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neonatal neurological assessment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643657/impact-of-clinical-and-or-histological-chorioamnionitis-on-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-preterm-infants-a-literature-review
#1
REVIEW
E Maisonneuve, P-Y Ancel, L Foix-L'Hélias, S Marret, G Kayem
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of clinical and/or histological chorioamnionitis on neurodevelopmental outcomes in premature infants. METHODS: A review of the literature appeared in PubMed between 1997 and 2016 was conducted to examine the association between clinical and/or histological chorioamnionitis and neurologic impairment in the neonates (intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia and white matter damage) and in infants (cerebral palsy and neurodevelopmental delay)...
April 2017: Journal of gynecology obstetrics and human reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628913/age-dependent-effects-of-alk5-inhibition-and-mechanism-of-neuroprotection-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#2
Brian H Kim, Mariano Guardia Clausi, Michelle Frondelli, Israel C Nnah, Chaitali Saqcena, Radek Dobrowolski, Steven W Levison
Neonatal encephalopathy due to hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury triggers a wave of neuroinflammatory events attributed to causing the progressive degeneration and functional deficits seen weeks after the initial insult. In a recent set of studies, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of a small molecule antagonist for ALK5 (activin-like kinase 5 ), TGF-β receptor in a rat model of moderate perinatal HI and found significant improvements in neurologic outcomes. Here, we have extended those studies to evaluate the efficacy of delayed TGF-β receptor antagonism on postnatal day (P) 6 and P9 HI rat pups with and without hypothermia...
June 20, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627083/a-review-of-important-eeg-features-for-the-assessment-of-brain-maturation-in-premature-infants
#3
REVIEW
Elena Pavlidis, Rhodri O Lloyd, Sean Mathieson, Geraldine B Boylan
This review describes the maturational features of the baseline electroencephalogram (EEG) in the neurologically healthy preterm infant. Features such as continuity, sleep state, synchrony and transient waveforms are described, even from extremely preterm infants and includes abundant illustrated examples. The physiological significance of these EEG features and their relationship to neurodevelopment is highlighted where known. This review also demonstrates the importance of multichannel conventional EEG monitoring for preterm infants as many of the features described are not apparent if limited channel EEG monitors are used...
June 18, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615158/somatosensory-modulation-of-salivary-gene-expression-and-oral-feeding-in-preterm-infants-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Steven Michael Barlow, Jill Lamanna Maron, Gil Alterovitz, Dongli Song, Bernard Joseph Wilson, Priya Jegatheesan, Balaji Govindaswami, Jaehoon Lee, Austin Oder Rosner
BACKGROUND: Despite numerous medical advances in the care of at-risk preterm neonates, oral feeding still represents one of the first and most advanced neurological challenges facing this delicate population. Objective, quantitative, and noninvasive assessment tools, as well as neurotherapeutic strategies, are greatly needed in order to improve feeding and developmental outcomes. Pulsed pneumatic orocutaneous stimulation has been shown to improve nonnutritive sucking (NNS) skills in preterm infants who exhibit delayed or disordered nipple feeding behaviors...
June 14, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613398/fetal-and-umbilical-doppler-ultrasound-in-high-risk-pregnancies
#5
REVIEW
Zarko Alfirevic, Tamara Stampalija, Therese Dowswell
BACKGROUND: Abnormal blood flow patterns in fetal circulation detected by Doppler ultrasound may indicate poor fetal prognosis. It is also possible that false positive Doppler ultrasound findings could lead to adverse outcomes from unnecessary interventions, including preterm delivery. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of Doppler ultrasound used to assess fetal well-being in high-risk pregnancies on obstetric care and fetal outcomes...
June 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596673/power-spectral-density-analysis-of-electrocorticogram-recordings-during-cerebral-hypothermia-in-neonatal-seizures
#6
Mark H Myers, Elliott Jolly, Yaqin Li, Amy de Jongh Curry, Helena Parfenova
BACKGROUND: Neonatal seizures (NS) are the most common form of neurological dysfunction observed in newborns. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study in newborn piglets was to determine the effect of cerebral hypothermia (CH) on neural activity during pharmacologically induced NS. We hypothesized that the neuroprotective effects of CH would preserve higher frequencies observed in electrocorticogram (ECoG) recordings. METHODS: Power spectral density was employed to determine the levels of brain activity in ECoGs to quantitatively assess the power of each frequency observed in neurological brain states of delta, theta, alpha, and beta-gamma frequencies...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593892/neonatal-hypoglycemia-risk-factors-and-outcomes
#7
Orhideja Stomnaroska, Elizabeta Petkovska, Snezana Jancevska, Dragan Danilovski
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Severe neonatal hypoglycemia (HG) leads to neurologic damage, mental retardation, epilepsy, personality disorders, impaired cardiac performance and muscle weakness. We aimed to assess the clinical characteristics of children with hypoglycemia in a random population of newborns. PATIENTS, METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated 84 patients (M:F=35:48) born at the University Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Skopje (hospitalized in the NICU) who were found to have hypoglycemia...
