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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351567/whole-thorax-irradiation-of-non-human-primates-induces-persistent-nuclear-damage-and-gene-expression-changes-in-peripheral-blood-cells
#1
Shanaz A Ghandhi, Helen C Turner, Igor Shuryak, Gregory O Dugan, J Daniel Bourland, John D Olson, Janet A Tooze, Shad R Morton, Ines Batinic-Haberle, J Mark Cline, Sally A Amundson
We investigated the cytogenetic and gene expression responses of peripheral blood cells of non-human primates (NHP, Macaca mulatta) that were whole-thorax irradiated with a single dose of 10 Gy. In this model, partial irradiation of NHPs in the thoracic region (Whole Thorax Lung Irradiation, WTLI) allows the study of late radiation-induced lung injury, while avoiding acute radiation syndromes related to hematopoietic and gastrointestinal injury. A transient drop in circulating lymphocytes and platelets was seen by 9 days, followed by elevations in respiratory rate, circulating neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes at 60-100 days, corresponding to computed tomography (CT) and histologic evidence of pneumonitis, and elective euthanasia of four animals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350477/pharmacokinetic-evaluation-and-safety-of-topical-1-morphine-sulfate-application-on-the-healthy-equine-eye
#2
Emma Gordon, Bernadette V Stang, Jerry Heidel, Keith P Poulsen, Christopher K Cebra, John W Schlipf
OBJECTIVE: To determine if corneal epithelial cell integrity is detrimentally affected by short-term administration of 1.0% morphine sulfate. Additionally, we sought to determine if topical 1.0% morphine applied to the equine cornea would result in ocular or systemic absorption. ANIMAL STUDIED: Six healthy horses. PROCEDURE: Morphine sulfate (1.0%) was applied topically to one eye every four hours for 72 h before horses were euthanized. Serum samples were collected at varying time points during the study and aqueous and vitreous humor were collected immediately after euthanasia...
January 19, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347971/detection-and-dissemination-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-experimentally-infected-calves-a-single-test-does-not-tell-the-whole-story
#3
Alison Burrells, Alessandra Taroda, Marieke Opsteegh, Gereon Schares, Julio Benavides, Cecile Dam-Deisz, Paul M Bartley, Francesca Chianini, Isabella Villena, Joke van der Giessen, Elisabeth A Innes, Frank Katzer
BACKGROUND: Although the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in bovine tissues is rare, beef might be an important source of human infection. The use of molecular techniques, such as magnetic capture qPCR (MC-qPCR), in combination with the gold standard method for isolating the parasite (mouse bioassay), may increase the sensitivity of T. gondii detection in infected cattle. The risk of transmission of the parasite to humans from undercooked/raw beef is not fully known and further knowledge about the predilection sites of T...
January 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335154/local-administration-of-tiludronic-acid-downregulates-important-mediators-involved-in-periodontal-tissue-destruction-in-experimental-periodontitis-in-rats
#4
Flávia A C Furlaneto, Nara L T Nunes, Ricardo B Souza, Kely O Yamamoto, Ivan Lima Oliveira Filho, Nicolly P R Frota, Hellíada Chaves, Mario Lisboa, Mario Taba, Edilson Ervolino, Michel R Messora
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether local administration of TIL could influence the expression of the inflammatory mediators IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP-8 and COX-2 in rats with experimental periodontitis (EP). METHODS: Twenty-four adult male rats (Rattus norvegicus, albinus, Wistar) were assigned to groups C, EP, EP-TIL (CControl group, EP-Periodontitis groups). On EP groups, a ligature was placed around maxillary 2nd molars on day 1. On group EP-TIL, 20 μL of TIL solution (1 mg/kg body weight) was injected into the subperiosteal palatal area adjacent to the maxillary 2nd molar every other day until euthanasia (day 11)...
