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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202622/the-hypertension-pandemic-an-evolutionary-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Bernard C Rossier, Murielle Bochud, Olivier Devuyst
Hypertension affects over 1.2 billion individuals worldwide and has become the most critical and expensive public health problem. Hypertension is a multifactorial disease involving environmental and genetic factors together with risk-conferring behaviors. The cause of the disease is identified in ∼10% of the cases (secondary hypertension), but in 90% of the cases no etiology is found (primary or essential hypertension). For this reason, a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling blood pressure in normal and hypertensive patients is the aim of very active experimental and clinical research...
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170092/quantifying-the-impact-of-%C3%A2%C2%B5ct-scanning-of-human-fossil-teeth-on-esr-age-results
#2
Mathieu Duval, Laura Martín-Francés
Fossil human teeth are nowadays systematically CT-scanned by palaeoanthropologists prior to any further analysis. It has been recently demonstrated that this noninvasive technique has, in most cases, virtually no influence on ancient DNA preservation. However, it may have nevertheless an impact on other techniques, like Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dating, by artificially ageing the apparent age of the sample. To evaluate this impact, we µCT-scanned several modern enamel fragments following the standard analytical procedures employed by the Dental Anthropology Group at CENIEH, Spain, and then performed ESR dose reconstruction for each of them...
February 7, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166908/the-middle-stone-age-human-fossil-record-from-klasies-river-main-site
#3
Frederick E Grine, Sarah Wurz, Curtis W Marean
The paleoanthropological significance of Klasies River Main Site derives from its abundant Middle Stone Age (MSA) archaeological debris and the hominin fossils that have featured in discussions about modern human emergence. Despite their significance, the human remains have yet to be contextualized within the spatial, stratigraphic and geochronological framework of the site. We provide an updated overview of the stratigraphy and geochronology of the site, and review the human fossil record in this context. We also provide the first anatomical interpretations of many of the cranial vault fragments...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166905/the-earliest-long-distance-obsidian-transport-evidence-from-the-%C3%A2-200%C3%A2-ka-middle-stone-age-sibilo-school-road-site-baringo-kenya
#4
Nick Blegen
This study presents the earliest evidence of long-distance obsidian transport at the ∼200 ka Sibilo School Road Site (SSRS), an early Middle Stone Age site in the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya. The later Middle Pleistocene of East Africa (130-400 ka) spans significant and interrelated behavioral and biological changes in human evolution including the first appearance of Homo sapiens. Despite the importance of the later Middle Pleistocene, there are relatively few archaeological sites in well-dated contexts (n < 10) that document hominin behavior from this time period...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125602/the-aggradational-successions-of-the-aniene-river-valley-in-rome-age-constraints-to-early-neanderthal-presence-in-europe
#5
Fabrizio Marra, Piero Ceruleo, Luca Pandolfi, Carmelo Petronio, Mario F Rolfo, Leonardo Salari
We revise the chronostratigraphy of several sedimentary successions cropping out along a 5 km-long tract of the Aniene River Valley in Rome (Italy), which yielded six hominin remains previously attributed to proto- or archaic Neanderthal individuals, as well as a large number of lithic artefacts showing intermediate characteristics somewhere between the local Acheulean and Mousterian cultures. Through a method of correlation of aggradational successions with post-glacial sea-level rises, relying on a large set of published 40Ar/39Ar ages of interbedded volcanic deposits, we demonstrate that deposition of the sediments hosting the human remains spans the interval 295-220 ka...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109118/a-mandible-from-the-middle-pleistocene-hexian-site-and-its-significance-in-relation-to-the-variability-of-asian-homo-erectus
#6
Wu Liu, María Martinón-Torres, Yousuke Kaifu, Xiujie Wu, Reiko T Kono, Chun-Hsiang Chang, Pianpian Wei, Song Xing, Wanbo Huang, José María Bermúdez de Castro
OBJECTIVES: This study presents the first detailed morphological description and comparison of a Middle Pleistocene hominin mandibular fragment (PA 831) and associated teeth from the Hexian site in Eastern China. We aim to investigate where the Hexian mandible fits within the genus Homo variability in the light of an increased and better characterized Asian fossils record. METHODS: Comparative samples include Pleistocene Homo mandibles and teeth from Africa, Asia, and Europe, as well as earlier African hominins (Australopithecus and early Homo) and Holocene recent humans...
January 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102248/tracing-the-peopling-of-the-world-through-genomics
#7
Rasmus Nielsen, Joshua M Akey, Mattias Jakobsson, Jonathan K Pritchard, Sarah Tishkoff, Eske Willerslev
Advances in the sequencing and the analysis of the genomes of both modern and ancient peoples have facilitated a number of breakthroughs in our understanding of human evolutionary history. These include the discovery of interbreeding between anatomically modern humans and extinct hominins; the development of an increasingly detailed description of the complex dispersal of modern humans out of Africa and their population expansion worldwide; and the characterization of many of the genetic adaptions of humans to local environmental conditions...