March 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591756/the-fetal-reserve-index-re-engineering-the-interpretation-and-responses-to-fetal-heart-rate-patterns
#8
Robert D Eden, Mark I Evans, Shara M Evans, Barry S Schifrin
OBJECTIVE: Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) correlates poorly with neonatal outcome. We present a new metric: the "Fetal Reserve Index" (FRI), formally incorporating EFM with maternal, obstetrical, fetal risk factors, and excessive uterine activity for assessment of risk for cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: We performed a retrospective, case-control series of 50 term CP cases with apparent intrapartum neurological injury and 200 controls. All were deemed neurologically normal on admission...
June 8, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585336/liver-directed-human-amniotic-epithelial-cell-transplantation-improves-systemic-disease-phenotype-in-hurler-syndrome-mouse-model
#9
Natalie S Rodriguez, Lisa Yanuaria, Kevin Murphy R Parducho, Irving M Garcia, Bino A Varghese, Brendan H Grubbs, Toshio Miki
Mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS1) is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-degrading enzyme α-l-iduronidase (IDUA). In affected patients, the systemic accumulation of GAGs results in skeletal dysplasia, neurological degeneration, multiple organ dysfunction, and early death. Current therapies, including enzyme replacement and bone marrow transplant, improve life expectancy but the benefits to skeletal and neurological phenotypes are limited. In this study, we tested the therapeutic efficacy of liver-directed transplantation of a placental stem cell, which possesses multilineage differentiation potential, low immunogenicity, and high lysosomal enzyme activity...
June 6, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562267/an-initiative-to-improve-the-quality-of-care-of-infants-with-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome
#10
Matthew R Grossman, Adam K Berkwitt, Rachel R Osborn, Yaqing Xu, Denise A Esserman, Eugene D Shapiro, Matthew J Bizzarro
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), a constellation of neurologic, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal disturbances associated with opioid withdrawal, has increased dramatically and is associated with long hospital stays. At our institution, the average length of stay (ALOS) for infants exposed to methadone in utero was 22.4 days before the start of our project. We aimed to reduce ALOS for infants with NAS by 50%. METHODS: In 2010, a multidisciplinary team began several plan-do-study-act cycles at Yale New Haven Children's Hospital...
May 18, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559930/comparison-of-clinical-and-immunological-findings-in-gnotobiotic-piglets-infected-with-escherichia-coli-o104-h4-outbreak-strain-and-ehec-o157-h7
#11
Bettina Wöchtl, Florian Gunzer, Wilhelm Gerner, Hagen Gasse, Michaela Koch, Zoltán Bagó, Martin Ganter, Herbert Weissenböck, Nora Dinhopl, Sina M Coldewey, Alexandra von Altrock, Karl-Heinz Waldmann, Armin Saalmüller, Kurt Zimmermann, Jörg Steinmann, Jan Kehrmann, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Jochen Blom, Ralf Ehricht, Ines Engelmann, Isabel Hennig-Pauka
BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) (STEC) is the most frequent cause of diarrhoea-positive haemolytic uraemic syndrome (D + HUS) in humans. In 2011, a huge outbreak with an STEC O104:H4 strain in Germany highlighted the limited possibilities for causative treatment of this syndrome. The responsible STEC strain was found to combine Stx production with adherence mechanisms normally found in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). Pathotypes of E. coli evolve and can exhibit different adhesion mechanisms...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553341/diffusion-tensor-imaging-assesses-white-matter-injury-in-neonates-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#12
Hong-Xin Li, Xing Feng, Qian Wang, Xuan Dong, Min Yu, Wen-Juan Tu
With improvements in care of at-risk neonates, more and more children survive. This makes it increasingly important to assess, soon after birth, the prognosis of children with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Computed tomography, ultrasound, and conventional magnetic resonance imaging are helpful to diagnose brain injury, but cannot quantify white matter damage. In this study, ten full-term infants without brain injury and twenty-two full-term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (14 moderate cases and 8 severe cases) underwent diffusion tensor imaging to assess its feasibility in evaluating white matter damage in this condition...