January 9, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334816/anti-colchicine-fab-fragments-prevent-lethal-colchicine-toxicity-in-a-porcine-model-a-pharmacokinetic-and-clinical-study
#5
Michael Eddleston, Nicolas Fabresse, Adrian Thompson, Ibrahim Al Abdulla, Rachael Gregson, Tim King, Alain Astier, Frederic J Baud, R Eddie Clutton, Jean-Claude Alvarez
BACKGROUND: Colchicine poisoning is commonly lethal. Colchicine-specific Fab fragments increase rat urinary colchicine clearance and have been associated with a good outcome in one patient. We aimed to develop a porcine model of colchicine toxicity to study the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of ovine Fab. METHODS: A Göttingen minipig critical care model was established and serial blood samples taken for colchicine and Fab pharmacokinetics, clinical chemistry, and haematology...
January 15, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333634/euthanasia-and-the-nature-of-suffering-in-addiction
#6
Richard E Ashcroft
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 14, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332417/-concise-history-of-toxicology-from-empiric-knowledge-to-science
#7
Anna Tompa, Péter Balázs
Toxicology is a science of poisonings by xenobiotics and endogenous physiological changes. Its empiric roots may be traced back to the emerging of the human race because the most important pledge of our predecessors' survival was the differentiation between eatable and poisonous plants and animals. In the course of social evolution, there were three main fields of using poisons: 1) hunting and warfare, 2) to settle social tensions by avoiding military conflicts through hiding strategy of eliminating enemies by toxic substances, 3) medicines applied first as anti-poisons and later by introducing strong substances to defeat diseases, but paradoxically active euthanasia is also a part of the whole story...
January 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331172/blood-phenylalanine-reduction-corrects-cns-dopamine-and-serotonin-deficiencies-and-partially-improves-behavioral-performance-in-adult-phenylketonuric-mice
#8
Shelley R Winn, Tanja Scherer, Beat Thöny, Ming Ying, Aurora Martinez, Sydney Weber, Jacob Raber, Cary O Harding
Central nervous system (CNS) deficiencies of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric dysfunction in human phenylketonuria (PKU). In this study, we confirmed the occurrence of brain dopamine and serotonin deficiencies in association with severe behavioral alterations and cognitive impairments in hyperphenylalaninemic C57BL/6-Pahenu2/enu2 mice, a model of human PKU. Phenylalanine-reducing treatments, including either dietary phenylalanine restriction or liver-directed gene therapy, initiated during adulthood were associated with increased brain monoamine content along with improvements in nesting behavior but without a change in the severe cognitive deficits exhibited by these mice...
January 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327966/ocular-histomorphometry-of-free-living-common-kestrels-falco-tinnunculus
#9
Karin Werther, Cinthia Graziela Candioto, Rüdiger Korbel
We evaluated the histomorphometry of the eye structures (cornea, retina, choroid, and sclera) of 13 adult free-living common kestrels ( Falco tinnunculus). Birds included in the study were euthanatized because of severe trauma from a motor vehicle injury. The eyes were enucleated immediately after euthanasia, fixed in 10% buffered formalin, and decalcified. The right eyes were cut vertically (dorsoventrally) and the left eyes cut horizontally (temporonasally). Tissues were processed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated by an image analysis software...
