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biomechanics, foot

Wen-Xia Li, Ying Cao, Meng-Chen Zou, Ying Huang, Ping Hu, Xiang-Rong Luo, Ya Jiang, Yao-Ming Xue, Fang Gao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate foot biomechanics characteristic of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This study was conducted among 303 patients with type 2 diabetes. The whole foot was divided into 10 regions, namely the first toe (T1); the second to fifth toes (T2-5); the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth metatarsals (M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5, respectively); midfoot (MF), and the heel medial (HM). Foot arch index, foot angle and maximum peak pressure (MPP) of the 10 regions were measured using a Footscan gait system...
October 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Hongmou Zhao, Xiaojun Liang, Yi Li, Guangrong Yu, Wenxin Niu, Yan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Supramalleolar osteotomy (SMOT) is a well-accepted treatment method for mid-stage varus ankle osteoarthritis (OA). However, few studies have examined the role of fibular osteotomy in SMOT. The objective of the current study was to compare the biomechanical and clinical outcomes of SMOT with and without fibular osteotomy. METHODS: Eight cadaveric lower legs with 10° varus/valgus SMOT models were tested using a Tekscan ankle sensor. Tibiotalar joint contact with and without fibular osteotomy conditions were compared...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Hongshi Huang, Noël Keijsers, Herwin Horemans, Qinwei Guo, Yuanyuan Yu, Henk Stam, Stephan Praet, Yingfang Ao
OBJECTIVES: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) deficiency may result in abnormal lower limb loading with increased foot pronation. This study evaluated spatiotemporal parameters and plantar pressure distribution during walking in participants with and without an ACL rupture. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Plantar pressure was measured in 42 unilateral ACL deficient (ACLD) participants and 32 healthy controls while walking barefoot. Spatiotemporal parameters, pressure distribution and center of pressure (CoP) during foot roll off were determined...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Viktor Feldman, Meir Nyska, Niv Marom, Omer Slavin, Yaron S Brin, Uri Farkash, Ezequiel Palmanovich
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to measure transverse forces between the 1st and 2nd metatarsals after reducing the intermetatarsal angle (IMA) in normal and hallux valgus (HV) feet, during non weight-bearing and weight-bearing phases of gait. METHODS: Four cadaver feet, three normal and one with hallux valgus, were used. A new suture button device (CyclaPlex™) composed of screw-type buttons connected with a wire was implanted at the mid-shaft of the 1st and 2nd metatarsals of all the feet...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Douglas W Powell, Samantha Andrews, Cris Stickley, D S Blaise Williams
: High- (HA) and low-arched athletes (LA) experience distinct injury patterns. These injuries are the result of the interaction of structure and biomechanics. A suggested mechanism of patellofemoral pain pertains to frontal plane knee moments which may be exaggerated in LA athletes. We hypothesize that LA athletes will exhibit greater peak knee abduction moments than high-arched athletes. METHODS: Twenty healthy female recreational athletes (10HA and 10LA) performed five over-ground barefoot walking and five barefoot running trials at a self-selected velocity while three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded...
October 13, 2016: Human Movement Science
Josué Gómez-Molina, Ana Ogueta-Alday, Christopher Stickley, Jesus Camara Tobalina, Jon Cabrejas-Ugartondo, Juan García-López
The aim of this study was to compare the spatio-temporal parameters of trained runners and untrained participants with the same foot strike pattern (rearfoot) during running at controlled speeds. Twenty-one participants were classified in two groups according to their training experience: Trained (n=10, amateur runners with long distance training experience) and Untrained (n=11, healthy non-trained participants). Anthropometric variables were recorded, and the participants performed both a submaximal (between 9 and 15 km·h) and a graded exercise running test (from 6 km·h until exhaustion) on a treadmill...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Marco Hagen, Gerrit Schwiertz, Karl B Landorf, Hylton B Menz, George S Murley
The pronators and supinators play a key role in the medio-lateral stability of the ankle joint complex (i.e. talo-crural and subtalar joints). We hypothesized that each shank muscle has a specific activation pattern determined by its anatomical course around the axes of the subtalar and talo-crural joints. A secondary objective was to examine the effect of foot posture on these activation patterns. Forty-nine young adults (25 normal-arched feet, 24 flat-arched feet) performed maximum voluntary isometric contractions against manual resistance in four movement directions: plantarflexion (PF), dorsiflexion (DF), pronation (PRO) and supination (SUP)...
