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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076426/evidence-of-a-vocalic-proto-system-in-the-baboon-papio-papio-suggests-pre-hominin-speech-precursors
#1
Louis-Jean Boë, Frédéric Berthommier, Thierry Legou, Guillaume Captier, Caralyn Kemp, Thomas R Sawallis, Yannick Becker, Arnaud Rey, Joël Fagot
Language is a distinguishing characteristic of our species, and the course of its evolution is one of the hardest problems in science. It has long been generally considered that human speech requires a low larynx, and that the high larynx of nonhuman primates should preclude their producing the vowel systems universally found in human language. Examining the vocalizations through acoustic analyses, tongue anatomy, and modeling of acoustic potential, we found that baboons (Papio papio) produce sounds sharing the F1/F2 formant structure of the human [ɨ æ ɑ ɔ u] vowels, and that similarly with humans those vocalic qualities are organized as a system on two acoustic-anatomic axes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075026/updating-histological-data-on-crown-initiation-and-crown-completion-ages-in-southern-africans
#2
Donald J Reid, Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg
OBJECTIVES: To update histological data on crown initiation and completion ages in southern Africans. To evaluate implications of these data for studies that: (a) rely on these data to time linear enamel hypoplasias (LEHs), or, (b) use these data for comparison to fossil hominins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initiation ages were calculated on 67 histological sections from southern Africans, with sample sizes ranging from one to 11 per tooth type. Crown completion ages for southern Africans were calculated in two ways...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049819/brain-enlargement-and-dental-reduction-were-not-linked-in-hominin-evolution
#3
Aida Gómez-Robles, Jeroen B Smaers, Ralph L Holloway, P David Polly, Bernard A Wood
The large brain and small postcanine teeth of modern humans are among our most distinctive features, and trends in their evolution are well studied within the hominin clade. Classic accounts hypothesize that larger brains and smaller teeth coevolved because behavioral changes associated with increased brain size allowed a subsequent dental reduction. However, recent studies have found mismatches between trends in brain enlargement and posterior tooth size reduction in some hominin species. We use a multiple-variance Brownian motion approach in association with evolutionary simulations to measure the tempo and mode of the evolution of endocranial and dental size and shape within the hominin clade...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044971/-innate-immunity-and-human-diseases-from-archaic-introgression-to-natural-selection
#4
Matthieu Deschamps, Lluís Quintana-Murci
Throughout evolution, humans have had to face strong variation in environmental conditions, with pathogens being among the strongest threats that our species has encountered. The use of population genetic approaches provides novel insights into how natural selection imposed by pathogen pressures, in its different forms and intensities, has shaped the patterns of diversity of the human genome at the population level. These studies help to distinguish genes playing essential, non-redundant functions in host defence from genes variation in which has conferred selective advantages to specific human populations and/or has been acquired through admixture with archaic hominins, such as Neandertals...
December 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035660/morphological-integration-of-the-cranium-in-homo-pan-and-hylobates-and-the-evolution-of-hominoid-facial-structures
#5
Dimitri Neaux
OBJECTIVES: Modern humans diverge from other extant hominids (chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans) in a series of craniofacial morphological features. Like hylobatids, they possess a face with a reduced subnasal prognathism that is associated with a globular basicranium. These traits are not independent, as the skull is a complex integrated structure. The aim of the present study is to determine relationships between the face and the basicranium in two hominid genera (Homo and Pan) and a hylobatid genus (Hylobates) to test if these taxa share common patterns of integration linking these structures...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018626/chimpanzee-fathers-bias-their-behaviour-towards-their-offspring
#6
Carson M Murray, Margaret A Stanton, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf, Emily E Wroblewski, Anne E Pusey
Promiscuous mating was traditionally thought to curtail paternal investment owing to the potential costs of providing care to unrelated infants. However, mounting evidence suggests that males in some promiscuous species can recognize offspring. In primates, evidence for paternal care exists in promiscuous Cercopithecines, but less is known about these patterns in other taxa. Here, we examine two hypotheses for paternal associations with lactating mothers in eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): paternal effort, whereby males associate and interact more with their own infants, and mating effort, whereby males invest in mothers and offspring for mating privileges...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012460/a-new-high-resolution-3-d-quantitative-method-for-identifying-bone-surface-modifications-with-implications-for-the-early-stone-age-archaeological-record
#7
Michael C Pante, Matthew V Muttart, Trevor L Keevil, Robert J Blumenschine, Jackson K Njau, Stephen R Merritt
Bone surface modifications have become important indicators of hominin behavior and ecology at prehistoric archaeological sites. However, the method by which we identify and interpret these marks remains largely unchanged despite decades of research, relying on qualitative criteria and lacking standardization between analysts. Recently, zooarchaeologists have begun using new technologies capable of capturing 3-D data from bone surface modifications to advance our knowledge of these informative traces. However, an important step in this research has been overlooked and after years of work, we lack both a universal and replicable protocol and an understanding of the precision of these techniques...
