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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145489/expert-cognition-in-the-production-sequence-of-acheulian-cleavers-at-gesher-benot-ya-aqov-israel-a-lithic-and-cognitive-analysis
#1
Gadi Herzlinger, Thomas Wynn, Naama Goren-Inbar
Stone cleavers are one of the most distinctive components of the Acheulian toolkit. These tools were produced as part of a long and complex reduction sequence and they provide indications for planning and remarkable knapping skill. These aspects hold implications regarding the cognitive complexity and abilities of their makers and users. In this study we have analyzed a cleaver assemblage originating from the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel, to provide a reconstruction of the chaîne opératoire which structured their production...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145432/evaluating-the-intensity-of-fire-at-the-acheulian-site-of-gesher-benot-ya-aqov-spatial-and-thermoluminescence-analyses
#2
Nira Alperson-Afil, Daniel Richter, Naama Goren-Inbar
This manuscript presents an attempt to evaluate the intensity of fire through spatial patterning and thermoluminescence methodology. Previous studies of Layer II-6 Level 2 at the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov suggested that hominins differentiated their activities across space, including multiple activities around a hearth reconstructed on the basis of the distribution of burned flint artifacts. A transect of ~4 m was extended from the center of the reconstructed hearth of Level 2 to its periphery in order to examine the intensity of fire...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112753/genome-nutrition-divergence-evolving-understanding-of-the-malnutrition-spectrum
#3
Jacob C Eaton, Lora L Iannotti
Humans adapted over a period of 2.3 million years to a diet high in quality and diversity. Genome-nutrition divergence describes the misalignment between modern global diets and the genome formed through evolution. A survey of hominin diets over time shows that humans have thrived on a broad range of foods. Earlier diets were highly diverse and nutrient dense, in contrast to modern food systems in which monotonous diets of staple cereals and ultraprocessed foods play a more prominent role. Applying the lens of genome-nutrition divergence to malnutrition reveals shared risk factors for undernutrition and overnutrition at nutrient, food, and environmental levels...
November 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071711/a-quantitative-approach-for-analysing-bone-modelling-patterns-from-craniofacial-surfaces-in-hominins
#4
Natalia Brachetta-Aporta, Paula N Gonzalez, Valeria Bernal
Bone size and shape arise throughout ontogeny as a result of the coordinated activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, responsible for bone deposition and resorption, and growth displacements. The modelling processes leave specific microstructural features on the bone surface, which can be used to infer the mechanisms shaping craniofacial traits in extinct and extant species. However, the analysis of bone surfaces from fossils and archaeological samples faces some difficulties related to the bone loss caused by taphonomic factors, and the lack of formal methods for estimating missing information and comparing the patterns of bone modelling among several specimens and samples...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068047/a-multivariate-assessment-of-the-dali-hominin-cranium-from-china-morphological-affinities-and-implications-for-pleistocene-evolution-in-east-asia
#5
Sheela Athreya, Xinzhi Wu
OBJECTIVES: A nearly complete hominin fossil cranium from Dali in Shaanxi Province, China was excavated in 1978. We update and expand on previous research by providing a multivariate analysis of the specimen relative to a large sample of Middle and Late Pleistocene hominins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We apply principal components analysis, discriminant function analysis, and a method of assessing group membership based on a soft independent model of class analogy (SIMCA) to the study of Dali's cranial morphology...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054159/relationship-between-foramen-magnum-position-and-locomotion-in-extant-and-extinct-hominoids
#6
Dimitri Neaux, Thibaut Bienvenu, Franck Guy, Guillaume Daver, Gabriele Sansalone, Justin A Ledogar, Todd C Rae, Stephen Wroe, Michel Brunet
From the Miocene Sahelanthropus tchadensis to Pleistocene Homo sapiens, hominins are characterized by a derived anterior position of the foramen magnum relative to basicranial structures. It has been previously suggested that the anterior position of the foramen magnum in hominins is related to bipedal locomotor behavior. Yet, the functional relationship between foramen magnum position and bipedal locomotion remains unclear. Recent studies, using ratios based on cranial linear measurements, have found a link between the anterior position of the foramen magnum and bipedalism in several mammalian clades: marsupials, rodents, and primates...
