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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773338/taking-stock-a-systematic-review-of-archaeological-evidence-of-cancers-in-human-and-early-hominin-remains
#1
Kathryn J Hunt, Charlotte Roberts, Casey Kirkpatrick
This study summarizes data from 154 paleopathological studies documenting 272 archaeologically recovered individuals exhibiting skeletal or soft tissue evidence of cancer (malignant neoplastic disease) between 1.8 million years ago and 1900 CE. The paper reviews and summarizes the temporal, spatial and demographic distribution of the evidence and the methods used to provide the cancer diagnoses. Metastasis to bone is the most widely reported evidence (n = 161), followed by multiple myeloma (n = 55)...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764690/inter-ray-variation-in-metatarsal-strength-properties-in-humans-and-african-apes-implications-for-inferring-bipedal-biomechanics-in-the-olduvai-hominid-8-foot
#2
Biren A Patel, Tea Jashashvili, Stephanie H Bui, Kristian J Carlson, Nicole L Griffin, Ian J Wallace, Caley M Orr, Randall L Susman
When measured as a ratio of mean midshaft diameter to bone length, the OH 8 fossil hominin foot exhibits a metatarsal (Mt) robusticity pattern of 1 > 5 > 3 > 4 > 2, which differs from the widely perceived "common" modern human pattern (1 > 5 > 4 > 3 > 2); African apes generally exhibit a third pattern (1 > 2 > 3 > 4 > 5). Largely because of the relative ranking of Mt2 and Mt5, OH 8 metatarsals structurally resemble the pattern exhibited by bipedal humans more than the pattern of quadrupedal and climbing African apes...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760068/endocast-morphology-of-homo-naledi-from-the-dinaledi-chamber-south-africa
#3
Ralph L Holloway, Shawn D Hurst, Heather M Garvin, P Thomas Schoenemann, William B Vanti, Lee R Berger, John Hawks
Hominin cranial remains from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa, represent multiple individuals of the species Homo naledi This species exhibits a small endocranial volume comparable to Australopithecus , combined with several aspects of external cranial anatomy similar to larger-brained species of Homo such as Homo habilis and Homo erectus Here, we describe the endocast anatomy of this recently discovered species. Despite the small size of the H. naledi endocasts, they share several aspects of structure in common with other species of Homo , not found in other hominins or great apes, notably in the organization of the inferior frontal and lateral orbital gyri...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753444/a-biplanar-x-ray-approach-for-studying-the-3d-dynamics-of-human-track-formation
#4
Kevin G Hatala, David A Perry, Stephen M Gatesy
Recent discoveries have made hominin tracks an increasingly prevalent component of the human fossil record, and these data have the capacity to inform long-standing debates regarding the biomechanics of hominin locomotion. However, there is currently no consensus on how to decipher biomechanical variables from hominin tracks. These debates can be linked to our generally limited understanding of the complex interactions between anatomy, motion, and substrate that give rise to track morphology. These interactions are difficult to study because direct visualization of the track formation process is impeded by foot and substrate opacity...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753441/a-new-tephrochronology-for-early-diverse-stone-tool-technologies-and-long-distance-raw-material-transport-in-the-middle-to-late-pleistocene-kapthurin-formation-east-africa
#5
Nick Blegen, Brian R Jicha, Sally McBrearty
The Middle to Late Pleistocene (780-10 ka) of East Africa records evidence of significant behavioral change, early fossils of Homo sapiens, and the dispersals of our species across and out of Africa. Studying human evolution in this time period thus requires an extensive and precise chronology relating behavioral evidence from archaeological sequences to aspects of hominin biology and evidence of past environments from fossils and geological sequences. Tephrochronology provides the chronostratigraphic resolution to achieve this through correlation and dating of volcanic ashes...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752005/large-mammal-diets-and-paleoecology-across-the-oldowan-acheulean-transition-at-olduvai-gorge-tanzania-from-stable-isotope-and-tooth-wear-analyses
#6
Kevin T Uno, Florent Rivals, Faysal Bibi, Michael Pante, Jackson Njau, Ignacio de la Torre
The well-dated Pleistocene sediments at Olduvai Gorge have yielded a rich record of hominin fossils, stone tools, and vertebrate faunal remains that, taken together, provide insight to hominin behavior and paleoecology. Since 2008, the Olduvai Geochronology and Archaeology Project (OGAP) has undertaken extensive excavations in Bed II that have yielded a large collection of early Pleistocene stone tools and fossils. The strata of Lower, Middle and Upper Bed II at Olduvai Gorge capture the critical transition from Oldowan to Acheulean technology and therefore provide an opportunity to explore the possible role of biotic and abiotic change during the transition...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752004/is-there-a-developed-oldowan-a-at-olduvai-gorge-a-diachronic-analysis-of-the-oldowan-in-bed-i-and-lower-middle-bed-ii-at-olduvai-gorge-tanzania
#7
Tomos Proffitt