October 6, 2016: Human Movement Science
L V Randall, M J Green, M G G Chagunda, C Mason, L E Green, J N Huxley
The importance of lameness in primiparous dairy heifers is increasingly recognised. Although it is accepted that clinical lameness in any lactation increases the risk of future lameness, the impact of foot lesions during the first lactation on long-term lameness risk is less clear. This retrospective cohort study aimed to investigate the impacts of foot lesions occurring around the time of first calving in heifers on future lameness risk, daily milk yield and survival within a dairy herd. Records were obtained for 158 heifers from one UK dairy herd...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Frank E Fish
Re-invasion of the aquatic environment by terrestrial vertebrates resulted in the evolution of species expressing a suite of adaptations for high-performance swimming. Examination of swimming by secondarily aquatic vertebrates provides opportunities to understand potential selection pressures and mechanical constraints, which may have directed the evolution of these aquatic species. Mammals and birds realigned the body and limbs for cursorial movements and flight, respectively, from the primitive tetrapod configuration...
October 3, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Arielle G Fischer, Alon Wolf
BACKGROUND: Body weight unloading is a common method of gait rehabilitation. However, little is known about its effects on the overground gait biomechanical parameters which were often confounded by the walking modality (treadmill) or the speed variability when subjects walked overground while having to pull the body weight unloading system to which they were attached. By designing a mechanical device that pulled the system at a constant speed, we were able to assess the unique effects of body weight unloading on healthy subjects' kinetics during overground gait...
September 13, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Michele Ammendola, Rosario Sacco, Lucia Butrico, Giuseppe Sammarco, Stefano de Franciscis, Raffaele Serra
Diabetic foot ulcerations may determine minor or major amputation, with a high impact on patients' life expectation and quality of life and on economic burden. Among minor amputations, transmetatarsal amputation (TMA) appears to be the most effective in terms of limb salvage rates and in maintaining foot and ankle biomechanics. In spite of this, TMA needs particular pre- and postoperative management in order to avoid the frequent failure rates. A systematic review was undertaken of studies concerning TMA and its care in diabetic foot gangrene...
October 3, 2016: International Wound Journal
Thomas O Clanton, Brady T Williams, Jonathon D Backus, Grant J Dornan, Daniel J Liechti, Scott R Whitlow, Adriana J Saroki, Travis Lee Turnbull, Robert F LaPrade
BACKGROUND: Biomechanical data and contributions to ankle joint stability have been previously reported for the individual distal tibiofibular ligaments. These results have not yet been validated based on recent anatomic descriptions or using current biomechanical testing devices. METHODS: Eight matched-pair, lower leg specimens were tested using a dynamic, biaxial testing machine. The proximal tibiofibular joint and the medial and lateral ankle ligaments were left intact...
September 28, 2016: Foot & Ankle International
Kathleen Hartwich, Alejandro Lorente Gomez, Jaroslaw Pyrc, Radosław Gut, Stefan Rammelt, René Grass
BACKGROUND: We performed a biomechanical comparison of 2 methods for operative stabilization of pronation-abduction stage III ankle fractures; group 1: Anterior-posterior lag screws fixing the posterior tibial fragment and lateral fibula plating (LSLFP) versus group 2: locked plate fixation of the posterior tibial fragment and posterior antiglide plate fixation of the fibula (LPFP). METHODS: Seven pairs of fresh-frozen osteoligamentous lower leg specimens (2 male, and 5 female donors) were used for the biomechanical testing...