January 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094004/the-vertebrae-and-ribs-of-homo-naledi
#8
Scott A Williams, Daniel García-Martínez, Markus Bastir, Marc R Meyer, Shahed Nalla, John Hawks, Peter Schmid, Steven E Churchill, Lee R Berger
Hominin evolution featured shifts from a trunk shape suitable for climbing and housing a large gut to a trunk adapted to bipedalism and higher quality diets. Our knowledge regarding the tempo, mode, and context in which these derived traits evolved has been limited, based largely on a small-bodied Australopithecus partial skeleton (A.L. 288-1; "Lucy") and a juvenile Homo erectus skeleton (KNM-WT 15000; "Turkana Boy"). Two recent discoveries, of a large-bodied Australopithecus afarensis (KSD-VP-1/1) and two Australopithecus sediba partial skeletons (MH1 and MH2), have added to our understanding of thorax evolution; however, little is known about thorax morphology in early Homo...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076426/evidence-of-a-vocalic-proto-system-in-the-baboon-papio-papio-suggests-pre-hominin-speech-precursors
#9
Louis-Jean Boë, Frédéric Berthommier, Thierry Legou, Guillaume Captier, Caralyn Kemp, Thomas R Sawallis, Yannick Becker, Arnaud Rey, Joël Fagot
Language is a distinguishing characteristic of our species, and the course of its evolution is one of the hardest problems in science. It has long been generally considered that human speech requires a low larynx, and that the high larynx of nonhuman primates should preclude their producing the vowel systems universally found in human language. Examining the vocalizations through acoustic analyses, tongue anatomy, and modeling of acoustic potential, we found that baboons (Papio papio) produce sounds sharing the F1/F2 formant structure of the human [ɨ æ ɑ ɔ u] vowels, and that similarly with humans those vocalic qualities are organized as a system on two acoustic-anatomic axes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075026/updating-histological-data-on-crown-initiation-and-crown-completion-ages-in-southern-africans
#10
Donald J Reid, Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg
OBJECTIVES: To update histological data on crown initiation and completion ages in southern Africans. To evaluate implications of these data for studies that: (a) rely on these data to time linear enamel hypoplasias (LEHs), or, (b) use these data for comparison to fossil hominins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initiation ages were calculated on 67 histological sections from southern Africans, with sample sizes ranging from one to 11 per tooth type. Crown completion ages for southern Africans were calculated in two ways...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049819/brain-enlargement-and-dental-reduction-were-not-linked-in-hominin-evolution
#11
Aida Gómez-Robles, Jeroen B Smaers, Ralph L Holloway, P David Polly, Bernard A Wood
The large brain and small postcanine teeth of modern humans are among our most distinctive features, and trends in their evolution are well studied within the hominin clade. Classic accounts hypothesize that larger brains and smaller teeth coevolved because behavioral changes associated with increased brain size allowed a subsequent dental reduction. However, recent studies have found mismatches between trends in brain enlargement and posterior tooth size reduction in some hominin species. We use a multiple-variance Brownian motion approach in association with evolutionary simulations to measure the tempo and mode of the evolution of endocranial and dental size and shape within the hominin clade...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044971/-innate-immunity-and-human-diseases-from-archaic-introgression-to-natural-selection
#12
Matthieu Deschamps, Lluís Quintana-Murci
Throughout evolution, humans have had to face strong variation in environmental conditions, with pathogens being among the strongest threats that our species has encountered. The use of population genetic approaches provides novel insights into how natural selection imposed by pathogen pressures, in its different forms and intensities, has shaped the patterns of diversity of the human genome at the population level. These studies help to distinguish genes playing essential, non-redundant functions in host defence from genes variation in which has conferred selective advantages to specific human populations and/or has been acquired through admixture with archaic hominins, such as Neandertals...