Debates regarding the validity of the Developed Oldowan as separate cultural facies within the Oldowan techno-complex have primarily concentrated on the Developed Oldowan B/Acheulean transition, with little attention paid to the validity of the Developed Oldowan A (DOA) as a valid technological differentiation. This study presents a diachronic technological analysis and comparison of Oldowan and DOA lithic assemblages from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, dated between 1.84 and 1.6 Ma, to test the validity of Leakey's original distinction between these two cultural facies...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743608/unexpectedly-rapid-evolution-of-mandibular-shape-in-hominins
#8
P Raia, M Boggioni, F Carotenuto, S Castiglione, M Di Febbraro, F Di Vincenzo, M Melchionna, A Mondanaro, A Papini, A Profico, C Serio, A Veneziano, V A Vero, L Rook, C Meloro, G Manzi
Members of the hominins - namely the so-called 'australopiths' and the species of the genus Homo - are known to possess short and deep mandibles and relatively small incisors and canines. It is commonly assumed that this suite of traits evolved in early members of the clade in response to changing environmental conditions and increased consumption of though food items. With the emergence of Homo, the functional meaning of mandible shape variation is thought to have been weakened by technological advancements and (later) by the control over fire...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742147/from-neandertals-to-modern-humans-new-data-on-the-uluzzian
#9
Paola Villa, Luca Pollarolo, Jacopo Conforti, Fabrizio Marra, Cristian Biagioni, Ilaria Degano, Jeannette J Lucejko, Carlo Tozzi, Massimo Pennacchioni, Giovanni Zanchetta, Cristiano Nicosia, Marco Martini, Emanuela Sibilia, Laura Panzeri
Having thrived in Eurasia for 350,000 years Neandertals disappeared from the record around 40,000-37,000 years ago, after modern humans entered Europe. It was a complex process of population interactions that included cultural exchanges and admixture between Neandertals and dispersing groups of modern humans. In Europe Neandertals are always associated with the Mousterian while the Aurignacian is associated with modern humans only. The onset of the Aurignacian is preceded by "transitional" industries which show some similarities with the Mousterian but also contain modern tool forms...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737530/neuromandibular-integration-in-humans-and-chimpanzees-implications-for-dental-and-mandibular-reduction-in-homo
#10
Alessio Veneziano, Carlo Meloro, Joel D Irish, Chris Stringer, Antonio Profico, Isabelle De Groote
OBJECTIVES: Although the evolution of the hominin masticatory apparatus has been linked to diet and food processing, the physical connection between neurocranium and lower jaw suggests a role of encephalization in the trend of dental and mandibular reduction. Here, the hypothesis that tooth size and mandibular robusticity are influenced by morphological changes in the neurocranium was tested. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional landmarks, alveolar lengths, and mandibular robusticity data were recorded on a sample of chimpanzee and human skulls...
May 8, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730038/the-neurobiology-of-human-allomaternal-care-implications-for-fathering-coparenting-and-children-s-social-development
#11
Eyal Abraham, Ruth Feldman
Allomothering, the caregiving to offspring by adults other than the biological mother including fathers and other group members, has characterized human societies throughout hominin evolution. Allomothering is common across the animal kingdom and carries long-term fitness benefits to offspring. Guided by our biobehavioral synchrony conceptual frame, we present research from our lab and others addressing the behavioral, hormonal, and neural systems that underpin human allomaternal care by fathers and studies on the coparental bond...
May 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727052/bacteria-in-the-ageing-gut-did-the-taming-of-fire-promote-a-long-human-lifespan
#12
EDITORIAL
Antoine Danchin
Unique among animals as they evolved towards Homo sapiens, hominins progressively cooked their food on a routine basis. Cooked products are characterised by singular chemical compounds, derived from the pervasive Maillard reaction. This same reaction is omnipresent in normal metabolism involving carbonyls and amines, and its products accumulate with age. The gut microbiota acts as a first line of defence against the toxicity of cooked Maillard compounds, that also selectively shape the microbial flora, letting specific metabolites to reach the blood stream...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720661/earliest-known-hominin-activity-in-the-philippines-by-709-thousand-years-ago
#13
T Ingicco, G D van den Bergh, C Jago-On, J-J Bahain, M G Chacón, N Amano, H Forestier, C King, K Manalo, S Nomade, A Pereira, M C Reyes, A-M Sémah, Q Shao, P Voinchet, C Falguères, P C H Albers, M Lising, G Lyras, D Yurnaldi, P Rochette, A Bautista, J de Vos
Over 60 years ago, stone tools and remains of megafauna were discovered on the Southeast Asian islands of Flores, Sulawesi and Luzon, and a Middle Pleistocene colonization by Homo erectus was initially proposed to have occurred on these islands1-4 . However, until the discovery of Homo floresiensis in 2003, claims of the presence of archaic hominins on Wallacean islands were hypothetical owing to the absence of in situ fossils and/or stone artefacts that were excavated from well-documented stratigraphic contexts, or because secure numerical dating methods of these sites were lacking...
