Region (east China). In this study area, many types of industrial plants, including ceramics factories, plants working with refractory materials, and chemical plants are densely distributed and cause serious heavy metal pollution. In addition, well-developed transportation and agricultural activities are also important sources of heavy metals...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904074/mir408-regulates-grain-yield-and-photosynthesis-via-a-phytocyanin-protein
#15
Jin-Ping Zhang, Yang Yu, Yan-Zhao Feng, Yan-Fei Zhou, Fan Zhang, Yu-Wei Yang, Meng-Qi Lei, Yu-Chan Zhang, Yue-Qin Chen
Increasing grain yield is the most important object of crop breeding. Here, we report that the elevated expression of a conserved microRNA, OsmiR408, could positively regulate grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa) by increasing panicle branches and grain number. We further showed that OsmiR408 regulates grain yield by down-regulating its downstream target, OsUCL8, which is an uclacyanin (UCL) gene of the phytocyanin family. The knock down or knock out of OsUCL8 also increases grain yield, while the overexpression of OsUCL8 results in an opposite phenotype...
November 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898073/immobilizing-arsenic-and-copper-ions-in-manure-using-a-nanocomposite
#16
Dongfang Wang, Guilong Zhang, Linglin Zhou, Dongqing Cai, Zhengyan Wu
Livestock manure (Man) commonly contains a certain quantity of heavy metal ions, such as arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) ions, resulting in a high risk on soil contamination. To solve this problem, heavy metal of manure was immobilized into sodium carbonate/biosilica/attapulgite composite (Na2CO3/BioSi/Attp), which was developed using a nanocomposite consisting of anhydrous sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), straw ash-based biochar and biosilica (BioSi), and attapulgite (Attp). When Na2CO3/BioSi/Attp was mixed with Man/AsCu, the obtained nanocomposite (Na2CO3/BioSi/Attp/Man/AsCu) with a porous nano-network structure could effectively control the release of As and Cu ions from manure through adsorption and chemical reaction...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868059/integrating-early-transcriptomic-responses-to-rhizotoxins-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l-reveals-key-regulators-and-a-potential-early-biomarker-of-cadmium-toxicity
#17
Li-Yao Huang, Chung-Wen Lin, Ruey-Hua Lee, Chih-Yun Chiang, Yung-Chuan Wang, Ching-Han Chang, Hao-Jen Huang
As sessile organisms, plants were constantly challenged with biotic and abiotic stresses. Transcriptional activation of stress-responsive genes is a crucial part of the plant adaptation to environmental changes. Here, early response of rice root to eight rhizotoxic stressors: arsenate, copper, cadmium, mercury, chromate, vanadate, ferulic acid and juglone, was analyzed using published microarray data. There were 539 general stress response (GSR) genes up-regulated under all eight treatments, including genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, phytohormone balance, and cell wall structure...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796373/environmental-behavior-potential-phytotoxicity-and-accumulation-of-copper-oxide-nanoparticles-and-arsenic-in-rice-plants
#18
REVIEW
Jing Liu, Birendra Dhungana, George P Cobb
Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are widely used in many industries. The increasing release of CuO NPs from both intentional and unintentional sources into the environment may pose risks to rice plants, thereby reducing the quality or quantity of this staple grain in the human diet. Not only has arsenic (As) contamination decreased rice yield, but As accumulation in rice has also been a great human health concern for a few decades. New technologies have succeeded in removing As from water by nanomaterials...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760553/genome-wide-identification-of-sweet-orange-citrus-sinensis-metal-tolerance-proteins-and-analysis-of-their-expression-patterns-under-zinc-manganese-copper-and-cadmium-toxicity
#19
Xing-Zheng Fu, Ya-Hua Tong, Xue Zhou, Li-Li Ling, Chang-Pin Chun, Li Cao, Ming Zeng, Liang-Zhi Peng
Plant metal tolerance proteins (MTPs) play important roles in heavy metal homeostasis; however, related information in citrus plants is limited. Citrus genome sequencing and assembly have enabled us to perform a systematic analysis of the MTP gene family. We identified 12 MTP genes in sweet orange, which we have named as CitMTP1 and CitMTP3 to CitMTP12 based on their sequence similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana MTPs. The CitMTPs were predicted to encode proteins of 864 to 2556 amino acids in length that included 4 to 6 putative transmembrane domains (TMDs)...
September 20, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678533/a-method-for-screening-copper-tolerant-rice-oryza-sativa-l-cultivars-based-on-hydroponic-experiments-and-cluster-analysis
#20
Sen Lin, Tingting Yang, Shaowei Zhu, Jifeng Wang, Wuzhong Ni
A method for screening copper (Cu) tolerant rice cultivars was studied by combining hydroponic experiments and cluster analysis, and the classification of cultivars in Cu stress tolerance was done. In the first hydroponic experiment, seedlings of Jiahe991 and Xiushui114 were planted in nutrient solution with different Cu(2+) concentrations from 10 to 1800 μg/L. Results indicated that the toxic threshold of Cu concentration in solution ranged from 900 to 1200 μg/L, since SPAD values of leaves and seedlings biomass of the treatments with ≥ 900 and/or 1200 µg/L were significantly lower than the control...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
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