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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934295/the-lithic-assemblages-of-donggutuo-nihewan-basin-knapping-skills-of-early-pleistocene-hominins-in-north-china
#1
Shi-Xia Yang, Michael D Petraglia, Ya-Mei Hou, Jian-Ping Yue, Cheng-Long Deng, Ri-Xiang Zhu
Donggutuo (DGT) is one of the richest archaeological localities in the Nihewan Basin of North China, thereby providing key information about the technological behaviours of early hominins in eastern Asia. Although DGT has been subject of multiple excavations and technological studies over the past several decades, few detailed studies on the lithic assemblages have been published. Here we summarize and describe the DGT lithic assemblages, examining stone tool reduction methods and technological skills. DGT dates to ca...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923540/the-contribution-of-admixture-to-primate-evolution
#2
REVIEW
Jenny Tung, Luis B Barreiro
Genome-wide data on genetic variation are now available for multiple primate species and populations, facilitating analyses of evolutionary history within and across taxa. One emerging theme from these studies involves the central role of admixture. Genomic data sets indicate that both ancient gene flow following initial taxonomic divergence and ongoing gene flow at current species boundaries are common. These findings are of particular interest given evidence for a complex history of admixture in our own lineage, including examples of ecologically driven adaptive introgression...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917702/hominin-track-assemblages-from-okote-member-deposits-near-ileret-kenya-and-their-implications-for-understanding-fossil-hominin-paleobiology-at-1-5%C3%A2-ma
#3
Kevin G Hatala, Neil T Roach, Kelly R Ostrofsky, Roshna E Wunderlich, Heather L Dingwall, Brian A Villmoare, David J Green, David R Braun, John W K Harris, Anna K Behrensmeyer, Brian G Richmond
Tracks can provide unique, direct records of behaviors of fossil organisms moving across their landscapes millions of years ago. While track discoveries have been rare in the human fossil record, over the last decade our team has uncovered multiple sediment surfaces within the Okote Member of the Koobi Fora Formation near Ileret, Kenya that contain large assemblages of ∼1.5 Ma fossil hominin tracks. Here, we provide detailed information on the context and nature of each of these discoveries, and we outline the specific data that are preserved on the Ileret hominin track surfaces...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902892/neanderthal-and-denisova-tooth-protein-variants-in-present-day-humans
#4
Clément Zanolli, Mathilde Hourset, Rémi Esclassan, Catherine Mollereau
Environment parameters, diet and genetic factors interact to shape tooth morphostructure. In the human lineage, archaic and modern hominins show differences in dental traits, including enamel thickness, but variability also exists among living populations. Several polymorphisms, in particular in the non-collagenous extracellular matrix proteins of the tooth hard tissues, like enamelin, are involved in dental structure variation and defects and may be associated with dental disorders or susceptibility to caries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890534/harnessing-ancient-genomes-to-study-the-history-of-human-adaptation
#5
REVIEW
Stephanie Marciniak, George H Perry
The past several years have witnessed an explosion of successful ancient human genome-sequencing projects, with genomic-scale ancient DNA data sets now available for more than 1,100 ancient human and archaic hominin (for example, Neandertal) individuals. Recent 'evolution in action' analyses have started using these data sets to identify and track the spatiotemporal trajectories of genetic variants associated with human adaptations to novel and changing environments, agricultural lifestyles, and introduced or co-evolving pathogens...
September 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882548/pleistocene-fossil-woods-from-the-okote-member-site-fwjj-14-in-the-ileret-region-koobi-fora-formation-northern-kenya
#6
Marion K Bamford
On the eastern side of Lake Turkana in northern Kenya are extensive Plio-Pleistocene deposits containing a rich diversity of fossil mammals, hominins and flora within the radiometrically dated tuffaceous, lacustrine and fluvial sequence. Reconstruction of this landscape and paleoenvironment are part of an ongoing multinational and multidisciplinary human evolution project in the eastern Turkana Basin. Today there is a huge lake in the Rift Valley but it has fluctuated since the early Pliocene. Silicified wood is fairly common in some areas of the Koobi Fora Formation...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881961/rectified-factor-networks-for-biclustering-of-omics-data
#7
Djork-Arné Clevert, Thomas Unterthiner, Gundula Povysil, Sepp Hochreiter
Motivation: Biclustering has become a major tool for analyzing large datasets given as matrix of samples times features and has been successfully applied in life sciences and e-commerce for drug design and recommender systems, respectively. actor nalysis for cluster cquisition (FABIA), one of the most successful biclustering methods, is a generative model that represents each bicluster by two sparse membership vectors: one for the samples and one for the features. However, FABIA is restricted to about 20 code units because of the high computational complexity of computing the posterior...
