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Ana Constança Mendes, Ângela Novais, Joana Campos, Carla Rodrigues, Cláudia Santos, Patrícia Antunes, Helena Ramos, Luísa Peixe
We describe a hospital-based outbreak caused by multidrug-resistant, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase 3-producing, mcr-1-positive K. pneumoniae sequence type 45 in Portugal. mcr-1 was located in an IncX4 plasmid. Our data highlight the urgent need for systematic surveillance of mcr-1 to support adequate therapeutic choices in the nosocomial setting.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Li Chen, Jilei Zhang, Jiawei Wang, Patrick Butaye, Patrick Kelly, Min Li, Feng Yang, Jiansen Gong, Afrah Kamal Yassin, Weina Guo, Jing Li, Chunlian Song, Chengming Wang
Antimicrobial resistance against colistin has emerged worldwide threatening the efficacy of one of the last-resort antimicrobials used for the treatment of Enterobacteriaceae. To investigate the presence of the recently identified colistin resistance genes (mcr-4, mcr-5) in China, we established PCRs to detect mcr-4 and mcr-5 on 213 anal and 1,339 nasal swabs from apparently healthy pigs (n = 1,454) in nine provinces, and 1,696 cloacal and 1,647 oropharyngeal samples from poultry (n = 1,836) at live-bird markets in 24 provinces of China...
2018: PloS One
Renjie Wu, Ling-Xian Yi, Lin-Feng Yu, Jing Wang, Yiyun Liu, Xiaojie Chen, Luchao Lv, Jun Yang, Jian-Hua Liu
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of diverse plasmids bearing colistin resistance gene mcr-1 on host fitness. Forty-seven commensal E. coli isolates recovered from the pig farm where mcr-1 was first identified were screened for mcr-1. mcr-1 -bearing plasmids were characterized by sequencing. The fitness impact of mcr-1 -bearing plasmids was evaluated by in vitro competition assays. Twenty-seven (57.5%) E. coli isolates were positive for mcr-1 . The mcr-1 genes were mainly located on plasmids belonging to IncI2 ( n = 5), IncX4 ( n = 11), IncHI2/ST3 ( n = 8), IncFII ( n = 2), and IncY ( n = 2)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Congming Wu, Yingchao Wang, Xiaomin Shi, Shuang Wang, Hongwei Ren, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang, Juchun Lin, Shaolin Wang
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) strains are emerging around the world as a source of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime. mcr-1 is a novel plasmid-mediated gene conferring resistance to colistin. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ESBL-EC mcr-1 of chicken origin in the different provinces of China during 2008-2014. Overall, 341 of 821 isolates were determined to be ESBL-EC strains, and the proportion of ESBL-positive strains almost doubled from 2008 to 2014...
March 14, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Jian Sun, Huimin Zhang, Ya-Hong Liu, Youjun Feng
Antibiotic resistance has become a global public health priority. Polymyxins, a family of cationic polypeptide antibiotics, act as a final line of refuge against severe infections by Gram-negative pathogens with pan-drug resistance. Unfortunately, this last-resort antibiotic has been challenged by the emergence and global spread of mobilized colistin resistance determinants (mcr). Given the fact that it has triggered extensive concerns worldwide, we present here an updated view of MCR-like colistin resistance...
March 7, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Jean Claude Nzayisenga, Karolina Eriksson, Anita Sellstedt
The biomass production and changes in biochemical composition of a locally isolated microalga (Chlorella sp.) were investigated in autotrophic, mixotrophic and heterotrophic conditions, using glucose or glycerol as carbon sources and municipal wastewater as the growth medium. Both standard methods and Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) analysis of data acquired by Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) spectrometry showed that autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions promoted carbohydrate accumulation, while heterotrophic conditions with glycerol resulted in the highest lipid content and lowest carbohydrate content...
March 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Giancarlo Ripabelli, Manuela Tamburro, Giuliana Guerrizio, Incoronata Fanelli, Romeo Flocco, Massimiliano Scutellà, Michela L Sammarco
Antimicrobial-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae represent a global public health concern. K. pneumoniae strains isolated during 2010 and 2014-2016 within a single hospital of Molise Region, Central Italy, were analyzed testing antimicrobial susceptibility, clonality by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, and prevalence of carbapenem resistance genes by PCR. Forty isolates (23 wild-type in 2010 and 17 non-wild-type in 2014-2016) were collected from hospitalized patients (65...