December 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049407/correction-the-lithic-assemblages-of-donggutuo-nihewan-basin-knapping-skills-of-early-pleistocene-hominins-in-north-china
#7
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0185101.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037417/establishment-of-occupation-chronicles-in-grotte-mandrin-using-sooted-concretions-rethinking-the-middle-to-upper-paleolithic-transition
#8
Ségolène Vandevelde, Jacques Élie Brochier, Christophe Petit, Ludovic Slimak
Soot marks, witnesses of past human activities, can sometimes be noticed in concretions (speleothem, travertine, carbonated crust, etc.) formed in cavities. We demonstrate here that these deposits, generally ignored in archaeological studies, turned out to be a perfectly suitable material for micro-chronological study of hominin activities in a site. At the Grotte Mandrin (Mediterranean France), thousands of clastic fragments from the rock walls were found in every archaeological level of the shelter. Calcareous crusts containing soot deposits are recorded on some of their surfaces...
November 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037416/the-diet-of-open-habitat-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-schweinfurthii-in-the-issa-valley-western-tanzania
#9
Alex K Piel, Paolo Strampelli, Emily Greathead, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Jim Moore, Fiona A Stewart
Comparative data on the diets of extant primates inform hypotheses about hominin resource use. Historically, data describing chimpanzee diets stem primarily from forest-dwelling communities, and we lack comparative data from chimpanzees that live in mosaic habitats that more closely resemble those reconstructed for Plio-Pleistocene hominins. We present data on the diet of a partially-habituated community of open habitat chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) from the Issa valley, western Tanzania, collected over a four-year period...
November 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037414/chimpanzee-vertebrate-consumption-savanna-and-forest-chimpanzees-compared
#10
Jim Moore, Jessica Black, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Gen'ichi Idani, Alex Piel, Fiona Stewart
There is broad consensus among paleoanthropologists that meat-eating played a key role in the evolution of Homo, but the details of where, when, and why are hotly debated. It has been argued that increased faunivory was causally connected with hominin adaptation to open, savanna habitats. If savanna-dwelling chimpanzees eat meat more frequently than do forest chimpanzees, it would support the notion that open, dry, seasonal habitats promote hunting or scavenging by hominoids. Here we present observational and fecal analysis data on vertebrate consumption from several localities within the dry, open Ugalla region of Tanzania...
November 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037413/extant-ape-dental-topography-and-its-implications-for-reconstructing-the-emergence-of-early-homo
#11
Michael A Berthaume, Kes Schroer
Dental topography reflects diet accurately in several extant and extinct mammalian clades. However, dental topographic dietary reconstructions have high success rates only when closely related taxa are compared. Given the dietary breadth that exists among extant apes and likely existed among fossil hominins, dental topographic values from many species and subspecies of great apes are necessary for making dietary inferences about the hominin fossil record. Here, we present the results of one metric of dental topography, Dirichlet normal energy (DNE), for seven groups of great apes (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes troglodytes and schweinfurthii, Gorilla gorilla gorilla, Gorilla beringei graueri and beringei)...
November 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027335/occasional-obligatory-and-habitual-stone-tool-use-in-hominin-evolution
#12
John J Shea
Archeologists have long assumed that earlier hominins were obligatory stone tool users. This assumption is deeply embedded in traditional ways of describing the lithic record. This paper argues that lithic evidence dating before 1.7 Ma reflects occasional stone tool use, much like that practiced by nonhuman primates except that it involved flaked-stone cutting tools. Evidence younger than 0.3 Ma is more congruent with obligatory stone tool use, like that among recent humans. The onset of habitual stone tool use at about 1...
September 2017: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026075/evidence-of-a-chimpanzee-sized-ancestor-of-humans-but-a-gibbon-sized-ancestor-of-apes
#13
Mark Grabowski, William L Jungers
Body mass directly affects how an animal relates to its environment and has a wide range of biological implications. However, little is known about the mass of the last common ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees, hominids (great apes and humans), or hominoids (all apes and humans), which is needed to evaluate numerous paleobiological hypotheses at and prior to the root of our lineage. Here we use phylogenetic comparative methods and data from primates including humans, fossil hominins, and a wide sample of fossil primates including Miocene apes from Africa, Europe, and Asia to test alternative hypotheses of body mass evolution...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024511/the-relationship-between-linear-osteological-and-radiographic-measurements-of-the-human-calcaneus-and-talus
#14
David Agoada
Plain radiographs of the foot are a common form of examination in individuals when medical evaluation is indicated. Their availability makes them useful for studying human variation where large sample sizes are crucial. Calcaneal and talar morphology are critical in the understanding of human foot form and function, but few studies have examined the accuracy of linear measurements of these bones taken from radiographs. If linear measurements are to be used in quantitative analysis, their accuracy must first be demonstrated...