September 26, 2016: Foot & Ankle International
Thomas O Clanton, Scott R Whitlow, Brady T Williams, Daniel J Liechti, Jonathon D Backus, Grant J Dornan, Adriana J Saroki, Travis Lee Turnbull, Robert F LaPrade
BACKGROUND: Significant debate exists regarding optimal repair for unstable syndesmosis injuries. Techniques range from screw fixation, suture-button fixation, or a combination of the two. In this study, 3 common repairs were compared using a simulated weightbearing protocol with internal and external rotation of the foot. METHODS: Twenty-four lower leg specimens with mean age 54 years (range, 38-68 years) were used for testing. Following creation of a complete syndesmotic injury (AITFL, ITFL, PITFL, interosseous membrane), specimens were repaired using 1 of 3 randomly assigned techniques: (1) one 3...
September 25, 2016: Foot & Ankle International
Fumihiro Matsuda, Masahiko Mukaino, Kei Ohtsuka, Hiroki Tanikawa, Kazuhiro Tsuchiyama, Toshio Teranishi, Yoshikiyo Kanada, Hitoshi Kagaya, Eiichi Saitoh
BACKGROUND: The toe clearance of a paretic limb in the swing phase of gait is related to tripping, which is considered a major cause of falls. The biomechanical factors for obtaining toe clearance are more complicated in hemiparetic gait than that in normal gait because of the compensatory movements during swing phase. Understanding the biomechanical factors should help in targeting the point for rehabilitative interventions. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the biomechanical factors behind toe clearance during swing phase in hemiparetic gait...
September 27, 2016: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
Bingbing Nie, Matthew B Panzer, Adwait Mane, Alexander R Mait, John-Paul Donlon, Jason L Forman, Richard W Kent
The mechanical behavior of ankle ligaments at the structural level can be characterized by force-displacement curves in the physiologic phase up to the initiation of failure. However, these properties are difficult to characterize in vitro due to the experimental difficulties in replicating the complex geometry and non-uniformity of the loading state in situ. This study used a finite element parametric modeling approach to determine the in situ mechanical behavior of ankle ligaments at neutral foot position for a mid-sized adult foot from experimental derived bony kinematics...
September 13, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Paolo Caravaggi, Alessia Giangrande, Giada Lullini, Giuseppe Padula, Lisa Berti, Alberto Leardini
Health and safety regulations in many countries require workers at risk to wear safety shoes in a factory environment. These shoes are often heavy, rigid, and uncomfortable. Wearing safety shoes daily leads to foot problems, discomfort and fatigue, resulting also in the loss of numerous working days. Currently, knowledge of the biomechanical effects of insoles in safety shoes, during working activities, is very limited. Seventeen workers from a metalworking factory were selected and clinically examined for any foot conditions...
September 11, 2016: Gait & Posture
Jinsup Song, Kersti Choe, Michael Neary, Rebecca A Zifchock, Kenneth Cameron, Michael Trepal, Marian Hannon, Howard J Hilstrom
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Healthy feet are important for overall health and well-being. Previous studies of older subjects showed that those with a lowered arch had an increased odds of having foot deformities, pain, and hyperpronation in gait. (1-3) No investigation to date has comprehensively characterized foot biomechanics in a large sample of healthy active young subjects. METHODS: Foot structure, function, and arch height flexibility (AHF) were measured in 1,052 incoming cadets to the United States Military Academy...
September 2016: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Yingzhou Han, Yalu Cao, Jingjing Zhao, Yajiang Yin, Liangchen Ye, Xiaofeng Wang, Zheng You
Biomechanical energy harvesting is a feasible solution for powering wearable sensors by directly driving electronics or acting as wearable self-powered sensors. A wearable insole that not only can harvest energy from foot pressure during walking but also can serve as a self-powered human motion recognition sensor is reported. The insole is designed as a sandwich structure consisting of two wavy silica gel film separated by a flexible piezoelectric foil stave, which has higher performance compared with conventional piezoelectric harvesters with cantilever structure...
2016: Sensors
Mary Spencer Cain, Stacy Watt Garceau, Shelley W Linens
CONTEXT: Chronic Ankle Instability (CAI) describes the residual symptoms present after repetitive ankle sprains. Current rehabilitation programs in the high school population focus on a multi-station approach or general lower extremity injury prevention program. Specific rehabilitation techniques for CAI have not been established. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a 4-week Biomechanical Ankle Platform System (BAPS) Board protocol on balance of high school athletes with CAI...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
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