March 9, 2018: Current Microbiology
Ulises Garza-Ramos, Elsa Tamayo-Legorreta, Doris María Arellano-Quintanilla, Nadia Rodriguez-Medina, Jesús Silva-Sanchez, Juan Catalan-Najera, Marisol Karina Rocha-Martínez, María Asunción Bravo-Díaz, Celia Alpuche-Aranda
A colistin-resistant mcr-1 -carrying Escherichia coli strain, RC2-007, was isolated from a swine farm in Mexico. This extraintestinal and uropathogenic strain of E. coli belongs to serotype O89:H9 and sequence type 744. Assembly and annotation resulted in a 4.9-Mb draft genome that revealed the presence of plasmid-mediated mcr-1 -IS ApI1 genes as part of a prophage.
March 8, 2018: Genome Announcements
Konrad Gwozdzinski, Saina Azarderakhsh, Can Imirzalioglu, Linda Falgenhauer, Trinad Chakraborty
The plasmid-located colistin resistance gene ( mcr - 1 ) confers low-level resistance to colistin, a last-line antibiotic against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Current EUCAST/CLSI recommendations require the use of a broth microdilution (BMD) method in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton (CA-MH) for colistin susceptibility testing, but approximately 15% of all MCR-1-producers classify as sensitive in this medium. Here we report on an improved calcium-enhanced Mueller-Hinton (CE-MH) medium that permits simple and reliable determination of mcr-1 -producing Enterobacteriaceae Colistin susceptibility for 50 mcr-1 -encoding isolates of E...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Sue C Nang, Faye C Morris, Michael J McDonald, Mei-Ling Han, Jiping Wang, Richard A Strugnell, Tony Velkov, Jian Li
Objectives: The discovery of mobile colistin resistance mcr-1, a plasmid-borne polymyxin resistance gene, highlights the potential for widespread resistance to the last-line polymyxins. In the present study, we investigated the impact of mcr-1 acquisition on polymyxin resistance and biological fitness in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: K. pneumoniae B5055 was used as the parental strain for the construction of strains carrying vector only (pBBR1MCS-5) and mcr-1 recombinant plasmids (pmcr-1)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Hasan Fevzi Batirel, Muzaffer Metintas, Hale Basak Caglar, Guntulu Ak, Perran Fulden Yumuk, Rengin Ahiskali, Emine Bozkurtlar, Nural Bekiroglu, Tunc Lacin, Bedrettin Yildizeli, Mustafa Yuksel
OBJECTIVE: Macroscopic complete resection (MCR) is the recommended surgical strategy in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Our objective was to analyze whether MCR influences survival in malignant pleural mesothelioma. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2016, 154 patients underwent pleurectomy decortication (n = 90), extrapleural pneumonectomy (n = 42), or exploratory/diagnostic procedures (n = 22) in a single institution. Patient data were recorded in a prospective database...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Isaac Asare-Bediako, Rebecca L Paszkiewicz, Stella P Kim, Orison O Woolcott, Cathryn M Kolka, Miguel Burch, Morvarid Kabir, Francesca Piccinini, Richard N Bergman
Hyperinsulinemia, accompanied by reduced first-pass hepatic insulin extraction (FPE) and increased secretion, is a primary response to insulin resistance. Different in vivo methods are used to estimate the clearance of insulin, which is assumed to reflect FPE. We compared two methodologically different but commonly used indirect estimates with directly measured FPE in healthy dogs (n = 9). The indirect methods were; 1) metabolic clearance rate of insulin (MCR) during the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (EGC), a steady state method, and 2) fractional clearance rate of insulin (FCR) during the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT), a dynamic method...
March 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sara Ricciardi, Giuseppe Cardillo, Carmelina Cristina Zirafa, Francesco Carleo, Francesco Facciolo, Gabriella Fontanini, Luciano Mutti, Franca Melfi
Currently there is no universally accepted surgical therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The goal of surgery in this dismal disease is a macroscopic complete resection (MCR) and there are two types of intervention with a curative intent. At one side, there is the extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) which consists in an en-bloc resection of the lung, pleura, pericardium and diaphragm and at the other side, there is pleurectomy/decortication (P/D) a lung-sparing surgery. Initially, EPP was considered the only surgical option with a curative aim, but during the decades P/D have acquired a role of increasing importance in MPM therapy...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Nilkamal Mahanta, Andi Liu, Shihui Dong, Satish K Nair, Douglas A Mitchell
Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) is an essential enzyme found strictly in methanogenic and methanotrophic archaea. MCR catalyzes a reversible reaction involved in the production and consumption of the potent greenhouse gas methane. The α-subunit of this enzyme (McrA) contains several unusual posttranslational modifications, including the only known naturally occurring example of protein thioamidation. We have recently demonstrated by genetic deletion and mass spectrometry that the tfuA and ycaO genes of Methanosarcina acetivorans are involved in thioamidation of Gly465 in the MCR active site...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Qun Li, Hong Wang, Yanmei Xu, Xiangning Bai, Jianping Wang, Zhengdong Zhang, Xiang Liu, Yimao Miao, Ling Zhang, Xinqiong Li, Nianli Zou, Guodong Yan, Xi Chen, Jie Zhang, Shanshan Fu, Ruyue Fan, Jianguo Xu, Juan Li, Yanwen Xiong
