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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103645/emissions-of-volatile-sulfur-compounds-vscs-throughout-wastewater-biosolids-processing
#1
R M Fisher, N Le-Minh, J P Alvarez-Gaitan, S J Moore, R M Stuetz
Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are important contributors to nuisance odours from the processing of wastewater sludge and biosolids. However, emission characteristics are difficult to predict as they vary between sites and are likely to be affected by biosolids processing configuration and operation. VSC emissions from biosolids throughout 6 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Sydney, Australia were examined in this study. H2S was the VSC found at the highest concentrations throughout the WWTPs, with concentrations ranging from 7 to 39,000μg/m(3)...
November 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096733/bioaugmentation-with-nitrifying-granules-in-low-srt-flocculent-activated-sludge-at-low-temperature
#2
(no author information available yet)
Nitrifying granules were grown in a sidestream reactor fed municipal anaerobic digestion centrate and added in an initial slug dose and subsequent smaller daily doses to a non-nitrifying mainstream activated sludge system at 12C and 2.5-day aerobic solids retention time (SRT) to increase its nitrification capacity. Effluent NH3-N concentrations less than 1 mg/L were achieved with bioaugmentation, and nitrification was immediately lost when granules were removed after 30 days of bioaugmentation. Molecular microbial analyses indicated that nitrifying organisms remained attached to granules in the mainstream system with little loss to the flocculent sludge...
November 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090570/geometrical-alignment-of-multiple-fabrication-steps-for-rapid-prototyping-of-microfluidic-paper-based-analytical-devices
#3
Mohammad Rahbar, Pavel N Nesterenko, Brett Paull, Mirek Macka
Three main fabrication steps for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) were fully integrated with accurate geometrical alignment between the individual steps in a simple and rapid manner. A wax printer for creating hydrophobic barriers was integrated with an inexpensive (ca. $300) electronic craft plotter/cutter for paper cutting, followed by colorimetric reagent deposition using technical pens. The principal shortcoming in the lack of accurate and precise alignment of the features created by these three individual fabrication steps was addressed in this work by developing appropriate alignment procedures during the multistep fabrication process...
November 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075760/the-nine-step-minnesota-grading-system-for-eyebank-eyes-with-age-related-macular-degeneration-a-systematic-approach-to-study-disease-stages
#4
Timothy W Olsen, Albert Liao, Hershonna S Robinson, Neal V Palejwala, Nicholas Sprehe
Purpose: To refine the Minnesota Grading System (MGS) using definitions from the Age-Related Eye Disease Studies (AREDS) into a nine-step grading scale (MGS-9). Methods: A nine-step grading scale descriptive analysis using three key phenotypic features (total drusen area, increased, and decreased pigmentation) of human eyebank eyes that were graded according to definitions from the AREDS criteria in order to harmonize studies of disease progression for research involving human tissue...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075017/assessment-of-a-novel-pinhole-supplementary-implant-for-sulcus-fixation-in-pseudophakic-cadaver-eyes
#5
K T Tsaousis, L Werner, C L C Trindade, J Guan, J Li, N Reiter
PurposeTo evaluate a novel small-aperture supplementary implant that applies the principle of pinholes for management of irregular astigmatism, in postmortem human eyes.MethodsPseudophakic human cadaver eyes were imaged by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) to assess position of the in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL). Eyes were prepared as per the Miyake-Apple technique. Two versions of the supplementary implant (open-loop and tripod designs) were then inserted into the sulcus of each eye...
October 27, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057163/characterization-of-long-working-distance-optical-coherence-tomography-for-imaging-of-pediatric-retinal-pathology
#6
Ruobing Qian, Oscar M Carrasco-Zevallos, Shwetha Mangalesh, Neeru Sarin, Lejla Vajzovic, Sina Farsiu, Joseph A Izatt, Cynthia A Toth
PURPOSE: We determined the feasibility of fovea and optic nerve head imaging with a long working distance (LWD) swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) prototype in adults, teenagers, and young children. METHODS: A prototype swept source OCT system with a LWD (defined as distance from the last optical element of the imaging system to the eye) of 350 mm with custom fixation targets was developed to facilitate imaging of children. Imaging was performed in 49 participants from three age groups: 26 adults, 16 children 13 to 18 years old (teenagers), and seven children under 6 years old (young children) under an approved institutional review board protocol...