December 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035660/morphological-integration-of-the-cranium-in-homo-pan-and-hylobates-and-the-evolution-of-hominoid-facial-structures
#13
Dimitri Neaux
OBJECTIVES: Modern humans diverge from other extant hominids (chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans) in a series of craniofacial morphological features. Like hylobatids, they possess a face with a reduced subnasal prognathism that is associated with a globular basicranium. These traits are not independent, as the skull is a complex integrated structure. The aim of the present study is to determine relationships between the face and the basicranium in two hominid genera (Homo and Pan) and a hylobatid genus (Hylobates) to test if these taxa share common patterns of integration linking these structures...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018626/chimpanzee-fathers-bias-their-behaviour-towards-their-offspring
#14
Carson M Murray, Margaret A Stanton, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf, Emily E Wroblewski, Anne E Pusey
Promiscuous mating was traditionally thought to curtail paternal investment owing to the potential costs of providing care to unrelated infants. However, mounting evidence suggests that males in some promiscuous species can recognize offspring. In primates, evidence for paternal care exists in promiscuous Cercopithecines, but less is known about these patterns in other taxa. Here, we examine two hypotheses for paternal associations with lactating mothers in eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): paternal effort, whereby males associate and interact more with their own infants, and mating effort, whereby males invest in mothers and offspring for mating privileges...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012460/a-new-high-resolution-3-d-quantitative-method-for-identifying-bone-surface-modifications-with-implications-for-the-early-stone-age-archaeological-record
#15
Michael C Pante, Matthew V Muttart, Trevor L Keevil, Robert J Blumenschine, Jackson K Njau, Stephen R Merritt
Bone surface modifications have become important indicators of hominin behavior and ecology at prehistoric archaeological sites. However, the method by which we identify and interpret these marks remains largely unchanged despite decades of research, relying on qualitative criteria and lacking standardization between analysts. Recently, zooarchaeologists have begun using new technologies capable of capturing 3-D data from bone surface modifications to advance our knowledge of these informative traces. However, an important step in this research has been overlooked and after years of work, we lack both a universal and replicable protocol and an understanding of the precision of these techniques...
January 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004892/tropical-forests-and-the-genus-homo
#16
Patrick Roberts, Nicole Boivin, Julia Lee-Thorp, Michael Petraglia, Jay Stock
Tropical forests constitute some of the most diverse and complex terrestrial ecosystems on the planet. From the Miocene onward, they have acted as a backdrop to the ongoing evolution of our closest living relatives, the great apes, and provided the cradle for the emergence of early hominins, who retained arboreal physiological adaptations at least into the Late Pliocene. There also now exists growing evidence, from the Late Pleistocene onward, for tool-assisted intensification of tropical forest occupation and resource extraction by our own species, Homo sapiens...
November 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003445/distance-decay-effect-in-stone-tool-transport-by-wild-chimpanzees
#17
Lydia V Luncz, Tomos Proffitt, Lars Kulik, Michael Haslam, Roman M Wittig
Stone tool transport leaves long-lasting behavioural evidence in the landscape. However, it remains unknown how large-scale patterns of stone distribution emerge through undirected, short-term transport behaviours. One of the longest studied groups of stone-tool-using primates are the chimpanzees of the Taï National Park in Ivory Coast, West Africa. Using hammerstones left behind at chimpanzee Panda nut-cracking sites, we tested for a distance-decay effect, in which the weight of material decreases with increasing distance from raw material sources...
December 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003442/the-heritability-of-chimpanzee-and-human-brain-asymmetry
#18
Aida Gómez-Robles, William D Hopkins, Steven J Schapiro, Chet C Sherwood
Human brains are markedly asymmetric in structure and lateralized in function, which suggests a relationship between these two properties. The brains of other closely related primates, such as chimpanzees, show similar patterns of asymmetry, but to a lesser degree, indicating an increase in anatomical and functional asymmetry during hominin evolution. We analysed the heritability of cerebral asymmetry in chimpanzees and humans using classic morphometrics, geometric morphometrics, and quantitative genetic techniques...
December 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994125/human-evolution-a-tale-from-ancient-genomes
#19
REVIEW
Bastien Llamas, Eske Willerslev, Ludovic Orlando
The field of human ancient DNA (aDNA) has moved from mitochondrial sequencing that suffered from contamination and provided limited biological insights, to become a fully genomic discipline that is changing our conception of human history. Recent successes include the sequencing of extinct hominins, and true population genomic studies of Bronze Age populations. Among the emerging areas of aDNA research, the analysis of past epigenomes is set to provide more new insights into human adaptation and disease susceptibility through time...
February 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983519/two-acheuleans-two-humankinds-from-1-5-to-0-85-ma-at-melka-kunture-upper-awash-ethiopian-highlands
#20
Rosalia Gallotti, Margherita Mussi
The Acheulean is the longest-lasting human cultural record, spanning approximately 1.5 Ma and three continents. The most comprehensive sequences are found in East Africa, where, in largescale syntheses, the Lower Pleistocene Acheulean (LPA) has often been considered a uniform cultural entity. Furthermore, the emergence and development of Acheulean technology are seen as linked to the emergence and evolution of Homo ergaster/erectus. The criterion for grouping together different lithic assemblages scattered over space and time is the presence of large cutting tools (LCTs), more than of any other component...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
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