October 10, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979799/network-analysis-of-the-hominin-origin-of-herpes-simplex-virus-2-from-fossil-data
#15
Simon J Underdown, Krishna Kumar, Charlotte Houldcroft
Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) is a human herpesvirus found worldwide that causes genital lesions and more rarely causes encephalitis. This pathogen is most common in Africa, and particularly in central and east Africa, an area of particular significance for the evolution of modern humans. Unlike HSV1, HSV2 has not simply co-speciated with humans from their last common ancestor with primates. HSV2 jumped the species barrier between 1.4 and 3 MYA, most likely through intermediate but unknown hominin species. In this article, we use probability-based network analysis to determine the most probable transmission path between intermediate hosts of HSV2, from the ancestors of chimpanzees to the ancestors of modern humans, using paleo-environmental data on the distribution of African tropical rainforest over the last 3 million years and data on the age and distribution of fossil species of hominin present in Africa between 1...
July 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966047/preliminary-paleoecological-insights-from-the-pliocene-avifauna-of-kanapoi-kenya-implications-for-the-ecology-of-australopithecus-anamensis
#16
Daniel J Field
Fossil bird remains from the Pliocene hominin-bearing locality of Kanapoi comprise >100 elements representing at least 10 avian families, including previously undescribed elements referred to the 'giant' Pliocene marabou stork Leptoptilos cf. falconeri. The taxonomic composition of the Kanapoi fossil avifauna reveals an assemblage with a substantial aquatic component, corroborating geological evidence of this locality's close proximity to a large, slow-moving body of water. Both the taxonomic composition and relative abundance of avian higher-level clades at Kanapoi stand in stark contrast to the avifauna from the slightly older (∼4...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957509/archaic-hominin-introgression-in-africa-contributes-to-functional-salivary-muc7-genetic-variation
#17
Duo Xu, Pavlos Pavlidis, Recep Ozgur Taskent, Nikolaos Alachiotis, Colin Flanagan, Michael DeGiorgio, Ran Blekhman, Stefan Ruhl, Omer Gokcumen
One of the most abundant proteins in human saliva, mucin-7, is encoded by the MUC7 gene, which harbors copy number variable subexonic repeats (PTS-repeats) that affect the size and glycosylation potential of this protein. We recently documented the adaptive evolution of MUC7 subexonic copy number variation among primates. Yet, the evolution of MUC7 genetic variation in humans remained unexplored. Here, we found that PTS-repeat copy number variation has evolved recurrently in the human lineage, thereby generating multiple haplotypic backgrounds carrying five or six PTS-repeat copy number alleles...
October 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934295/the-lithic-assemblages-of-donggutuo-nihewan-basin-knapping-skills-of-early-pleistocene-hominins-in-north-china
#18
Shi-Xia Yang, Michael D Petraglia, Ya-Mei Hou, Jian-Ping Yue, Cheng-Long Deng, Ri-Xiang Zhu
Donggutuo (DGT) is one of the richest archaeological localities in the Nihewan Basin of North China, thereby providing key information about the technological behaviours of early hominins in eastern Asia. Although DGT has been subject of multiple excavations and technological studies over the past several decades, few detailed studies on the lithic assemblages have been published. Here we summarize and describe the DGT lithic assemblages, examining stone tool reduction methods and technological skills. DGT dates to ca...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923540/the-contribution-of-admixture-to-primate-evolution
#19
REVIEW
Jenny Tung, Luis B Barreiro
Genome-wide data on genetic variation are now available for multiple primate species and populations, facilitating analyses of evolutionary history within and across taxa. One emerging theme from these studies involves the central role of admixture. Genomic data sets indicate that both ancient gene flow following initial taxonomic divergence and ongoing gene flow at current species boundaries are common. These findings are of particular interest given evidence for a complex history of admixture in our own lineage, including examples of ecologically driven adaptive introgression...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917702/hominin-track-assemblages-from-okote-member-deposits-near-ileret-kenya-and-their-implications-for-understanding-fossil-hominin-paleobiology-at-1-5%C3%A2-ma
#20
Kevin G Hatala, Neil T Roach, Kelly R Ostrofsky, Roshna E Wunderlich, Heather L Dingwall, Brian A Villmoare, David J Green, David R Braun, John W K Harris, Anna K Behrensmeyer, Brian G Richmond
Tracks can provide unique, direct records of behaviors of fossil organisms moving across their landscapes millions of years ago. While track discoveries have been rare in the human fossil record, over the last decade our team has uncovered multiple sediment surfaces within the Okote Member of the Koobi Fora Formation near Ileret, Kenya that contain large assemblages of ∼1.5 Ma fossil hominin tracks. Here, we provide detailed information on the context and nature of each of these discoveries, and we outline the specific data that are preserved on the Ileret hominin track surfaces...
November 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
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