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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351319/speech-stone-tool-making-and-the-evolution-of-language
#1
Dana Michelle Cataldo, Andrea Bamberg Migliano, Lucio Vinicius
The 'technological hypothesis' proposes that gestural language evolved in early hominins to enable the cultural transmission of stone tool-making skills, with speech appearing later in response to the complex lithic industries of more recent hominins. However, no flintknapping study has assessed the efficiency of speech alone (unassisted by gesture) as a tool-making transmission aid. Here we show that subjects instructed by speech alone underperform in stone tool-making experiments in comparison to subjects instructed through either gesture alone or 'full language' (gesture plus speech), and also report lower satisfaction with their received instruction...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344933/unexpected-terrestrial-hand-posture-diversity-in-wild-mountain-gorillas
#2
Nathan E Thompson, Kelly R Ostrofsky, Shannon C McFarlin, Martha M Robbins, Tara S Stoinski, Sergio Almécija
OBJECTIVES: Gorillas, along with chimpanzees and bonobos, are ubiquitously described as 'knuckle-walkers.' Consequently, knuckle-walking (KW) has been featured pre-eminently in hypotheses of the pre-bipedal locomotor behavior of hominins and in the evolution of locomotor behavior in apes. However, anecdotal and behavioral accounts suggest that mountain gorillas may utilize a more complex repertoire of hand postures, which could alter current interpretations of African ape locomotion and its role in the emergence of human bipedalism...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337994/a-reassessment-of-the-montmaurin-la-niche-mandible-haute-garonne-france-in-the-context-of-european-pleistocene-human-evolution
#3
Amélie Vialet, Mario Modesto-Mata, María Martinón-Torres, Marina Martínez de Pinillos, José-María Bermúdez de Castro
We here present a comparative study of the Montmaurin-LN Middle Pleistocene mandible (Haute-Garonne, France). This mandible, of which its right and left molar series are preserved in situ, was found in La Niche cave (Montmaurin's karst system) in 1949, and was first attributed to the 'Mindel-Riss' interglacial (= MIS 9 to 11) based on its geological context. Later studies based on geological and faunal evidence have attributed the Montmaurin-LN mandible to MIS 7. Following a detailed morphological and metric comparative study of the mandible in the 1970s, it was interpreted in the light of a still limited fossil record and the prevailing paradigm back then...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331230/lower-limb-articular-scaling-and-body-mass-estimation-in-pliocene-and-pleistocene-hominins
#4
Christopher B Ruff, M Loring Burgess, Nicole Squyres, Juho-Antti Junno, Erik Trinkaus
Previous attempts to estimate body mass in pre-Holocene hominins have relied on prediction equations derived from relatively limited extant samples. Here we derive new equations to predict body mass from femoral head breadth and proximal tibial plateau breadth based on a large and diverse sample of modern humans (avoiding the problems associated with using diaphyseal dimensions and/or cadaveric reference samples). In addition, an adjustment for the relatively small femoral heads of non-Homo taxa is developed based on observed differences in hip to knee joint scaling...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331229/hominin-raw-material-procurement-in-the-oldowan-acheulean-transition-at-olduvai-gorge
#5
Lindsay J McHenry, Ignacio de la Torre
The lithic assemblages at the Oldowan-Acheulean transition in Bed II of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, represent a wide variety of raw materials reflecting both the diversity of volcanic, metamorphic, and sedimentary source materials available in the Olduvai basin and surroundings and the preferences of the tool-makers. A geochemical and petrographic systematic analysis of lava-derived archaeological stone tools, combined with textural and mineralogical characterization of quartzite, chert, and other metamorphic and sedimentary raw materials from two Middle and Upper Bed II sites, has enabled us to produce a comprehensive dataset and characterization of the rocks employed by Olduvai hominins, which is used here to establish a referential framework for future studies on Early Stone Age raw material provenancing...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330952/jaw-muscle-fiber-architecture-and-leverage-in-the-hard-object-feeding-sooty-mangabey-are-not-structured-to-facilitate-relatively-large-bite-forces-compared-to-other-papionins
#6
Andrea B Taylor, Claire E Terhune, Maxx Toler, Megan Holmes, Callum F Ross, Christopher J Vinyard
Numerous studies have sought to link craniofacial morphology with behavioral ecology in primates. Extant hard-object feeders have been of particular interest because of their potential to inform our understanding about the diets of early fossil hominins. Sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) are hard-object feeders that frequently generate what have been described as audibly powerful bites at wide jaw gapes to process materially stiff and hard seeds. We address the hypothesis that sooty mangabeys have features of the masticatory apparatus that facilitate this feeding behavior by comparing fiber architecture and leverage of the masseter and temporalis muscles between sooty mangabeys and three papionin primates that do not specialize on hard objects...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321271/incremental-distribution-of-strontium-and-zinc-in-great-ape-and-fossil-hominin-cementum-using-synchrotron-x-ray-fluorescence-mapping
#7
Christopher Dean, Adeline Le Cabec, Kathryn Spiers, Yi Zhang, Jan Garrevoet
Cementum and the incremental markings it contains have been widely studied as a means of ageing animals and retrieving information about diet and nutrition. The distribution of trace elements in great ape and fossil hominin cementum has not been studied previously. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) enables rapid scanning of large tissue areas with high resolution of elemental distributions. First, we used SXRF to map calcium, phosphorus, strontium and zinc distributions in great ape dentine and cementum...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321246/unique-perceptuomotor-control-of-stone-hammers-in-wild-monkeys
#8
Madhur Mangalam, Matheus Maia Pacheco, Patrícia Izar, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Dorothy Munkenbeck Fragaszy
We analysed the patterns of coordination of striking movement and perceptuomotor control of stone hammers in wild bearded capuchin monkeys, Sapajus libidinosus as they cracked open palm nut using hammers of different mass, a habitual behaviour in our study population. We aimed to determine why these monkeys cannot produce conchoidally fractured flakes as do contemporary human knappers or as did prehistoric hominin knappers. We found that the monkeys altered their patterns of coordination of movement to accommodate changes in hammer mass...
