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biomechanics, foot

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785267/a-silent-massive-ossification-of-achilles-tendon-as-a-suspected-rare-late-effect-of-surgery-for-club-foot
#1
Francesco Manfreda, Paolo Ceccarini, Marco Corzani, Rosario Petruccelli, Pierluigi Antinolfi, Giuseppe Rinonapoli, Auro Caraffa
We report the case of a 66-year-old male patient with massive ossification of the distal portion of the Achilles tendon, as a late consequence of a surgical release for club foot conducted in his childhood. The singularity of the case report derives from its clinical features: the bone mass was of abnormal dimensions, almost substituting the entire tendon; the condition had always been asymptomatic, without deficits in range of motion, in absence of either pain or biomechanical defects with age. In fact, the condition was diagnosed just recently as a consequence of a tear...
2018: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780837/foot-kinematics-differ-between-runners-with-and-without-a-history-of-navicular-stress-fractures
#2
James Becker, Stanley James, Louis Osternig, Li-Shan Chou
Background: A navicular stress fracture (NSF) is a common and high-risk injury in distance runners. It is not clear whether there are differences in foot structure and function between runners who have and those who have not sustained an NSF. Purpose/Hypothesis: This study compared foot structure, range of motion, and biomechanics between runners with a history of unilateral NSFs and runners who had never sustained this injury. The hypothesis was that runners with a history of NSFs will have less dorsiflexion and subtalar range of motion in a clinical examination and greater rearfoot eversion and higher eversion velocity while running than either the noninvolved feet or healthy controls...
April 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764690/inter-ray-variation-in-metatarsal-strength-properties-in-humans-and-african-apes-implications-for-inferring-bipedal-biomechanics-in-the-olduvai-hominid-8-foot
#3
Biren A Patel, Tea Jashashvili, Stephanie H Bui, Kristian J Carlson, Nicole L Griffin, Ian J Wallace, Caley M Orr, Randall L Susman
When measured as a ratio of mean midshaft diameter to bone length, the OH 8 fossil hominin foot exhibits a metatarsal (Mt) robusticity pattern of 1 > 5 > 3 > 4 > 2, which differs from the widely perceived "common" modern human pattern (1 > 5 > 4 > 3 > 2); African apes generally exhibit a third pattern (1 > 2 > 3 > 4 > 5). Largely because of the relative ranking of Mt2 and Mt5, OH 8 metatarsals structurally resemble the pattern exhibited by bipedal humans more than the pattern of quadrupedal and climbing African apes...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753444/a-biplanar-x-ray-approach-for-studying-the-3d-dynamics-of-human-track-formation
#4
Kevin G Hatala, David A Perry, Stephen M Gatesy
Recent discoveries have made hominin tracks an increasingly prevalent component of the human fossil record, and these data have the capacity to inform long-standing debates regarding the biomechanics of hominin locomotion. However, there is currently no consensus on how to decipher biomechanical variables from hominin tracks. These debates can be linked to our generally limited understanding of the complex interactions between anatomy, motion, and substrate that give rise to track morphology. These interactions are difficult to study because direct visualization of the track formation process is impeded by foot and substrate opacity...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734124/ankle-joint-function-during-walking-in-tophaceous-gout-a-biomechanical-gait-analysis-study
#5
Matthew Carroll, Mark Boocock, Nicola Dalbeth, Sarah Stewart, Christopher Frampton, Keith Rome
BACKGROUND: The foot and ankle are frequently affected in tophaceous gout, yet kinematic and kinetic changes in this region during gait are unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate ankle biomechanical characteristics in people with tophaceous gout using three-dimensional gait analysis. METHODS: Twenty-four participants with tophaceous gout were compared with 24 age-and sex-matched control participants. A 9-camera motion analysis system and two floor-mounted force plates were used to calculate kinematic and kinetic parameters...
April 17, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729794/comparison-of-three-dimensional-displacement-among-different-metatarsal-osteotomies
#6
REVIEW
Young Yi, Woo-Chun Lee
Hallux valgus is a slowly progressing complex 3-dimensional biomechanical process. Therefore, precise understanding of 3-dimensional deformity is essential for satisfactory clinical result. Uniplanar correction on anteroposterior view of foot would be insufficient, and rotation on frontal plane as well as sagittal alignment should also be well corrected. This article will review the 3-dimensional components of bony displacement in different surgical methods for hallux valgus correction.