December 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324806/immunocompetent-host-develops-mild-intestinal-inflammation-in-acute-infection-with-toxoplasma-gondii
#10
Paulo da Silva Watanabe, Aline Rosa Trevizan, Saulo Euclides Silva-Filho, Marcelo Biondaro Góis, João Luiz Garcia, Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman, Ana Cristina Breithaupt-Faloppa, Débora de Mello Gonçales Sant Ana, Gessilda de Alcantara Nogueira de Melo
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, common zoonosis among vertebrates and high incidence worldwide. During the infection, the parasite needs to transpose the intestinal barrier to spread throughout the body, which may be a trigger for an inflammatory reaction. This work evaluated the inflammatory alterations of early T. gondii infection in peripheral blood cells, in the mesenteric microcirculation, and small intestinal tissue by measurement of MPO (myeloperoxidase) activity and NO (nitric oxide) level in rats...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319731/comparison-among-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-and-mononuclear-cells-to-promote-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rabbits
#11
Antônio Filipe Braga Fonseca, Jussara Peters Scheffer, Arthur Giraldi-Guimarães, Bárbara Paula Coelho, Raphael Mansur Medina, André Lacerda Abreu Oliveira
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of allogeneic mesenchymal stem-cells and autologous mononuclear cells to promote sensorimotor recovery and tissue rescue. METHODS: Female rabbits were submitted to the epidural balloon inflation method and the intravenous cells administrations were made after 8 hours or seven days after injury induction. Sensorimotor evaluation of the hindlimbs was performed, and the euthanasia was made thirty days after the treatment. Spinal cords were stained with hematoxylin and eosin...
December 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318027/diagnostic-performances-of-two-rapid-tests-for-detection-of-feline-leukemia-virus-antigen-in-sera-of-experimentally-feline-leukemia-virus-infected-cats
#12
Matthew R Krecic, Sridhar Velineni, Patrick Meeus, Huihao Fan, Michael Loenser
Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of WITNESS FeLV-FIV (Zoetis) and SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo Test (IDEXX) for the detection of FeLV p27 antigen in the sera of experimentally feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-infected cats. Methods: Diagnostic sensitivities of WITNESS and SNAP were determined through testing of 47 serum samples collected from cats day 56 post-experimental infection with a virulent FeLV Rickard strain...
January 2018: JFMS Open Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317518/should-pediatric-euthanasia-be-legalized
#13
Marije Brouwer, Christopher Kaczor, Margaret P Battin, Els Maeckelberghe, John D Lantos, Eduard Verhagen
Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery slope. Proponents argue that euthanasia is sometimes ethically appropriate for minors and that, with proper safeguards, it should be legally available in appropriate circumstances for patients at any age. In this Ethics Rounds, we asked philosophers from the United States and the Netherlands, and a Dutch pediatrician, to discuss the ethics of legalizing euthanasia for children...
January 9, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316457/topical-chlorhexidine-povidone-iodine-and-erythromycin-in-the-repair-of-traumatic-ulcers-on-the-rat-tongue-clinical-histological-and-microbiological-evaluation
#14
Dieni da Silveira Teixeira, Maria Antonia Zancanaro de Figueiredo, Karen Cherubini, Maria Claudia Rosa Garcia, Sílvia Dias de Oliveira, Fernanda Gonçalves Salum
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of topical application of 0.12% chlorhexidine, 10% povidone-iodine and 50% erythromycin on the optimization of healing process of traumatic ulcers made on ventral tongue of rats. DESIGN: Forty-Eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, chlorhexidine (Chx), povidone-iodine (PvI) and erythromycin (Er). An ulcer of 5 mm in diameter was made on the ventral tongue of the animals. After 24 h, a microbiological sample was taken and daily application of the substances started...
January 4, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305500/euthanasia-and-palliative-sedation-in-belgium
#15
Raphael Cohen-Almagor, E Wesley Ely
The aim of this article is to use data from Belgium to analyse distinctions between palliative sedation and euthanasia. There is a need to reduce confusion and improve communication related to patient management at the end of life specifically regarding the rapidly expanding area of patient care that incorporates a spectrum of nuanced yet overlapping terms such as palliative care, sedation, palliative sedation, continued sedation, continued sedation until death, terminal sedation, voluntary euthanasia and involuntary euthanasia...
