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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429678/intraperitoneal-administration-of-ethanol-as-a-means-of-euthanasia-for-neonatal-mice-mus-musculus
#1
Cecilia de Souza Dyer Angela K Brice And James O Marx
The humane euthanasia of animals in research is of paramount importance. Neonatal mice frequently respond differentlyto euthanasia agents when compared with adults. The AVMA's Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals includes intraperitonealinjection of ethanol as "acceptable with conditions," and recent work confirmed that this method is appropriate for euthanizing adult mice, but neonatal mice have not been tested. To explore this method in neonatal mice, mouse pups(C57BL/6 and CD1, 162 total) were injected with 100% ethanol, a pentobarbital-phenytoin combination, or saline at 7, 14, 21, 28, or 35 d of age...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423988/tumor-collision-of-uterine-adenocarcinoma-and-leiomyosarcoma-in-a-goat
#2
Jenna C Dockweiler, Brieuc Cossic, Sean P McDonough, Susan L Fubini, Kayla M Le, Callum G Donnelly, Robert O Gilbert, Soon Hon Cheong
An aged mixed-breed goat doe was presented with a 9-mo history of serosanguineous vaginal discharge. Vaginal speculum examination revealed serosanguineous discharge but otherwise no abnormalities. Transrectal ultrasonography showed normal ovaries and multifocal cystic lesions within the uterus. Ovariohysterectomy was recommended because of a strong suspicion of neoplasia. Multiple, non-resectable masses were noted in and around the uterus intraoperatively, and euthanasia was elected. Autopsy revealed multiple masses within the uterus, cervix, and lung parenchyma...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410843/left-ventricular-hypertrophy-does-not-prevent-heart-failure-in-experimental-hypertension
#3
H Hernán Gómez Llambí, G Cao, M Donato, D Suárez, G Ottaviano, A Müller, B Buchholz, R Gelpi, M Otero-Losada, J Milei
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) secondary to hypertension has been accepted to prevent heart failure (HF) while paradoxically increasing cardiovascular morbi-mortality. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether antihypertensive treatment inhibits LVH, restores beta-adrenergic response and affects myocardial oxidative metabolism. METHODS: Ninety spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were distributed into groups and treated (mg/kg, p.o...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405313/artificial-rearing-influences-the-morphology-permeability-and-redox-state-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-low-and-normal-birth-weight-piglets
#4
Hans Vergauwen, Jeroen Degroote, Sara Prims, Wei Wang, Erik Fransen, Stefaan De Smet, Christophe Casteleyn, Steven Van Cruchten, Joris Michiels, Chris Van Ginneken
BACKGROUND: In this study the physiological implications of artificial rearing were investigated. Low (LBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were compared as they might react differently to stressors caused by artificial rearing. In total, 42 pairs of LBW and NBW piglets from 16 litters suckled the sow until d19 of age or were artificially reared starting at d3 until d19 of age. Blood and tissue samples that were collected after euthanasia at 0, 3, 5, 8 and 19 d of age. Histology, ELISA, and Ussing chamber analysis were used to study proximal and distal small intestine histo-morphology, proliferation, apoptosis, tight junction protein expression, and permeability...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400548/the-relation-between-cultural-values-euthanasia-and-spiritual-care-in-the-netherlands
#5
Carlo Leget
The aim of this paper is to gain some understanding of euthanasia as a Dutch cultural practice, focusing on value orientations that lie beneath the surface of what is made visible in the many national surveys that have been done in the Netherlands. In order to reach this aim we will take two steps. In the first place we will give a short sketch of euthanasia as it is understood and practiced in the Netherlands. This will be followed by a cultural analysis of the American-Dutch historian James Kennedy who studied the euthanasia debate in the Netherlands from the 1960 until 1985...
March 17, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399892/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-white-matter-glial-responses-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#6
Yoshiki Hase, Lucinda Craggs, Mai Hase, William Stevenson, Janet Slade, Dianne Lopez, Rubin Mehta, Aiqing Chen, Di Liang, Arthur Oakley, Masafumi Ihara, Karen Horsburgh, Raj N Kalaria
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to explore the beneficial effects of environmental enrichment (EE) on white matter glial changes in a mouse model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced by bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS). METHODS: A total of 74 wild-type male C57BL/6J mice underwent BCAS or sham surgery. One week after surgery, the mice were randomly assigned into three different groups having varied amounts of EE-standard housing with no EE conditions (std), limited exposure with 3 h EE a day (3 h) and full-time exposure to EE (full) for 12 weeks...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399240/potential-number-of-organ-donors-after-euthanasia-in-belgium
#7
Jan Bollen, Tim van Smaalen, Rankie Ten Hoopen, Ernst van Heurn, Dirk Ysebaert, Walther van Mook
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398880/cerebrovascular-remodeling-and-neuroinflammation-is-a-late-effect-of-radiation-induced-brain-injury-in-non-human-primates
#8
Rachel N Andrews, Linda J Metheny-Barlow, Ann M Peiffer, David B Hanbury, Janet A Tooze, J Daniel Bourland, Robert E Hampson, Samuel A Deadwyler, J Mark Cline
Fractionated whole-brain irradiation (fWBI) is a mainstay of treatment for patients with intracranial neoplasia; however late-delayed radiation-induced normal tissue injury remains a major adverse consequence of treatment, with deleterious effects on quality of life for affected patients. We hypothesize that cerebrovascular injury and remodeling after fWBI results in ischemic injury to dependent white matter, which contributes to the observed cognitive dysfunction. To evaluate molecular effectors of radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI), real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, Brodmann area 46), hippocampus and temporal white matter of 4 male Rhesus macaques (age 6-10 years), which had received 40 Gray (Gy) fWBI (8 fractions of 5 Gy each, twice per week), and 3 control comparators...