January 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004892/tropical-forests-and-the-genus-homo
#8
Patrick Roberts, Nicole Boivin, Julia Lee-Thorp, Michael Petraglia, Jay Stock
Tropical forests constitute some of the most diverse and complex terrestrial ecosystems on the planet. From the Miocene onward, they have acted as a backdrop to the ongoing evolution of our closest living relatives, the great apes, and provided the cradle for the emergence of early hominins, who retained arboreal physiological adaptations at least into the Late Pliocene. There also now exists growing evidence, from the Late Pleistocene onward, for tool-assisted intensification of tropical forest occupation and resource extraction by our own species, Homo sapiens...
November 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003445/distance-decay-effect-in-stone-tool-transport-by-wild-chimpanzees
#9
Lydia V Luncz, Tomos Proffitt, Lars Kulik, Michael Haslam, Roman M Wittig
Stone tool transport leaves long-lasting behavioural evidence in the landscape. However, it remains unknown how large-scale patterns of stone distribution emerge through undirected, short-term transport behaviours. One of the longest studied groups of stone-tool-using primates are the chimpanzees of the Taï National Park in Ivory Coast, West Africa. Using hammerstones left behind at chimpanzee Panda nut-cracking sites, we tested for a distance-decay effect, in which the weight of material decreases with increasing distance from raw material sources...
December 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003442/the-heritability-of-chimpanzee-and-human-brain-asymmetry
#10
Aida Gómez-Robles, William D Hopkins, Steven J Schapiro, Chet C Sherwood
Human brains are markedly asymmetric in structure and lateralized in function, which suggests a relationship between these two properties. The brains of other closely related primates, such as chimpanzees, show similar patterns of asymmetry, but to a lesser degree, indicating an increase in anatomical and functional asymmetry during hominin evolution. We analysed the heritability of cerebral asymmetry in chimpanzees and humans using classic morphometrics, geometric morphometrics, and quantitative genetic techniques...
December 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994125/human-evolution-a-tale-from-ancient-genomes
#11
REVIEW
Bastien Llamas, Eske Willerslev, Ludovic Orlando
The field of human ancient DNA (aDNA) has moved from mitochondrial sequencing that suffered from contamination and provided limited biological insights, to become a fully genomic discipline that is changing our conception of human history. Recent successes include the sequencing of extinct hominins, and true population genomic studies of Bronze Age populations. Among the emerging areas of aDNA research, the analysis of past epigenomes is set to provide more new insights into human adaptation and disease susceptibility through time...
February 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983519/two-acheuleans-two-humankinds-from-1-5-to-0-85-ma-at-melka-kunture-upper-awash-ethiopian-highlands
#12
Rosalia Gallotti, Margherita Mussi
The Acheulean is the longest-lasting human cultural record, spanning approximately 1.5 Ma and three continents. The most comprehensive sequences are found in East Africa, where, in largescale syntheses, the Lower Pleistocene Acheulean (LPA) has often been considered a uniform cultural entity. Furthermore, the emergence and development of Acheulean technology are seen as linked to the emergence and evolution of Homo ergaster/erectus. The criterion for grouping together different lithic assemblages scattered over space and time is the presence of large cutting tools (LCTs), more than of any other component...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981368/diet-and-environment-1-2-million-years-ago-revealed-through-analysis-of-dental-calculus-from-europe-s-oldest-hominin-at-sima-del-elefante-spain
#13
Karen Hardy, Anita Radini, Stephen Buckley, Ruth Blasco, Les Copeland, Francesc Burjachs, Josep Girbal, Riker Yll, Eudald Carbonell, Jose María Bermúdez de Castro
Sima del Elefante, Atapuerca, Spain contains one of the earliest hominin fragments yet known in Europe, dating to 1.2 Ma. Dental calculus from a hominin molar was removed, degraded and analysed to recover entrapped remains. Evidence for plant use at this time is very limited and this study has revealed the earliest direct evidence for foods consumed in the genus Homo. This comprises starchy carbohydrates from two plants, including a species of grass from the Triticeae or Bromideae tribe, meat and plant fibres...