Escherichia albertii is an emerging member of the Enterobacteriaceae causing human and animal enteric infections. Antimicrobial resistance among enteropathogens has been reported to be increasing in the past years. The purpose of this study was to investigate antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in E. albertii isolated from Zigong city, Sichuan province, China. The susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The highest prevalence was tetracycline resistance with a rate of 62...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Qiuxia Ma, Yong Huang, Jian Wang, Xuebin Xu, Jane Hawkey, Chaojie Yang, Beibei Liang, Xiaofeng Hu, Fuli Wu, Xiaoxia Yang, Jinyan Wang, Rongrui Li, Peng Li, Jing Xie, Leili Jia, Ligui Wang, Rongzhang Hao, Yigang Tong, Kathryn E Holt, Shaofu Qiu, Yansong Sun, Hongbin Song
Since the plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance gene mcr-1 was first reported in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in China, only one mcr-1-positive isolate of Shigella sonnei, containing inactivated mcr-1, has been reported worldwide. Here, we screened 1650 historical S. sonnei strains isolated from 2003 to 2015 in China for mcr-1. We determined the antimicrobial susceptibilities and resistance genes of mcr-1-positive isolates and investigated the transferability of polymyxin resistance by plasmid conjugation...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Beibei Liang, Adam P Roberts, Xuebin Xu, Chaojie Yang, Xiaoxia Yang, Jinyan Wang, Shengjie Yi, Yongrui Li, Qiuxia Ma, Fuli Wu, Shaofu Qiu, Hongbin Song
Since its initial discovery in an Escherichia coli isolate from China, mcr-1 has also been detected in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica , and is rarely reported in other Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we report the isolation and identification of a Shigella flexneri strain harboring mcr-1 from stool samples in a pig farm in China from 2009. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to colistin of the isolate is 4 μg/mL. Conjugation assays showed the donor S. flexneri strain has functional and transferable colistin resistance...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Francesco Buccisano, Luca Maurillo, Maria Ilaria Del Principe, Ambra Di Veroli, Eleonora De Bellis, Annalisa Biagi, Anangiulia Zizzari, Valentina Rossi, Vito Rapisarda, Sergio Amadori, Maria Teresa Voso, Francesco Lo-Coco, William Arcese, Adriano Venditti
Response to therapy is affected by the genetic heterogeneity of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and persistence of leukemic cells below the threshold of morphological complete remission (mCR). Such persistence is called minimal (or measurable) residual disease (MRD). Areas covered: MRD assessment allows early identification of patients who are at high risk of relapse and who should timely receive aggressive therapy (e.g. allogeneic stem cell transplantation) and of those with a good quality mCR in whom an aggressive front-line therapy can be spared, avoiding the harm of excessive treatment toxicity...
March 2, 2018: Expert Review of Hematology
Ruming Jiang, Meiying Liu, Hongye Huang, Liucheng Mao, Qiang Huang, Yuanqing Wen, Qian-Yong Cao, Jianwen Tian, Xiaoyong Zhang, Yen Wei
Ultrasound as a powerful technique has increasingly been used in both industry and academia in recent years. Herein, an efficient approach to the ultrafast preparation of cross-linked fluorescent copolymers (PEGMA-AEMA-TPE) with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) via an ultrasound-assisted multicomponent reaction (MCR) is described. A number of characterization techniques were carried out to certify the successful preparation of these AIE-active copolymers. Due to the introduction of a hydrophilic PEG fragment and a hydrophobic AIE-active dye, the obtained fluorescent copolymers showed amphiphilic properties and could assemble into organic dyed polymer nanoparticles (ODPNs) with great water dispersibility...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Jilei Zhang, Li Chen, Jiawei Wang, Afrah Kamal Yassin, Patrick Butaye, Patrick Kelly, Jiansen Gong, Weina Guo, Jing Li, Min Li, Feng Yang, Zhixing Feng, Ping Jiang, Chunlian Song, Yaoyao Wang, Jinfeng You, Yi Yang, Stuart Price, Kezong Qi, Yuan Kang, Chengming Wang
Antimicrobial resistance against colistin has emerged worldwide and is threatening the efficacy of colistin treatment of multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, PCRs were used to detect mcr genes (mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3) in 213 anal and 1,339 nasal swabs from pigs (n = 1,454) in nine provinces of China, and 1,696 cloacal and 1,647 oropharyngeal samples from poultry (n = 1,836) at live-bird markets in 24 provinces. The mcr-1 prevalences in pigs (79.2%) and geese (71.7%) were significantly higher than in chickens (31...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
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