March 6, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398618/fertility-and-embryo-fetal-development-assessment-in-rats-and-rabbits-with-evacetrapib-a-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-inhibitor
#9
William J Breslin, Kim G Hilbish, Ellen A Cannady, Tammy L Edwards
BACKGROUND: The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effects of evacetrapib on male and female fertility and on embryo-fetal development (EFD). METHODS: Evacetrapib, a potent and selective inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), was administered daily by oral gavage starting 2 weeks (for female) or 4 weeks (for male) before mating, during cohabitation, and until necropsy in the male rat fertility study or through gestation day (GD) 17 in the female rat combined fertility/EFD study...
April 17, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398131/declarations-on-euthanasia-and-assisted-dying
#10
Hamilton Inbadas, Shahaduz Zaman, Sandy Whitelaw, David Clark
Declarations on end of life issues are advocacy interventions that seek to influence policy, raise awareness and call others to action. Despite increasing prominence, they have attracted little attention from researchers. Our study tracks the emergence, content and purpose of declarations concerned with assisted dying and euthanasia, in the global context. We identified 62 assisted dying/euthanasia declarations covering 1974-2016, and analysed them for: originating organization, geographic scope, format, and stated viewpoint on assisted dying/euthanasia...
April 11, 2017: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397260/influence-of-euthanasia-method-on-blood-and-gill-variables-in-normoxic-and-hypoxic-gulf-killifish-fundulus-grandis
#11
K F Larter, B B Rees
In many experiments, euthanasia, or humane killing, of animals is necessary. Some methods of euthanasia cause death through cessation of respiratory or cardiovascular systems, causing oxygen levels of blood and tissues to drop. For experiments where the goal is to measure the effects of environmental low oxygen (hypoxia), the choice of euthanasia technique, therefore, may confound the results. This study examined the effects of four euthanasia methods commonly used in fish biology (overdose of MS-222, overdose of clove oil, rapid cooling and blunt trauma to the head) on variables known to be altered during hypoxia (haematocrit, plasma cortisol, blood lactate and blood glucose) or reflecting gill damage (trypan blue exclusion) and energetic status (ATP, ADP and ATP:ADP) in Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis after 24 h exposure to well-aerated conditions (normoxia, 7·93 mg O2  l(-1) , c...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393995/-euthanasia-in-chile
#12
Víctor Hugo Carrasco M, Francisca Crispi
Euthanasia is a complex medical procedure. Even though end of life decisions are common situations in health practice, there is a lack of consensus about their terminology. In this manuscript, the main concepts about this issue are defined and delimited; including active and passive euthanasia and limitation of therapeutic effort. Then, a revision is made about the international experience on euthanasia, to then go through the Chile’s history in euthanasia and the population’s opinion. In Chile, euthanasia is an act that has been removed from the social dialogue and legislation...
December 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392188/the-impact-of-lameness-on-welfare-of-the-dairy-cow
#13
REVIEW
Helen Rebecca Whay, Jan K Shearer
The five freedoms offer a framework for discussion of lameness and its impact on the welfare of cows. Altered feeding behavior is a cause of reduced body condition, smaller digital cushion, and lameness. Providing a comfortable environment is critical to recovery and welfare. Pain associated with injury or disease of feet or legs is manifested by lameness. Pain management is an important part of therapy. In cases of severe lameness, euthanasia may be preferred. Lameness interferes with an animal's ability to exhibit natural behaviors by altering lying time, social interaction, ovarian activity and estrus intensity, and rumination behavior...
April 6, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391056/influence-of-long-term-high-dose-dexamethasone-administration-on-proliferation-and-apoptosis-in-porcine-hepatocytes
#14
Mateusz Mikiewicz, Iwona Otrocka-Domagała, Katarzyna Paździor-Czapula, Tadeusz Rotkiewicz
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of long-term, high-dose dexamethasone administration on the liver, with particular emphasis on hepatocyte proliferation and apoptosis, using a swine model. The study included 48 large, female Polish breed pigs aged 3months (weighing ca. 30kg) divided into groups I (control; n=24) and II (dexamethasone; n=24) that receiving intra-muscular injections of monosodium phosphate dexamethasone for 29days. The pigs were euthanized on days subsequent to the experiment...