January 4, 2018: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295577/attitudes-of-veterinary-teaching-staff-and-exposure-of-veterinary-students-to-early-age-desexing-with-review-of-current-early-age-desexing-literature
#16
Alannah Jupe, Jacquie Rand, John Morton, Sophie Fleming
Approximately 50% of cats admitted to Australian shelters are kittens, and 26% of dogs are puppies, and, particularly for cats, euthanasia rates are often high. Cats can be pregnant by 4 months of age, yet the traditional desexing age is 5-6 months, and studies in Australasia and Nth America reveal that only a minority of veterinarians routinely perform early age desexing (EAD) of cats or dogs, suggesting they are not graduating with these skills. This study aimed to describe the attitudes of veterinary teaching staff in Australian and New Zealand universities towards EAD, and to determine if these changed from 2008 to 2015...
December 25, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285813/resveratrol-attenuates-reproductive-alterations-in-type-1-diabetes-induced-rats
#17
Joana Noguères Simas, Talita Biude Mendes, Camila Cicconi Paccola, Vanessa Vendramini, Sandra Maria Miraglia
The progression of diabetes mellitus leads to several complications including overproduction of reactive oxygen species and reproductive alterations. As resveratrol (RES) is a powerful anti-oxidant and an anti-apoptotic compound, we hypothesized that side effects of type-1 diabetes (DM1) on male reproduction could be reduced by the RES treatment. Eighty-four prepubertal male rats were distributed into seven groups: sham-control (SC), RES-treated (R), resveratrol-vehicle-treated (RV), diabetic (D), diabetic-insulin-treated (DI), diabetic-RES-treated (DR), diabetic-insulin and RES-treated (DIR)...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284661/effect-of-ibuprofen-on-skeletal-muscle-of-dysferlin-null-mice
#18
Alyssa F Collier, Jessica Gumerson, Jace W Jones, Maureen A Kane, Kimmo Lehtimaki, Jukka Puolivali, Sankeerth Manne, Andrea O'Neill, Hillarie P Windish, Toni Ahtoniemi, Bradley A Williams, Douglas E Albrecht, Robert J Bloch
Ibuprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and nitric oxide (NO) donors have been reported to reduce the severity of muscular dystrophies in mice associated with the absence of dystrophin or α-sarcoglycan, but their effects on mice that are dystrophic due to the absence of dysferlin have not been examined. We have tested ibuprofen, as well as isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), an NO donor, to learn if used alone or together they protect dysferlin-null muscle in A/J mice from large strain injury (LSI) induced by a series of high strain lengthening contractions...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284192/clinical-signs-imaging-findings-and-outcome-in-twelve-cats-with-internal-ophthalmoparesis-ophthalmoplegia
#19
Negar Hamzianpour, Richard Lam, Roser Tetas, Elsa Beltran
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate the clinical signs, imaging findings, and outcome of feline internal ophthalmoparesis/ophthalmoplegia. PROCEDURE: Medical records were reviewed from 2008 to 2015. Inclusion criteria included cats that presented with internal ophthalmoparesis/ophthalmoplegia, underwent diagnostic imaging, and had follow-up information available. RESULTS: Twelve cases of feline internal ophthalmoparesis/ophthalmoplegia were identified...
December 28, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283927/are-informal-caregivers-of-persons-with-dementia-open-to-extending-medical-aid-in-dying-to-incompetent-patients-findings-from-a-survey-conducted-in-quebec-canada
#20
Gina Bravo, Claudie Rodrigue, Marcel Arcand, Jocelyn Downie, Marie-France Dubois, Sharon Kaasalainen, Cees M Hertogh, Sophie Pautex, Lieve Van den Block
Euthanasia is a controversial and complex issue, especially when involving incompetent patients. On December 10, 2015, Quebec became the first Canadian province to give access to medical aid in dying (MAiD) (ie, euthanasia performed by a physician) to competent patients who satisfy strictly defined criteria. Less than 2 years later, Quebec is considering extending MAiD to incompetent patients who made an advance request. With the objective of contributing scientific data to current societal debates, we conducted a survey among 471 informal caregivers of persons with dementia, reached through Alzheimer Societies...
December 27, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
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