June 2018: Foot and Ankle Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724536/ankle-and-foot-power-in-gait-analysis-implications-for-science-technology-and-clinical-assessment
#7
REVIEW
Karl E Zelik, Eric C Honert
In human gait analysis studies, the entire foot is typically modeled as a single rigid-body segment; however, this neglects power generated/absorbed within the foot. Here we show how treating the entire foot as a rigid body can lead to misunderstandings related to (biological and prosthetic) foot function, and distort our understanding of ankle and muscle-tendon dynamics. We overview various (unconventional) inverse dynamics methods for estimating foot power, partitioning ankle vs. foot contributions, and computing combined anklefoot power...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721837/change-of-direction-biomechanics-is-what-s-best-for-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury-prevention-also-best-for-performance
#8
REVIEW
Aaron S Fox
Change-of-direction maneuvers (e.g., side-step cutting) are an important aspect of performance in multi-directional sports, but these maneuvers are also associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Despite this, the impact of biomechanics on ACL injury risk and performance is often examined in isolation. The purpose of this review was to examine the alignment between biomechanical recommendations for ACL injury prevention and performance with regard to change-of-direction maneuvers. Several studies linking change-of-direction biomechanics to both ACL injury risk and performance were examined...
May 2, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721451/biomechanical-response-of-the-plantar-tissues-of-the-foot-in-healthy-and-degenerative-conditions
#9
Chiara Giulia Fontanella, Emanuele Luigi Carniel, Veronica Macchi, Andrea Porzionato, Raffaele De Caro, Arturo Nicola Natali
Introduction: This work reports a set of results on the mechanical response of foot plantar tissues in healthy and degenerative conditions during the gait cycle, by means of a computational approach. Methods: A three dimensional finite element model of the foot was developed starting from the analysis of biomedical images. Different constitutive models were defined to interpret the mechanical response of the biological tissues. In particular, a specific visco-hyperelastic constitutive formulation was provided for foot plantar soft tissue considering the general features of tissue mechanics...
October 2017: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716414/what-is-the-best-lateral-radiograph-positioning-technique-for-assessment-of-sagittal-balance-a-biomechanical-study-on-influence-of-different-arm-positions
#10
Koon-Man Sieh, Yue-Yan Chan, Po-Yan Ho, Kwai-Yau Fung
PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of different arm postures from the physiological standing position using force plate analysis of the gravity line. METHODS: Forty healthy volunteered university students were enrolled. Each subject assumed different standing positions including standing with arms resting on the side (control), with fist over the clavicle (clavicular position), with active shoulder flexion in 30°, 60° and 90° with elbows extended (active flexion A), with hand rest on a bar with a static support (passive flexion P), and with hand rest on a bar with a drip stand (passive flexion D)...
May 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715361/assessment-of-mechanical-characteristics-of-ankle-foot-orthoses
#11
Amanda Wach, Linda McGrady, Mei Wang, Barbara Silver-Thorn
Recent designs of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) have been influenced by the increasing demand for higher function from active individuals. The biomechanical function of the individual and device is dependent upon the underlying mechanical characteristics of the AFO. Prior mechanical testing of AFOs has primarily focused on rotational stiffness to provide insight into expected functional outcomes; mechanical characteristics pertaining to energy storage and release have not yet been investigated. A pseudostatic bench testing method is introduced to characterize compressive stiffness, device deflection, and motion of solid-ankle, anterior floor reaction, posterior leaf spring, and the intrepid dynamic exoskeletal orthosis (IDEO) AFOs...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709498/clinical-and-biomechanical-changes-following-a-four-month-toe-out-gait-modification-program-for-people-with-medial-knee-osteoarthritis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Michael A Hunt, Jesse M Charlton, Natasha M Krowchuk, Calvin T Tse, Gillian L Hatfield
OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in knee pain, function, and loading following a four-month progressive walking program with or without toe-out gait modification program in people with medial tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis. DESIGN: Individuals with medial knee osteoarthritis were randomized to a four month program to increase walking activity with (toe-out) or without (progressive walking) concomitant toe-out gait modification. The walking program was similar between the two groups, except that the gait modification group were trained to walk with 15° more toe-out...
April 27, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706246/cross-sectional-area-measurement-of-the-central-tarsometatarsal-articulation-a-review-of-computed-tomography-scans
#13
John Randolph Clements, Kelley Whitmer, Hoa Nguyen, Matthew Rich
Currently, disagreement exists regarding the superior method for repairing a ligamentous Lisfranc injury regarding whether to use arthrodesis or open reduction internal fixation. The 2 procedures differ in the amount of articular cartilage destroyed. Arthrodesis removes all the articular cartilage, and open reduction internal fixation places transarticular screws, essentially destroying a portion of cartilage. We performed a review of 30 consecutive computed tomography scans that included both foot length and undamaged first, second, and third tarsometatarsal joints to quantify the amount of articular surface area destroyed by placement of standardized 4-mm diameter screws...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687013/effects-of-game-pitch-count-and-body-mass-index-on-pitching-biomechanics-in-9-to-10-year-old-baseball-athletes
#14
Jim D Darke, Eshan M Dandekar, Arnel L Aguinaldo, Scott J Hazelwood, Stephen M Klisch
Background: Pitching while fatigued and body composition may increase the injury risk in youth and adult pitchers. However, the relationships between game pitch count, biomechanics, and body composition have not been reported for a study group restricted to 9- to 10-year-old athletes. Hypothesis: During a simulated game with 9- to 10-year-old athletes, (1) participants will experience biomechanical signs of fatigue, and (2) shoulder and elbow kinetics will correlate with body mass index (BMI)...