July 15, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878641/the-emergence-of-language-in-the-hominin-lineage-perspectives-from-fossil-endocasts
#8
Amélie Beaudet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874524/direct-dating-of-neanderthal-remains-from-the-site-of-vindija-cave-and-implications-for-the-middle-to-upper-paleolithic-transition
#9
Thibaut Devièse, Ivor Karavanić, Daniel Comeskey, Cara Kubiak, Petra Korlević, Mateja Hajdinjak, Siniša Radović, Noemi Procopio, Michael Buckley, Svante Pääbo, Tom Higham
Previous dating of the Vi-207 and Vi-208 Neanderthal remains from Vindija Cave (Croatia) led to the suggestion that Neanderthals survived there as recently as 28,000-29,000 B.P. Subsequent dating yielded older dates, interpreted as ages of at least ∼32,500 B.P. We have redated these same specimens using an approach based on the extraction of the amino acid hydroxyproline, using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (Prep-HPLC). This method is more efficient in eliminating modern contamination in the bone collagen...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874275/paleolithic-subsistence-strategies-and-changes-in-site-use-at-klissoura-cave-1-peloponnese-greece
#10
Britt M Starkovich
Klissoura Cave 1 in southern Greece preserves a long archaeological sequence that spans roughly 90,000 years and includes Middle Paleolithic, Uluzzian, Upper Paleolithic, and Mesolithic deposits. The site provides a unique opportunity to examine diachronic change and shifts in the intensity of site use across the Late Pleistocene. There is an overall picture of the intensified use of faunal resources at the site, evidenced by a shift from large to small game, and to small fast-moving taxa in particular. This trend is independent of climatic change and fluctuations in site use, and most likely reflects a broader, regional growth of hominin populations...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874274/evidence-of-neanderthals-in-the-balkans-the-infant-radius-from-kozarnika-cave-bulgaria
#11
Anne-Marie Tillier, Nikolay Sirakov, Aleta Guadelli, Philippe Fernandez, Svoboda Sirakova, Irena Dimitrova, Catherine Ferrier, Guillaume Guérin, Maryam Heidari, Ivailo Krumov, Jean-Claude Leblanc, Viviana Miteva, Vasil Popov, Stanimira Taneva, Jean-Luc Guadelli
Excavations conducted by a Bulgarian-French team at Kozarnika Cave (Balkans, Bulgaria) during several seasons yielded a long Paleolithic archaeological sequence and led to the discovery of important faunal, lithic, and human samples. This paper aims to describe the unpublished radius shaft of an infant who died approximately before the sixth month postnatal that was recovered from layer 10b, which contained East Balkan Levallois Mousterian with bifacial leaf points. The layer was dated between 130 and 200 ka (large mammals biochronology) and between 128 ± 13 ka and 183 ± 14 ka (OSL), i...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874273/early-hominin-landscape-use-in-the-lower-omo-valley-ethiopia-insights-from-the-taphonomical-analysis-of-oldowan-occurrences-in%C3%A2-the-shungura-formation-member-f
#12
Tiphaine Maurin, Pascal Bertran, Anne Delagnes, Jean-Renaud Boisserie
The Oldowan archeological record of the Shungura Formation, Member F (Lower Omo valley, Ethiopia) comprises more than one hundred occurrences distributed within archeological complexes, where multiple small spots were found in association with one or two larger occurrences. Such spatial patterning could reflect hominin spatial behavior, repeated occupations within a single sedimentary unit, or taphonomic and/or collection biases. Here we test these hypotheses by way of a geoarcheological and taphonomical analysis using four criteria to assess the preservation of the lithic assemblages: (1) size composition, (2) artifact abrasion, (3) bone abrasion, and (4) orientations of lithic artifacts and bones (i...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874268/do-juveniles-help-or-hinder-influence-of-juvenile-offspring-on-maternal-behavior-and-reproductive-outcomes-in-wild-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#13
Margaret A Stanton, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf, Anne E Pusey, Carson M Murray
Compared to great apes, humans maintain a relatively rapid reproductive pace despite long periods of dependency. This seemingly contradictory set of traits is made possible by weaning offspring before nutritional independence and alloparents who help provide care. In traditional societies, this help may be provided to mothers in part by their juvenile offspring who carry, supervise, or provision younger siblings. In contrast to humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are nutritionally independent after weaning, yet juveniles continue to travel with their mother and younger sibling for an additional 4-5 years...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874265/newly-discovered-neanderthal-remains-from-shanidar-cave-iraqi-kurdistan-and-their-attribution-to-shanidar-5
#14
Emma Pomeroy, Marta Mirazón Lahr, Federica Crivellaro, Lucy Farr, Tim Reynolds, Chris O Hunt, Graeme Barker
The Neanderthal remains from Shanidar Cave, excavated between 1951 and 1960, have played a central role in debates concerning diverse aspects of Neanderthal morphology and behavior. In 2015 and 2016, renewed excavations at the site uncovered hominin remains from the immediate area where the partial skeleton of Shanidar 5 was found in 1960. Shanidar 5 was a robust adult male estimated to have been aged over 40 years at the time of death. Comparisons of photographs from the previous and recent excavations indicate that the old and new remains were directly adjacent to one another, while the disturbed arrangement and partial crushing of the new fossils is consistent with descriptions and photographs of the older discoveries...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870375/dietary-traits-of-the-ungulates-from-the-hwk-ee-site-at-olduvai-gorge-tanzania-diachronic-changes-and-seasonality
