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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903628/the-role-of-plantigrady-and-heel-strike-in-the-mechanics-and-energetics-of-human-walking-with-implications-for-the-evolution-of-the-human-foot
#1
James T Webber, David A Raichlen
Human bipedal locomotion is characterized by a habitual heel-strike (HS) plantigrade gait, yet the significance of walking foot-posture is not well understood. To date, researchers have not fully investigated the costs of non-heel-strike (NHS) walking. Therefore, we examined walking speed, walk-to-run transition speed, estimated locomotor costs (lower limb muscle volume activated during walking), impact transient (rapid increase in ground force at touchdown) and effective limb length (ELL) in subjects (n=14) who walked at self-selected speeds using HS and NHS gaits...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902687/limb-bone-structural-proportions-and-locomotor-behavior-in-a-l-288-1-lucy
#2
Christopher B Ruff, M Loring Burgess, Richard A Ketcham, John Kappelman
While there is broad agreement that early hominins practiced some form of terrestrial bipedality, there is also evidence that arboreal behavior remained a part of the locomotor repertoire in some taxa, and that bipedal locomotion may not have been identical to that of modern humans. It has been difficult to evaluate such evidence, however, because of the possibility that early hominins retained primitive traits (such as relatively long upper limbs) of little contemporaneous adaptive significance. Here we examine bone structural properties of the femur and humerus in the Australopithecus afarensis A...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886808/comparative-isotope-ecology-of-african-great-apes
#3
Vicky M Oelze, Geraldine Fahy, Gottfried Hohmann, Martha M Robbins, Vera Leinert, Kevin Lee, Henk Eshuis, Nicole Seiler, Erin G Wessling, Josephine Head, Christophe Boesch, Hjalmar S Kühl
The isotope ecology of great apes is a useful reference for palaeodietary reconstructions in fossil hominins. As extant apes live in C3-dominated habitats, variation in isotope signatures is assumed to be low compared to hominoids exploiting C4-plant resources. However, isotopic differences between sites and between and within individuals are poorly understood due to the lack of vegetation baseline data. In this comparative study, we included all species of free-ranging African great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla sp...
December 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883188/structural-organization-and-tooth-development-in-a-homo-aff-erectus-juvenile-mandible-from-the-early-pleistocene-site-of-garba-iv-at-melka-kunture-ethiopian-highlands
#4
Clément Zanolli, M Christopher Dean, Yared Assefa, Priscilla Bayle, José Braga, Silvana Condemi, Metasebia Endalamaw, Blade Engda Redae, Roberto Macchiarelli
OBJECTIVES: The immature partial mandible GAR IVE from the c. 1.7 Ma old Garba IV site at Melka Kunture (Upper Awash Basin, Ethiopia), the earliest human representative from a mountain-like environment, represents one of the oldest early Homo specimens bearing a mixed dentition. Following its first description (Condemi, ), we extended the analytical and comparative record of this specimen by providing unreported details about its inner morphology, tooth maturational pattern and age at death, crown size, and tooth tissue proportions...
November 24, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877146/a-gradualist-scenario-for-language-evolution-precise-linguistic-reconstruction-of-early-human-and-neandertal-grammars
#5
Ljiljana Progovac
In making an argument for the antiquity of language, based on comparative evidence, Dediu and Levinson (2013) express hope that some combinations of structural features will prove so conservative that they will allow deep linguistic reconstruction. I propose that the earliest stages of syntax/grammar as reconstructed in Progovac (2015a), based on a theoretical and data-driven linguistic analysis, provide just such a conservative platform, which would have been commanded also by Neandertals and the common ancestor...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870877/nut-cracking-tools-used-by-captive-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-and-their-comparison-with-early-stone-age-percussive-artefacts-from-olduvai-gorge
#6
Adrián Arroyo, Satoshi Hirata, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Ignacio de la Torre
We present the results of a series of experiments at the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Japan, in which captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) performed several nut cracking sessions using raw materials from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. We examined captive chimpanzee pounding tools using a combination of technological analysis, use-wear distribution, and micro-wear analysis. Our results show specific patterns of use-wear distribution across the active surfaces of pounding tools, which reveal some similarities with traces on archaeological percussive objects from the Early Stone Age, and are consistent with traces on other experimental pounding tools used by modern humans...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870344/elastic-properties-of-chimpanzee-craniofacial-cortical-bone
#7
Poorva Gharpure, Elias D Kontogiorgos, Lynne A Opperman, Callum F Ross, David S Strait, Amanda Smith, Leslie C Pryor, Qian Wang, Paul C Dechow
Relatively few assessments of cranial biomechanics formally take into account variation in the material properties of cranial cortical bone. Our aim was to characterize the elastic properties of chimpanzee craniofacial cortical bone and compare these to the elastic properties of dentate human craniofacial cortical bone. From seven cranial regions, 27 cylindrical samples were harvested from each of five chimpanzee crania. Assuming orthotropy, axes of maximum stiffness in the plane of the cortical plate were derived using modified equations of Hooke's law in a Mathcad program...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855982/the-skull-of-homo-naledi