October 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044058/femtosecond-laser-assisted-cataract-surgery-versus-2-2-mm-clear-corneal-phacoemulsification
#7
H Ranjini, Praveen R Murthy, Gowri J Murthy, Vinay R Murthy
PURPOSE: Phacoemulsification is the surgical procedure of choice for cataract, providing excellent visual and safety outcomes. Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) is an addition to the surgical armamentarium. The study aims to compare the outcomes of FLACS using LenSx™ (Alcon Inc., USA) to standard 2.2 mm clear corneal phacoemulsification. Prospective case-control, comparative, interventional study was conducted in a tertiary care center. METHODS: In each group, 55 eyes of 55 patients underwent cataract surgery using either FLACS or conventional phacoemulsification (control group)...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039937/concentration-independent-stereodynamic-g-probe-for-chiroptical-enantiomeric-excess-determination
#8
Paolo Zardi, Klaus Wurst, Giulia Licini, Cristiano Zonta
Enantiomeric excess (ee) determination is crucial in many aspects of science, from synthesis to materials. Within this subject, coupling molecular sensors with chiroptical techniques is a straightforward approach to the stereochemical analysis of chiral molecules, especially in terms of process immediacy and labor. Stereodynamic probes typically consist of racemic mixtures of rapidly interconverting enantiomeric conformers able to recognize a chiral analyte and greatly amplify its chiroptical readout. A great number of sensors have been developed, but their activity is generally restricted to one or a few classes of chemicals, and the analysis outcome relies on precise knowledge of the probe and analyte concentrations...
October 25, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023313/mini-scleral-lenses-for-correction-of-refractive-errors-after-radial-keratotomy
#9
Hsiao-Sang Chu, I-Jong Wang, Grace A Tseng, Wei-Li Chen, Yu-Chih Hou, Fung-Rong Hu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors affecting clinical outcomes of correcting cumulative refractive errors or irregular astigmatism after radial keratotomy (RK) using mini-scleral lenses. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 36 eyes receiving mini-scleral lenses after RK from July 2011 to June 2016. Analyses included age, refractive errors, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), best contact lens-corrected visual acuity (BCLCVA), topographic indices, RK treatment zone diameter (TZD), power difference (PrD) within the RK treatment zone, and decentration distance (DD) of the RK treatment zone center...
October 11, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022704/a-kinetic-model-of-nonenzymatic-rna-polymerization-by-cytidine-5-phosphoro-2-aminoimidazolide
#10
Travis Walton, Jack W Szostak
The nonenzymatic polymerization of RNA may have enabled copying of functional sequences during the origin of life. Recent progress utilizing 5'-phosphoro-2-aminoimidazole activation has reinvigorated the possibility of using nonenzymatic RNA polymerization for copying arbitrary sequences. However, the reasons why 2-aminoimidazole (AI) is a superior activation group remain unclear. Here we report that the predominant mechanism of polymerization using cytidine-5'-phosphoro-2-aminoimidazolide (Cp*) involves a 2-aminoimidazolium-bridged dinucleotide (Cp*pC) intermediate...
October 31, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992459/smart-operation-of-nitritation-denitritation-virtually-abolishes-nitrous-oxide-emission-during-treatment-of-co-digested-pig-slurry-centrate
#11
Lai Peng, José M Carvajal-Arroyo, Dries Seuntjens, Delphine Prat, Giovanni Colica, Cristina Pintucci, Siegfried E Vlaeminck
The implementation of nitritation/denitritation (Nit/DNit) as alternative to nitrification/denitrification (N/DN) is driven by operational cost savings, e.g. 1.0-1.8 EUR/ton slurry treated. However, as for any biological nitrogen removal process, Nit/DNit can emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Challenges remain in understanding formation mechanisms and in mitigating the emissions, particularly at a low ratio of organic carbon consumption to nitrogen removal (CODrem/Nrem). In this study, the centrate (centrifuge supernatant) from anaerobic co-digestion of pig slurry was treated in a sequencing batch reactor...
September 29, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980571/-morphological-and-clinical-aspects-of-anterior-capsulotomy-in-femtosecond-laser-assisted-cataract-surgery
#12
K S Avetisov, M N Ivanov, Yu N Yusef, S N Yusef, A E Aslamazova, N D Fokina
The review covers morphological and clinical aspects of femtosecond laser-assisted anterior capsulotomy in cataract surgery. Literature data suggests that femtosecond laser-assisted capsulotomy is more accurate in size, shape, and centration than manual. Femtosecond laser-assisted anterior capsulotomy improves the accuracy of IOL positioning within the capsular bag.
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969287/prevalence-of-principles-of-piaget-s-theory-among-4-7-year-old-children-and-their-correlation-with-iq
#13
Sugandha Marwaha, Mousumi Goswami, Binny Vashist
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive development is a major area of human development and was extensively studied by Jean Piaget. He proposed that the development of intellectual abilities occurs in a series of relatively distinct stages and that a child's way of thinking and viewing the world is different at different stages. AIM: To assess Piaget's principles of the intuitive stage of preoperational period among 4-7-year-old children relative to their Intelligence quotient (IQ)...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962086/cultivation-of-chlorella-vulgaris-in-a-pilot-scale-photobioreactor-using-real-centrate-wastewater-with-waste-glycerol-for-improving-microalgae-biomass-production-and-wastewater-nutrients-removal
#14
Hongyan Ren, Jinhua Tuo, Min M Addy, Renchuan Zhang, Qian Lu, Erik Anderson, Paul Chen, Roger Ruan
To improve nutrients removal from real centrate wastewater and enhance the microalgae biomass production, cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in lab and a pilot-scale photobioreactor with waste glycerol was studied. The results showed the optimal concentration of the crude glycerol was 1.0gL(-1) with the maximum biomass productivity of 460mgL(-1)d(-1) TVS, the maximum lipid content of 27%, the nutrient removal efficiency of all above 86%, due to more balanced C/N ratio. The synergistic relationship between the wastewater-borne bacteria and the microalgae had significant good influence on nutrient removal...