April 2, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390726/effects-of-preweaning-nutrient-intake-in-the-developing-mammary-parenchymal-tissue
#15
F Soberon, M E Van Amburgh
Historically, mammary gland growth has been considered isometric the first 2 mo of life and then allometric until peripuberty. However, recent work indicated that the mammary gland might be responsive to nutrient intake preweaning. The objectives of this study were to describe the effects of nutrient intake preweaning on mammary gland development and to investigate cell specific proliferation during this phase of development. Twelve dairy heifer calves were fed either a fixed amount of milk replacer (MR; control, n = 6) or an amount of MR adjusted for BW (enhanced, n = 6)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389833/immunohistochemistry-evaluation-of-bmp-2-with-%C3%AE-tricalcium-phosphate-matrix-polylactic-and-polyglycolic-acid-gel-and-calcium-phosphate-cement-in-rats
#16
Júlio César da Silva de Oliveira, Eloá Rodrigues Luvizuto, Celso Koogi Sonoda, Roberta Okamoto, Idelmo Rangel Garcia-Junior
PURPOSE: The installation of implants has become a routine procedure in the clinic. However, it takes time and adequate bone thickness, and for that, tissue engineering has made efforts to develop substitutes for autografts, in view of certain disadvantages of this material. The decision to choose the most suitable graft material for each case is an important step in the success of bone reconstruction. This study was to verify, by means of immunohistochemical study, that the addition of bone morphogenetic protein had some influence on biomaterials commercially available, taking into account the formation of mineralized tissue, bone replacement, and the amount of degradation of biomaterials...
April 8, 2017: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388962/the-involvement-of-mast-cells-in-the-irinotecan-induced-enteric-neurons-loss-and-reactive-gliosis
#17
Ludmila T Nogueira, Deiziane V S Costa, Antoniella S Gomes, Conceição S Martins, Angeline M H P Silva, Juliana M Coelho-Aguiar, Patrícia Castelucci, Roberto C P Lima-Júnior, Renata F C Leitão, Vivaldo Moura-Neto, Gerly A C Brito
BACKGROUND: The irinotecan (CPT-11) causes intestinal mucositis and diarrhea that may be related to changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS). In inflammatory condition, mast cells release a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators that can interact with the ENS cells. It has not been explored whether CPT-11 is able to alter the enteric glial and neuronal cell, and the role of mast cells in this effect. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of CPT-11 on the enteric glial and neuronal cells, as well as to study the role of mast cells in the CPT-11-induced intestinal mucositis...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387365/exogenous-streptococcus-pneumoniae-endophthalmitis-in-diabetic-rabbits
#18
Angela H Benton, Linda K Fulton, Mary E Marquart
Diabetics are at increased risk for eye infections including bacterial endophthalmitis. It is unclear whether the severity of endophthalmitis is greater in these patients due to confounding factors such as pre-existing ocular diseases in some but not others. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that disease severity and/or bacterial loads would be significantly higher in a Type I diabetic rabbit model of Streptococcus pneumoniae endophthalmitis. Rabbits were treated with alloxan to destroy pancreatic islet cells, or mock-treated with vehicle, and maintained for 10 days before intravitreal infection with S...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387182/severe-dermatitis-associated-with-spontaneous-staphylococcus-xylosus-infection-in-rag-tpl2-mice
#19
Nicole V Acuff, Monica LaGatta, Tamas Nagy, Wendy T Watford
Staphylococcus xylosus is a commensal bacterium found on the skin and mucosal surfaces of SPF mice. S. xylosus is rarely pathogenic,most often causing skin lesions and dermatitis in immunocompromised mice, particularly those with impaired NADPHoxidase function. Here we report spontaneous infection with S. xylosus in Rag1-/-Tpl2-/- mice. Infection was characterized by the presence of alopecia, crusts, and scaly skin. S. xylosus was detected in the feces, skin, lymph nodes, and lungs of Rag1-/-Tpl2-/- mice and led to mortality or euthanasia due to humane endpoints...
April 6, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382856/postmortem-findings-in-ontario-racehorses-2003-2015
#20
Josepha DeLay
Postmortem lesions and cause of death were evaluated retrospectively for 963 horses examined as part of the Ontario Racing Commission Death Registry over a 13-y period. The Death Registry was established in 2003 to identify factors leading to death or euthanasia of racehorses in this Canadian province. Postmortem examination was carried out on 56% of horses reported to the Death Registry and included Standardbred, Thoroughbred, and American Quarter Horses. Musculoskeletal injury was the most common reason for death associated with racing or training among all racehorses and involved 68% of horses...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
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