#15
Florent Rivals, Kevin T Uno, Faysal Bibi, Michael C Pante, Jackson Njau, Ignacio de la Torre
The Oldowan site HWK EE (Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania) has yielded a large fossil and stone tool assemblage at the transition from Lower to Middle Bed II, ∼1.7 Ma. Integrated tooth wear and stable isotope analyses were performed on the three most abundant ungulate taxa from HWK EE, namely Alcelaphini, cf. Antidorcas recki (Antilopini) and Equus oldowayensis (Equini), to infer dietary traits in each taxon. Some paleodietary changes were observed for cf. A. recki and E. oldowayensis based on tooth wear at the transition from the Lemuta to the Lower Augitic Sandstone (LAS) interval within the HWK EE sequence...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867279/investigating-hominin-carnivory-in-the-okote-member-of-koobi-fora-kenya-with-an-actualistic-model-of-carcass-consumption-and-traces-of-butchery-on-the-elbow
#16
Stephen R Merritt
Previous zooarchaeological analysis at Koobi Fora indicates that Okote Member hominins were the primary agents of bone assemblage formation, gained early access to large and small mammal flesh, and consumed both high- and low-ranked carcass parts. The discovery of additional butchered specimens prompted the re-analysis presented here of three large and well-preserved zooarchaeological assemblages from the Okote member, GaJi14, FwJj14N and FwJj14S, to revisit paleoecological hypotheses about tool-assisted carnivory...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855634/new-dating-evidence-of-the-early-presence-of-hominins-in-southern-europe
#17
Véronique Michel, Chuan-Chou Shen, Jon Woodhead, Hsun-Ming Hu, Chung-Che Wu, Pierre-Élie Moullé, Samir Khatib, Dominique Cauche, Marie-Hélène Moncel, Patricia Valensi, Yu-Min Chou, Sylvain Gallet, Anna Echassoux, François Orange, Henry de Lumley
The first "Out of Africa" migrations represent a seminal event in the history of humankind. At the gates of Europe, the first appearance of Hominins is recorded in Georgia, 1.8 million years ago (Ma); however, the picture of migration across the continent remains incomplete. Vallonnet Cave (France) is a Lower Paleolithic prehistoric site with traces of hominin activities including lithic remains and cut-marks on mammal bones. Here, we apply the uranium-lead (U-Pb) methods to two flowstones to date the intervening archaeological levels...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855415/dental-development-in-homo-naledi
#18
Zachary Cofran, Christopher S Walker
Humans' prolonged somatic development and life history are unique among primates, yet their evolutionary origins remain unclear. Dental development has been used as a proxy to reconstruct life history evolution in the hominin clade and indicates a recent emergence of the human developmental pattern. Here, we analyse tooth formation and eruption in two developing dentitions of Homo naledi, a late-surviving, morphologically mosaic hominin species. Deciduous dental development is more similar to humans than to chimpanzees, probably reflecting hominin symplesiomorphy rather than bearing life history significance...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855367/quaternary-vertebrate-faunas-from-sumba-indonesia-implications-for-wallacean-biogeography-and-evolution
#19
Samuel T Turvey, Jennifer J Crees, James Hansford, Timothy E Jeffree, Nick Crumpton, Iwan Kurniawan, Erick Setiyabudi, Thomas Guillerme, Umbu Paranggarimu, Anthony Dosseto, Gerrit D van den Bergh
Historical patterns of diversity, biogeography and faunal turnover remain poorly understood for Wallacea, the biologically and geologically complex island region between the Asian and Australian continental shelves. A distinctive Quaternary vertebrate fauna containing the small-bodied hominin Homo floresiensis, pygmy Stegodon proboscideans, varanids and giant murids has been described from Flores, but Quaternary faunas are poorly known from most other Lesser Sunda Islands. We report the discovery of extensive new fossil vertebrate collections from Pleistocene and Holocene deposits on Sumba, a large Wallacean island situated less than 50 km south of Flores...
August 30, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854627/the-mitonuclear-dimension-of-neanderthal-and-denisovan-ancestry-in-modern-human-genomes
#20
Joel Sharbrough, Justin C Havird, Gregory R Noe, Jessica M Warren, Daniel B Sloan
Some human populations interbred with Neanderthals and Denisovans, resulting in substantial contributions to modern-human genomes. Therefore, it is now possible to use genomic data to investigate mechanisms that shaped historical gene flow between humans and our closest hominin relatives. More generally, in eukaryotes, mitonuclear interactions have been argued to play a disproportionate role in generating reproductive isolation. There is no evidence of mtDNA introgression into modern human populations, which means that all introgressed nuclear alleles from archaic hominins must function on a modern-human mitochondrial background...
June 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
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