May 2, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709292/patterns-of-lateral-enamel-growth-in-homo-naledi-as-assessed-through-perikymata-distribution-and-number
#14
Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg, Mackie C O'Hara, Adeline Le Cabec, Lucas K Delezene, Donald J Reid, Matthew M Skinner, Lee R Berger
Perikymata, incremental growth lines visible on tooth enamel surfaces, differ in their distribution and number among hominin species, although with overlapping patterns. This study asks: (1) How does the distribution of perikymata along the lateral enamel surface of Homo naledi anterior teeth compare to that of other hominins? (2) When both perikymata distribution and number are analyzed together, how distinct is H. naledi from other hominins? A total of 19 permanent anterior teeth (incisors and canines) of H...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706230/human-like-hip-joint-loading-in-australopithecus-africanus-and-paranthropus-robustus
#15
Timothy M Ryan, Kristian J Carlson, Adam D Gordon, Nina Jablonski, Colin N Shaw, Jay T Stock
Adaptations indicative of habitual bipedalism are present in the earliest recognized hominins. However, debate persists about various aspects of bipedal locomotor behavior in fossil hominins, including the nature of gait kinematics, locomotor variability across different species, and the degree to which various australopith species engaged in arboreal behaviors. In this study, we analyze variation in trabecular bone structure of the femoral head using a sample of modern humans, extant non-human hominoids, baboons, and fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus, and the genus Homo...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706229/new-hominin-postcranial-remains-from-locality-omo-323-shungura-formation-lower-omo-valley-southwestern-ethiopia
#16
Guillaume Daver, Gilles Berillon, Caroline Jacquier, Yann Ardagna, Meklit Yadeta, Tiphaine Maurin, Antoine Souron, Cécile Blondel, Yves Coppens, Jean-Renaud Boisserie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691385/deep-whole-genome-sequencing-reveals-recent-selection-signatures-linked-to-evolution-and-disease-risk-of-japanese
#17
Yukinori Okada, Yukihide Momozawa, Saori Sakaue, Masahiro Kanai, Kazuyoshi Ishigaki, Masato Akiyama, Toshihiro Kishikawa, Yasumichi Arai, Takashi Sasaki, Kenjiro Kosaki, Makoto Suematsu, Koichi Matsuda, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Michiaki Kubo, Nobuyoshi Hirose, Yoichiro Kamatani
Understanding natural selection is crucial to unveiling evolution of modern humans. Here, we report natural selection signatures in the Japanese population using 2234 high-depth whole-genome sequence (WGS) data (25.9×). Using rare singletons, we identify signals of very recent selection for the past 2000-3000 years in multiple loci (ADH cluster, MHC region, BRAP-ALDH2, SERHL2). In large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) dataset (n = 171,176), variants with selection signatures show enrichment in heterogeneity of derived allele frequency spectra among the geographic regions of Japan, highlighted by two major regional clusters (Hondo and Ryukyu)...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686074/sporadic-sampling-not-climatic-forcing-drives-observed-early-hominin-diversity
#18
Simon J Maxwell, Philip J Hopley, Paul Upchurch, Christophe Soligo
The role of climate change in the origin and diversification of early hominins is hotly debated. Most accounts of early hominin evolution link observed fluctuations in species diversity to directional shifts in climate or periods of intense climatic instability. None of these hypotheses, however, have tested whether observed diversity patterns are distorted by variation in the quality of the hominin fossil record. Here, we present a detailed examination of early hominin diversity dynamics, including both taxic and phylogenetically corrected diversity estimates...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685753/microwear-textures-of-australopithecus-africanus-and-paranthropus-robustus-molars-in-relation-to-paleoenvironment-and-diet
#19
Alexandria Peterson, Elicia F Abella, Frederick E Grine, Mark F Teaford, Peter S Ungar
The importance of diet in primate ecology has motivated the use of a variety of methods to reconstruct dietary habits of extinct hominin taxa. Dental microwear is one such approach that preserves evidence from consumed food items. This study is based on 44 specimens of Australopithecus africanus from Makapansgat and Sterkfontein, and 66 specimens of Paranthropus robustus from Swartkrans, Kromdraai and Drimolen. These samples enable examination of potential differences between the two assemblages of A. africanus, and among the various assemblages of P...
June 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685752/dental-calculus-indicates-widespread-plant-use-within-the-stable-neanderthal-dietary-niche
#20
Robert C Power, Domingo C Salazar-García, Mauro Rubini, Andrea Darlas, Katerina Harvati, Michael Walker, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Amanda G Henry
The ecology of Neanderthals is a pressing question in the study of hominin evolution. Diet appears to have played a prominent role in their adaptation to Eurasia. Based on isotope and zooarchaeological studies, Neanderthal diet has been reconstructed as heavily meat-based and generally similar across different environments. This image persists, despite recent studies suggesting more plant use and more variation. However, we have only a fragmentary picture of their dietary ecology, and how it may have varied among habitats, because we lack broad and environmentally representative information about their use of plants and other foods...
June 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
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