January 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313897/influence-of-fruit-and-invertebrate-consumption-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-wild-white-faced-capuchins-cebus-capucinus
#9
Elizabeth K Mallott, Katherine R Amato, Paul A Garber, Ripan S Malhi
OBJECTIVES: Invertebrate consumption is thought to be an integral part of early hominin diets, and many modern human populations regularly consume insects and other arthropods. This study examines the response of gut microbial community structure and function to changes in diet in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus), a primate that incorporates a large proportion of invertebrates in its diet. The goal of the study is to better understand the role of both fruit and invertebrate prey consumption on shaping primate gut microbiomes...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313896/great-ape-walking-kinematics-implications-for-hominoid-evolution
#10
Emma M Finestone, Mary H Brown, Stephen R Ross, Herman Pontzer
OBJECTIVES: Great apes provide a point of reference for understanding the evolution of locomotion in hominoids and early hominins. We assessed (1) the extent to which great apes use diagonal sequence, diagonal couplet gaits, like other primates, (2) the extent to which gait and posture vary across great apes, and (3) the role of body mass and limb proportions on ape quadrupedal kinematics. METHODS: High-speed digital video of zoo-housed bonobos (Pan paniscus, N = 8), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, N = 13), lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla, N = 13), and orangutans (Pongo spp...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299963/extending-genome-wide-association-study-results-to-test-classic-anthropological-hypotheses-human-third-molar-agenesis-and-the-probable-mutation-effect
#11
Adrijana Vukelic, Jacob A Cohen, Alexis P Sullivan, George H Perry
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identifies regions of the genome that likely affect the variable state of a phenotype of interest. These regions can then be studied with population genetic methods to make inferences about the evolutionary history of the trait. There are increasing opportunities to use GWAS results-even from clinically motivated studies-for tests of classic anthropological hypotheses. One such example, presented here as a case study for this approach, involves tooth development variation related to dental crowding...
April 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291118/long-term-patterns-of-body-mass-and-stature-evolution-within-the-hominin-lineage
#12
Manuel Will, Adrián Pablos, Jay T Stock
Body size is a central determinant of a species' biology and adaptive strategy, but the number of reliable estimates of hominin body mass and stature have been insufficient to determine long-term patterns and subtle interactions in these size components within our lineage. Here, we analyse 254 body mass and 204 stature estimates from a total of 311 hominin specimens dating from 4.4 Ma to the Holocene using multi-level chronological and taxonomic analytical categories. The results demonstrate complex temporal patterns of body size variation with phases of relative stasis intermitted by periods of rapid increases...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285971/leveraging-multiple-populations-across-time-helps-define-accurate-models-of-human-evolution-a-reanalysis-of-the-lactase-persistence-adaptation
#13
Chenling Xu Antelope, Davide Marnetto, Fergal Casey, Emilia Huerta-Sanchez
Access to a geographically diverse set of modern human samples from the present time and from ancient remains, combined with archaic hominin samples, provides an unprecedented level of resolution to study both human history and adaptation. The amount and quality of ancient human data continue to improve and enable tracking the trajectory of genetic variation over time. These data have the potential to help us redefine or generate new hypotheses of how human evolution occurred and to revise previous conjectures...