#8
Myra F Laird, Lauren Schroeder, Heather M Garvin, Jill E Scott, Mana Dembo, Davorka Radovčić, Charles M Musiba, Rebecca R Ackermann, Peter Schmid, John Hawks, Lee R Berger, Darryl J de Ruiter
The species Homo naledi was recently named from specimens recovered from the Dinaledi Chamber of the Rising Star cave system in South Africa. This large skeletal sample lacks associated faunal material and currently does not have a known chronological context. In this paper, we present comprehensive descriptions and metric comparisons of the recovered cranial and mandibular material. We describe 41 elements attributed to Dinaledi Hominin (DH1-DH5) individuals and paratype U.W. 101-377, and 32 additional cranial fragments...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855981/the-thigh-and-leg-of-homo-naledi
#9
Damiano Marchi, Christopher S Walker, Pianpian Wei, Trenton W Holliday, Steven E Churchill, Lee R Berger, Jeremy M DeSilva
This paper describes the 108 femoral, patellar, tibial, and fibular elements of a new species of Homo (Homo naledi) discovered in the Dinaledi chamber of the Rising Star cave system in South Africa. Homo naledi possesses a mosaic of primitive, derived, and unique traits functionally indicative of a bipedal hominin adapted for long distance walking and possibly running. Traits shared with australopiths include an anteroposteriorly compressed femoral neck, a mediolaterally compressed tibia, and a relatively circular fibular neck...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853608/fossil-skulls-reveal-that-blood-flow-rate-to-the-brain-increased-faster-than-brain-volume-during-human-evolution
#10
Roger S Seymour, Vanya Bosiocic, Edward P Snelling
The evolution of human cognition has been inferred from anthropological discoveries and estimates of brain size from fossil skulls. A more direct measure of cognition would be cerebral metabolic rate, which is proportional to cerebral blood flow rate (perfusion). The hominin cerebrum is supplied almost exclusively by the internal carotid arteries. The sizes of the foramina that transmitted these vessels in life can be measured in hominin fossil skulls and used to calculate cerebral perfusion rate. Perfusion in 11 species of hominin ancestors, from Australopithecus to archaic Homo sapiens, increases disproportionately when scaled against brain volume (the allometric exponent is 1...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851745/testing-dietary-hypotheses-of-east-african-hominines-using-buccal-dental-microwear-data
#11
Laura Mónica Martínez, Ferran Estebaranz-Sánchez, Jordi Galbany, Alejandro Pérez-Pérez
There is much debate on the dietary adaptations of the robust hominin lineages during the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition. It has been argued that the shift from C3 to C4 ecosystems in Africa was the main factor responsible for the robust dental and facial anatomical adaptations of Paranthropus taxa, which might be indicative of the consumption of fibrous, abrasive plant foods in open environments. However, occlusal dental microwear data fail to provide evidence of such dietary adaptations and are not consistent with isotopic evidence that supports greater C4 food intake for the robust clades than for the gracile australopithecines...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836166/skull-diversity-in-the-homo-lineage-and-the-relative-position-of-homo-naledi
#12
Lauren Schroeder, Jill E Scott, Heather M Garvin, Myra F Laird, Mana Dembo, Davorka Radovčić, Lee R Berger, Darryl J de Ruiter, Rebecca R Ackermann
The discovery of Homo naledi has expanded the range of phenotypic variation in Homo, leading to new questions surrounding the mosaic nature of morphological evolution. Though currently undated, its unique morphological pattern and possible phylogenetic relationships to other hominin taxa suggest a complex evolutionary scenario. Here, we perform geometric morphometric analyses on H. naledi cranial and mandibular remains to investigate its morphological relationship with species of Homo and Australopithecus...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768227/a-novel-fecal-stable-isotope-approach-to-determine-the-timing-of-age-related-feeding-transitions-in-wild-infant-chimpanzees
#13
Iulia Bădescu, M Anne Katzenberg, David P Watts, Daniel W Sellen
OBJECTIVES: Determining nutritional development in wild primates is difficult through observations because confirming dietary intake is challenging. Physiological measures are needed to determine the relative contributions of maternal milk and other foods at different ages, and time of weaning. We used fecal stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ(13) C, δ(15) N) and fecal nitrogen concentrations (%N) from wild chimpanzees at Ngogo, Uganda, to derive physiological dietary indicators during the transition from total reliance on maternal milk to adult foods after weaning...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765150/oh-65-the-earliest-evidence-for-right-handedness-in-the-fossil-record
#14
David W Frayer, Ronald J Clarke, Ivana Fiore, Robert J Blumenschine, Alejandro Pérez-Pérez, Laura M Martinez, Ferran Estebaranz, Ralph Holloway, Luca Bondioli
Labial striations on the anterior teeth have been documented in numerous European pre-Neandertal and Neandertal fossils and serve as evidence for handedness. OH-65, dated at 1.8 mya, shows a concentration of oblique striations on, especially, the left I(1) and right I(1), I(2) and C(1), which signal that it was right-handed. From these patterns we contend that OH-65 was habitually using the right hand, over the left, in manipulating objects during some kind of oral processing. In living humans right-handedness is generally correlated with brain lateralization, although the strength of the association is questioned by some...