December 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953458/dewatering-optimization-with-in-line-and-real-time-measurement-of-polymer-results-from-full-scale-treatment-plants
#15
Banu Örmeci, Richard DiMassimo
Full-scale testing was carried out at two wastewater treatment plants to determine whether residual polymer concentration, measured by filtrate and centrate absorbance at 191 nm, can be used to identify the optimum polymer dose and achieve in-line and real-time dewatering optimization. The first plant uses high speed centrifuges and the second plant uses belt filter presses for dewatering. During the testing, the polymer dose incrementally increased to cover the under-dose, optimum dose and over-dose polymer ranges, and the centrate/filtrate absorbance at 191 nm, turbidity and cake solids were measured...
September 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952290/study-of-gsk3b-inhibitors-sb415286-and-sb216763-to-improve-osteoblastic-differentiation-on-microstructured-titanium
#16
S Lumetti, E Calciolari, L Parisi, A Toffoli, S Mazzotta, S Ferrillo, G Ierardo, G M Macaluso, C Galli, E Manfredi
Rough titanium surfaces enhance cell response to activation of Wnt canonical signalling, a pathway required for osteoblast differentiation. The present study investigated the effects of GSK3β-inhibitors SB216763 and SB415286 on osteoblastic differentiation on titanium surfaces with different topography and wettability. Osteoblastic MC3T3 cells were plated on smooth (Pickled), sand-blasted/acid-etched (SLA) or hyper hydrophilic SLA (modSLA) titanium discs and transfected with a reporter vector sys-tem for Wnt canonical signalling...
July 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938178/fabrication-of-mesoporous-magnesium-oxide-nanosheets-using-magnesium-powder-and-their-excellent-adsorption-of-ni-ii
#17
Jing Feng, Mingming Gao, Zhiqiang Zhang, Shengna Liu, Xinyu Zhao, Yueming Ren, Yanzhuo Lv, Zhuangjun Fan
Mesoporous MgO nanosheets with a high adsorption rate and excellent adsorption capacity for removing Ni (II) were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal and annealing method. The Mg(OH)2 was first synthesized by a hydrothermal process using magnesium powder as the starting material. MgO was then obtained by annealing the as-prepared Mg(OH)2 at 450°C. The advantage of the magnesium powder as the starting material is it slowly generated Mg(2+). Thus, the low centration of Mg(2+) guaranteed a slow rate of forming Mg(OH)2, which benefited with a mesoporous structure...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932340/contact-lenses-for-keratoconus-current-practice
#18
Marilita M Moschos, Eirini Nitoda, Panagiotis Georgoudis, Miltos Balidis, Eleftherios Karageorgiadis, Nikos Kozeis
BACKGROUND: Keratoconus is a chronic, bilateral, usuallly asymmetrical, non-inflammatory, ectatic disorder, being characterized by progressive steepening, thinning and apical scarring of the cornea. Initially, the patient is asymptomatic, but the visual acuity gradually decreases, resulting in significant vision loss due to the development of irregular astigmatism, myopia, corneal thinning and scarring. The classic treatment of visual rehabilitation in keratoconus is based on spectacles and contact lenses (CLs)...
2017: Open Ophthalmology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932339/penetrating-keratoplasty-for-keratoconus-excimer-versus-femtosecond-laser-trephination
#19
Berthold Seitz, Achim Langenbucher, Tobias Hager, Edgar Janunts, Moatasem El-Husseiny, Nora Szentmáry
BACKGROUND: In case of keratoconus, rigid gas-permeable contact lenses as the correction method of first choice allow for a good visual acuity for quite some time. In a severe stage of the disease with major cone-shaped protrusion of the cornea, even specially designed keratoconus contact lenses are no more tolerated. In case of existing contraindications for intrastromal ring segments, corneal transplantation typically has a very good prognosis. METHODS: In case of advanced keratoconus - especially after corneal hydrops due to rupture of Descemet's membrane - penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) still is the surgical method of first choice...
2017: Open Ophthalmology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858049/centration-and-decentration-of-contact-lenses-during-peripheral-gaze
#20
Nevin W El-Nimri, Jeffrey J Walline
SIGNIFICANCE: Varying amounts of peripheral defocus reported in previous studies are likely due to whether peripheral defocus is measured while turning the eyes or the head. Contact lenses (CLs) lag when viewing objects in peripheral gaze, so future studies ought to measure peripheral defocus while turning the head to measure defocus through the peripheral add power. PURPOSE: Soft multifocal CL peripheral defocus studies report varying results. To determine whether soft multifocal CL lag when turning the eyes could affect the measurement of peripheral defocus, we measured how much CLs move when looking in different gazes...
November 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
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