January 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285967/the-genomic-health-of-ancient-hominins
#14
Ali J Berens, Taylor L Cooper, Joseph Lachance
The genomes of ancient humans, Neandertals, and Denisovans contain many alleles that influence disease risks. Using genotypes at 3,180 disease-associated loci, we estimated the disease burden of 147 ancient genomes. After correcting for missing data, genetic risk scores (GRS) were generated for nine disease categories and the set of all combined diseases. We used these genetic risk scores to examine the effects of different types of subsistence, geography, and sample age on the number of risk alleles in each ancient genome...
January 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225028/causes-and-consequences-of-tool-shape-variation-in-new-caledonian-crows
#15
Shoko Sugasawa, Barbara C Klump, James J H St Clair, Christian Rutz
Hominins have been making tools for over three million years [1], yet the earliest known hooked tools appeared as recently as 90,000 years ago [2]. Hook innovation is likely to have boosted our ancestors' hunting and fishing efficiency [3], marking a major transition in human technological evolution. The New Caledonian crow is the only non-human animal known to craft hooks in the wild [4, 5]. Crows manufacture hooked stick tools in a multi-stage process, involving the detachment of a branch from suitable vegetation; "sculpting" of a terminal hook from the nodal joint; and often additional adjustments, such as length trimming, shaft bending, and bark stripping [4, 6, 7]...
December 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220488/disentangling-immediate-adaptive-introgression-from-selection-on-standing-introgressed-variation-in-humans
#16
Evelyn Jagoda, Daniel J Lawson, Jeffrey D Wall, David Lambert, Craig Muller, Michael Westaway, Matthew Leavesley, Terence D Capellini, Marta Mirazón Lahr, Pascale Gerbault, Mark G Thomas, Andrea Bamberg Migliano, Eske Willerslev, Mait Metspalu, Luca Pagani
Recent studies have reported evidence suggesting that portions of contemporary human genomes introgressed from archaic hominin populations went to high frequencies due to positive selection. However, no study to date has specifically addressed the post-introgression population dynamics of these putative cases of adaptive introgression. Here, for the first time, we specifically define cases of immediate adaptive introgression (iAI), in which archaic haplotypes rose to high frequencies in humans as a result of a selective sweep that occurred shortly after the introgression event...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217544/on-the-origin-of-modern-humans-asian-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Christopher J Bae, Katerina Douka, Michael D Petraglia
The traditional "out of Africa" model, which posits a dispersal of modern Homo sapiens across Eurasia as a single wave at ~60,000 years ago and the subsequent replacement of all indigenous populations, is in need of revision. Recent discoveries from archaeology, hominin paleontology, geochronology, genetics, and paleoenvironmental studies have contributed to a better understanding of the Late Pleistocene record in Asia. Important findings highlighted here include growing evidence for multiple dispersals predating 60,000 years ago in regions such as southern and eastern Asia...
December 8, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216324/correction-the-lithic-assemblages-of-donggutuo-nihewan-basin-knapping-skills-of-early-pleistocene-hominins-in-north-china
#18
Shi-Xia Yang, Michael D Petraglia, Ya-Mei Hou, Jian-Ping Yue, Cheng-Long Deng, Ri-Xiang Zhu
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0185101.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191415/paleoecology-of-the-serengeti-during-the-oldowan-acheulean-transition-at-olduvai-gorge-tanzania-the-mammal-and-fish-evidence
#19
Faysal Bibi, Michael Pante, Antoine Souron, Kathlyn Stewart, Sara Varela, Lars Werdelin, Jean-Renaud Boisserie, Mikael Fortelius, Leslea Hlusko, Jackson Njau, Ignacio de la Torre
Eight years of excavation work by the Olduvai Geochronology and Archaeology Project (OGAP) has produced a rich vertebrate fauna from several sites within Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Study of these as well as recently re-organized collections from Mary Leakey's 1972 HWK EE excavations here provides a synthetic view of the faunal community of Olduvai during Middle Bed II at ∼1.7-1.4 Ma, an interval that captures the local transition from Oldowan to Acheulean technology. We expand the faunal list for this interval, name a new bovid species, clarify the evolution of several mammalian lineages, and record new local first and last appearances...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185525/primate-archaeology-evolves
#20
REVIEW
Michael Haslam, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Tomos Proffitt, Adrian Arroyo, Tiago Falótico, Dorothy Fragaszy, Michael Gumert, John W K Harris, Michael A Huffman, Ammie K Kalan, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, William McGrew, Eduardo B Ottoni, Alejandra Pascual-Garrido, Alex Piel, Jill Pruetz, Caroline Schuppli, Fiona Stewart, Amanda Tan, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Lydia V Luncz
Since its inception, archaeology has traditionally focused exclusively on humans and our direct ancestors. However, recent years have seen archaeological techniques applied to material evidence left behind by non-human animals. Here, we review advances made by the most prominent field investigating past non-human tool use: primate archaeology. This field combines survey of wild primate activity areas with ethological observations, excavations and analyses that allow the reconstruction of past primate behaviour...
October 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
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