April 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493821/multicentric-studies-of-the-fetal-neurobehavior-by-kanet-test
#13
Asim Kurjak, Panos Antsaklis, Milan Stanojevic, Radu Vladareanu, Simona Vladareanu, Raul Moreira Neto, Lara Spalldi Barisic, Selma Porovic, Taib Delic
Assessment of fetal neurobehavior and detection of neurological impairment prenatally has been a great challenge in perinatal medicine. The evolution of four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound not only enabled a better visualization of fetal anatomy but also allowed the study of fetal behavior in real time. Kurjak Antenatal Neurodevelopmental Test (KANET) was developed for the assessment of fetal neurobehavior and the detection of neurological disorders, based on the assessment of the fetus by application of 4D ultrasound in the same way that a neonate is assessed postnatally...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491493/brainstem-shape-is-affected-by-clinical-course-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#14
Marcus Lo, Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza, Conor Wild, Annika C Linke, David S C Lee, Victor K Han, Rhodri Cusack
The brainstem, critical for motor function, autonomic regulation, and many neurocognitive functions, undergoes rapid development from the third trimester. Accordingly, we hypothesized it would be vulnerable to insult during this period, and that a difficult clinical course in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) would affect development, and be reflected through atypical shape. Our study population consisted of 66 neonates - all inpatients from the NICU at Victoria Hospital, London Health Sciences Centre, ON, Canada, of which 45 entered the final analysis...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485697/management-and-outcomes-of-cochlear-implantation-in-patients-with-congenital-cytomegalovirus-ccmv-related-deafness
#15
Andrew Wesley Hoey, Irumee Pai, Sandra Driver, Steve Connor, Elizabeth Wraige, Dan Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Congenital Cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is a well-defined cause for neonatal mortality and morbidity, particularly sensorineural hearing loss and other neurodevelopmental disruption. We present a retrospective study which provides an overview of the assessment and preoperative work-up for patients diagnosed with cCMV and their cochlear implant (CI) outcomes. METHOD: This was a retrospective case series study of all children with a confirmed diagnosis of cCMV who underwent cochlear implantation at St Thomas' Hospital from 2003 to 2015...
May 9, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484867/regional-brain-volume-reduction-and-cognitive-outcomes-in-preterm-children-at-low-risk-at-9%C3%A2-years-of-age
#16
Ebru Arhan, Kıvılcım Gücüyener, Şebnem Soysal, Şafak Şalvarlı, M Ali Gürses, Ayşe Serdaroğlu, Ercan Demir, Ebru Ergenekon, Canan Türkyılmaz, Esra Önal, Esin Koç, Yıldız Atalay
OBJECTIVE: More information is needed on "low-risk" preterm infants' neurological outcome so that they can be included in follow-up programs. A prospective study was performed to examine the regional brain volume changes compared to term children and to assess the relationship between the regional brain volumes to cognitive outcome of the low-risk preterm children at 9 years of age. PATIENTS: Subjects comprised 22 preterm children who were determined to be at low risk for neurodevelopmental deficits with a gestational age between 28 and 33 weeks without a major neonatal morbidity in the neonatal period and 24 age-matched term control children term and matched for age, sex, and parental educational and occupational status...
May 8, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477417/neuropsychological-impairments-in-children-with-kcnj11-neonatal-diabetes
#17
P Bowman, A T Hattersley, B A Knight, E Broadbridge, L Pettit, M Reville, S E Flanagan, M H Shepherd, T J Ford, J Tonks
We support the findings of Carmody et al. [1], who offered new insights into the neurological phenotype of people with KCNJ11 neonatal diabetes. Neurological features result from the KATP channel affected by these mutations being expressed in the brain as well as the pancreas [2]. Previous work has characterized developmental delay associated with specific mutations, for example, V59M, known as developmental delay, epilepsy and neonatal diabetes (DEND) syndrome [3,4]. Affected individuals also have impaired visuo-motor performance [5] and psychiatric (predominantly neurodevelopmental) disorders [6]...
May 6, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472725/cerebral-hypoxia-during-immediate-transition-after-birth-and-short-term-neurological-outcome
#18
Jasmin Pansy, Nariae Baik, Bernhard Schwaberger, Anna Scheuchenegger, Elisabeth Pichler-Stachl, Alexander Avian, Georg M Schmölzer, Berndt Urlesberger, Gerhard Pichler
In preterm neonates we investigated cerebral hypoxia assessed with near-infrared-spectroscopy during immediate transition after birth and general movement optimality score assessed before discharge. General movement optimality score decreased with increasing cerebral hypoxia. Burden of cerebral hypoxia during immediate transition might be associated with impaired short-term neurological outcome in preterm neonates.
July 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461823/neonatal-indirect-hyperbilirubinemia-and-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency
#19
Hasan M Isa, Masooma S Mohamed, Afaf M Mohamed, Adel Abdulla, Fuad Abdulla
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency among infants with neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia (NIH); compare G6PD-deficient and G6PD-normal patients regarding hyperbilirubinemia and need for exchange transfusions (ET); and assess risk factors for ET and kernicterus. METHODS: This is a case-control retrospective study. Medical records of NIH patients admitted to the Pediatric Department, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Bahrain, between January 2007 and June 2010 were reviewed...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460602/an-automated-quiet-sleep-detection-approach-in-preterm-infants-as-a-gateway-to-assess-brain-maturation
#20
Anneleen Dereymaeker, Kirubin Pillay, Jan Vervisch, Sabine Van Huffel, Gunnar Naulaers, Katrien Jansen, Maarten De Vos
Sleep state development in preterm neonates can provide crucial information regarding functional brain maturation and give insight into neurological well being. However, visual labeling of sleep stages from EEG requires expertise and is very time consuming, prompting the need for an automated procedure. We present a robust method for automated detection of preterm sleep from EEG, over a wide postmenstrual age ([Formula: see text] age) range, focusing first on Quiet Sleep (QS) as an initial marker for sleep assessment...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
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