April 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685563/changes-in-rearfoot-alignment-in-chronic-plantar-heel-pain
#15
Kadir Ilker Yildiz, Abdulhamit Misir, Turan Bilge Kizkapan, Mustafa Cukurlu
Plantar heel pain is a common disabling condition in adults. Biomechanical factors are important in the development of plantar heel pain. Quantitative changes in rearfoot alignment in patients with plantar heel pain have not been previously investigated. From April 2016 to March 2017, 100 patients with plantar heel pain and 100 healthy individuals were recruited. The foot posture index was used for the measurement of foot alignment. The generalized joint hypermobility condition was assessed using the Beighton scale...
May 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682429/when-why-and-how-foot-orthoses-fos-should-be-prescribed-for-children-with-flexible-pes-planus-a-delphi-survey-of-podiatrists
#16
Sindhrani Dars, Hayley Uden, Saravana Kumar, Helen A Banwell
Background: Flexible pes planus (flat feet) in children is a common reason parents and caregivers seek health professionals consult and a frequent reason podiatrists prescribe foot orthoses. Yet no universal agreement exists on the diagnosis of this condition, or when and how foot orthoses should be prescribed. The aim of this study was to garner consensus and agreement among podiatrists on the use of FOs for paediatric flexible pes planus. Methods: A three round Delphi consensus survey was undertaken with 15 podiatry experts from Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679933/slip-avoidance-strategies-in-children-with-bilateral-spastic-cerebral-palsy-and-crouch-gait
#17
Ana Francisca Rozin Kleiner, Ilaria Pacifici, Claudia Condoluci, Chiarella Sforza, Manuela Galli
BACKGROUND: A slip occurs when the required friction (RCOF) to prevent slipping at the foot/floor interfaces exceeds the available friction. The RCOF is dependent upon the biomechanics features of individuals and their gait. On the other hand, the available friction depends on environmental features. Once individuals with crouch gait have their biomechanics of gait completely altered, how do they interact with a supporting surface? The aim was to quantify the RCOF in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (BSCP) and crouch gait...
April 11, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679921/electromyographic-and-biomechanical-analysis-of-step-negotiation-in-charcot-marie-tooth-subjects-whose-level-walk-is-not-impaired
#18
Tiziana Lencioni, Giuseppe Piscosquito, Marco Rabuffetti, Enrica Di Sipio, Manuela Diverio, Isabella Moroni, Luca Padua, Emanuela Pagliano, Angelo Schenone, Davide Pareyson, Maurizio Ferrarin
BACKGROUND: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) is a slowly progressive disease characterized by muscular weakness and wasting with a length-dependent pattern. Mildly affected CMT subjects showed slight alteration of walking compared to healthy subjects (HS). RESEARCH QUESTION: To investigate the biomechanics of step negotiation, a task that requires greater muscle strength and balance control compared to level walking, in CMT subjects without primary locomotor deficits (foot drop and push off deficit) during walking...
April 13, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679256/biomechanical-features-of-six-design-of-the-delta-external-fixator-for-treating-pilon-fracture-a-finite-element-study
#19
Muhammad Hanif Ramlee, Mohd Ayub Sulong, Evelyn Garcia-Nieto, Daniel Angure Penaranda, Antonio Ros Felip, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir
Pilon fractures can be caused by high-energy vertical forces which may result in long-term patient immobilization. Many experts in orthopedic surgery recommend the use of a Delta external fixator for type III Pilon fracture treatment. This device can promote immediate healing of fractured bone, minimizing the rate of complications as well as allowing early mobilization. The characteristics of different types of the Delta frame have not been demonstrated yet. By using the finite element method, this study was conducted to determine the biomechanical characteristics of six different configurations (Model 1 until Model 6)...
April 21, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673934/foot-structure-and-knee-joint-kinetics-during-walking-with-and-without-wedged-footwear-insoles
#20
Ryan T Lewinson, Ryan Madden, Anthony Killick, John W Wannop, J Preston Wiley, Victor M Y Lun, Chirag Patel, Jeremy M LaMothe, Darren J Stefanyshyn
The relationship between static foot structure characteristics and knee joint biomechanics during walking, or the biomechanical response to wedged insoles are currently unknown. In this study, 3D foot scanning, dual X-ray absorptiometry and gait analysis methods were used to determine structural parameters of the foot and assess their relation to knee joint loading and biomechanical response to wedged insoles in 30 patients with knee osteoarthritis. In multiple linear regression models, foot fat content, height of the medial longitudinal arch and static hind foot angle were not associated with the magnitude of the knee adduction moment (R2  = 0...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
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