November 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765148/dentognathic-remains-of-australopithecus-afarensis-from-nefuraytu-woranso-mille-ethiopia-comparative-description-geology-and-paleoecological-context
#15
Yohannes Haile-Selassie, Stephanie M Melillo, Timothy M Ryan, Naomi E Levin, Beverly Z Saylor, Alan Deino, Ronald Mundil, Gary Scott, Mulugeta Alene, Luis Gibert
Australopithecus afarensis is the best-known and most dimorphic species in the early hominin fossil record. Here, we present a comparative description of new fossil specimens of Au. afarensis from Nefuraytu, a 3.330-3.207 million-years-old fossil collection area in the Woranso-Mille study area, central Afar, Ethiopia. These specimens include NFR-VP-1/29, one of the most complete mandibles assigned to the species thus far and among the largest mandibles attributed to Au. afarensis, likely representing a male individual...
November 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765145/new-early-pleistocene-hominin-teeth-from-the-swartkrans-formation-south-africa
#16
Travis Rayne Pickering, Jason L Heaton, Morris B Sutton, Ron J Clarke, Kathleen Kuman, Jess Hutton Senjem, C K Brain
We describe 14 hominin teeth and tooth fragments excavated recently from Swartkrans Cave (South Africa). The fossils derive from Members 1 (Lower Bank) and 3, from the Member 2/3 interface and from two deposits not yet assigned to member (the "Talus Cone Deposit" and the "Underground North Excavation" [UNE]) of the Swartkrans Formation, and include the first hominin fossil from the UNE, the two smallest Paranthropus robustus deciduous maxillary second molars in the entire hominin fossil record, and one of the smallest P...
November 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762077/in-vivo-3d-analysis-of-thoracic-kinematics-changes-in-size-and-shape-during-breathing-and-their-implications-for-respiratory-function-in-recent-humans-and-fossil-hominins
#17
Markus Bastir, Daniel García-Martínez, Nicole Torres-Tamayo, Juan Alberto Sanchis-Gimeno, Paul O'Higgins, Cristina Utrilla, Isabel Torres Sánchez, Francisco García Río
The human ribcage expands and contracts during respiration as a result of the interaction between the morphology of the ribs, the costo-vertebral articulations and respiratory muscles. Variations in these factors are said to produce differences in the kinematics of the upper thorax and the lower thorax, but the extent and nature of any such differences and their functional implications have not yet been quantified. Applying geometric morphometrics we measured 402 three-dimensional (3D) landmarks and semilandmarks of 3D models built from computed tomographic scans of thoraces of 20 healthy adult subjects in maximal forced inspiration (FI) and expiration (FE)...
October 19, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760117/wild-monkeys-flake-stone-tools
#18
Tomos Proffitt, Lydia V Luncz, Tiago Falótico, Eduardo B Ottoni, Ignacio de la Torre, Michael Haslam
Our understanding of the emergence of technology shapes how we view the origins of humanity. Sharp-edged stone flakes, struck from larger cores, are the primary evidence for the earliest stone technology. Here we show that wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) in Brazil deliberately break stones, unintentionally producing recurrent, conchoidally fractured, sharp-edged flakes and cores that have the characteristics and morphology of intentionally produced hominin tools. The production of archaeologically visible cores and flakes is therefore no longer unique to the human lineage, providing a comparative perspective on the emergence of lithic technology...
October 19, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756484/on-the-calculation-of-occlusal-bite-pressures-for-fossil-hominins
#19
Javier Ruiz, Juan Luis Arsuaga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754479/a-pulse-of-mid-pleistocene-rift-volcanism-in-ethiopia-at-the-dawn-of-modern-humans
#20
William Hutchison, Raffaella Fusillo, David M Pyle, Tamsin A Mather, Jon D Blundy, Juliet Biggs, Gezahegn Yirgu, Benjamin E Cohen, Richard A Brooker, Dan N Barfod, Andrew T Calvert
The Ethiopian Rift Valley hosts the longest record of human co-existence with volcanoes on Earth, however, current understanding of the magnitude and timing of large explosive eruptions in this region is poor. Detailed records of volcanism are essential for interpreting the palaeoenvironments occupied by our hominin ancestors; and also for evaluating the volcanic hazards posed to the 10 million people currently living within this active rift zone. Here we use new geochronological evidence to suggest that a 200 km-long segment of rift experienced a major pulse of explosive volcanic activity between 320 and 170 ka...
October 18, 2016: Nature Communications
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