February 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964778/new-footprints-from-laetoli-tanzania-provide-evidence-for-marked-body-size-variation-in-early-hominins
#14
Fidelis T Masao, Elgidius B Ichumbaki, Marco Cherin, Angelo Barili, Giovanni Boschian, Dawid A Iurino, Sofia Menconero, Jacopo Moggi-Cecchi, Giorgio Manzi
Laetoli is a well-known palaeontological locality in northern Tanzania whose outstanding record includes the earliest hominin footprints in the world (3.66 million years old), discovered in 1978 at Site G and attributed to Australopithecus afarensis. Here, we report hominin tracks unearthed in the new Site S at Laetoli and referred to two bipedal individuals (S1 and S2) moving on the same palaeosurface and in the same direction as the three hominins documented at Site G. The stature estimates for S1 greatly exceed those previously reconstructed for Au...
December 14, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940097/evolution-of-group-wise-cooperation-is-direct-reciprocity-insufficient
#15
Shun Kurokawa, Yasuo Ihara
Group-wise cooperation, or cooperation among three or more individuals, is an integral part of human societies. It is likely that group-wise cooperation also played a crucial role in the survival of early hominins, who were confronted with novel environmental challenges, long before the emergence of Homo sapiens. However, previous theoretical and empirical studies, focusing mainly on modern humans, have tended to suggest that evolution of cooperation in sizable groups cannot be explained by simple direct reciprocity and requires some additional mechanisms (reputation, punishment, etc...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936135/identifying-major-transitions-in-the-evolution-of-lithic-cutting-edge-production-rates
#16
Antoine Muller, Chris Clarkson
The notion that the evolution of core reduction strategies involved increasing efficiency in cutting edge production is prevalent in narratives of hominin technological evolution. Yet a number of studies comparing two different knapping technologies have found no significant differences in edge production. Using digital analysis methods we present an investigation of raw material efficiency in eight core technologies broadly representative of the long-term evolution of lithic technology. These are bipolar, multiplatform, discoidal, biface, Levallois, prismatic blade, punch blade and pressure blade production...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930293/the-plant-component-of-an-acheulian-diet-at-gesher-benot-ya-aqov-israel
#17
Yoel Melamed, Mordechai E Kislev, Eli Geffen, Simcha Lev-Yadun, Naama Goren-Inbar
Diet is central for understanding hominin evolution, adaptation, and environmental exploitation, but Paleolithic plant remains are scarce. A unique macrobotanical assemblage of 55 food plant taxa from the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel includes seeds, fruits, nuts, vegetables, and plants producing underground storage organs. The food plant remains were part of a diet that also included aquatic and terrestrial fauna. This diverse assemblage, 780,000 y old, reflects a varied plant diet, staple plant foods, environmental knowledge, seasonality, and the use of fire in food processing...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903628/the-role-of-plantigrady-and-heel-strike-in-the-mechanics-and-energetics-of-human-walking-with-implications-for-the-evolution-of-the-human-foot
#18
James T Webber, David A Raichlen
Human bipedal locomotion is characterized by a habitual heel-strike (HS) plantigrade gait, yet the significance of walking foot-posture is not well understood. To date, researchers have not fully investigated the costs of non-heel-strike (NHS) walking. Therefore, we examined walking speed, walk-to-run transition speed, estimated locomotor costs (lower limb muscle volume activated during walking), impact transient (rapid increase in ground force at touchdown) and effective limb length (ELL) in subjects (n=14) who walked at self-selected speeds using HS and NHS gaits...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902687/limb-bone-structural-proportions-and-locomotor-behavior-in-a-l-288-1-lucy
#19
Christopher B Ruff, M Loring Burgess, Richard A Ketcham, John Kappelman
While there is broad agreement that early hominins practiced some form of terrestrial bipedality, there is also evidence that arboreal behavior remained a part of the locomotor repertoire in some taxa, and that bipedal locomotion may not have been identical to that of modern humans. It has been difficult to evaluate such evidence, however, because of the possibility that early hominins retained primitive traits (such as relatively long upper limbs) of little contemporaneous adaptive significance. Here we examine bone structural properties of the femur and humerus in the Australopithecus afarensis A...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886808/comparative-isotope-ecology-of-african-great-apes
#20
Vicky M Oelze, Geraldine Fahy, Gottfried Hohmann, Martha M Robbins, Vera Leinert, Kevin Lee, Henk Eshuis, Nicole Seiler, Erin G Wessling, Josephine Head, Christophe Boesch, Hjalmar S Kühl
The isotope ecology of great apes is a useful reference for palaeodietary reconstructions in fossil hominins. As extant apes live in C3-dominated habitats, variation in isotope signatures is assumed to be low compared to hominoids exploiting C4-plant resources. However, isotopic differences between sites and between and within individuals are poorly understood due to the lack of vegetation baseline data. In this comparative study, we included all species of free-ranging African great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla sp...
December 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
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