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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633035/economy-and-endurance-in-human-evolution
#1
REVIEW
Herman Pontzer
The evolutionary pressures shaping humans' unique bipedal locomotion have been a focus of research since Darwin, but the origins of humans' economical walking gait and endurance running capabilities remain unclear. Here, I review the anatomical and physiological determinants of locomotor economy (e.g., limb length and posture) and endurance (e.g., muscle volume and fiber type) and investigate their development in the hominin fossil record. The earliest hominins were bipedal but retained ape-like features in the hind limb that would have limited their walking economy compared to living humans...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627781/retraction-early-hominin-biogeography-in-island-southeast-asia-by-roy-larick-and-russell-l-ciochon
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622934/selection-to-outsmart-the-germs-the-evolution-of-disease-recognition-and-social-cognition
#3
Sharon E Kessler, Tyler R Bonnell, Richard W Byrne, Colin A Chapman
The emergence of providing care to diseased conspecifics must have been a turning point during the evolution of hominin sociality. On a population level, care may have minimized the costs of socially transmitted diseases at a time of increasing social complexity, although individual care-givers probably incurred increased transmission risks. We propose that care-giving likely originated within kin networks, where the costs may have been balanced by fitness increases obtained through caring for ill kin. We test a novel hypothesis of hominin cognitive evolution in which disease may have selected for the cognitive ability to recognize when a conspecific is infected...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622932/an-evolutionary-medicine-perspective-on-neandertal-extinction
#4
Alexis P Sullivan, Marc de Manuel, Tomas Marques-Bonet, George H Perry
The Eurasian sympatry of Neandertals and anatomically modern humans - beginning at least 45,000 years ago and possibly lasting for more than 5000 years - has sparked immense anthropological interest into the factors that potentially contributed to Neandertal extinction. Among many different hypotheses, the "differential pathogen resistance" extinction model posits that Neandertals were disproportionately affected by exposure to novel infectious diseases that were transmitted during the period of spatiotemporal sympatry with modern humans...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622927/evolution-of-the-hominin-knee-and-ankle
#5
Mélanie A Frelat, Colin N Shaw, Simone Sukhdeo, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Stefano Benazzi, Timothy M Ryan
The dispersal of the genus Homo out of Africa approximately 1.8 million years ago (Ma) has been understood within the context of changes in diet, behavior, and bipedal locomotor efficiency. While various morphological characteristics of the knee and ankle joints are considered part of a suite of traits indicative of, and functionally related to, habitual bipedal walking, the timing and phylogenetic details of these morphological changes remain unclear. To evaluate the timing of knee and ankle joint evolution, we apply geometric morphometric methods to three-dimensional digital models of the proximal and distal tibiae of fossil hominins, Holocene Homo sapiens, and extant great apes...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622923/consistent-c3-plant-habitat-of-hominins-during-400-300%C3%A2-ka-at-the-longyadong-cave-site-luonan-basin-central-china-revealed-by-stable-carbon-isotope-analyses-of-loess-deposits
#6
Hongyan Zhang, Huayu Lu, Shejiang Wang, Enlou Zhang, Richard Cosgrove, Wenchao Zhang, Lu Li
The proportions of woody and grassland taxa in terrestrial ecosystems played an important role in the origin and evolution of early Palaeolithic hominins. However the influence of ecosystem changes on hominin behavior and adaptations in Asia has not been studied in detail. Hominins have exploited the Luonan Basin in the Eastern Qinling Mountains, central China, since the early Paleolithic. Dated sites, consisting of alternating loess and soil deposits with in situ artefacts, are common in the region, and provide a detailed record of Early to Middle Pleistocene hominin environments...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621823/raw-material-procurement-for-termite-fishing-tools-by-wild-chimpanzees-in-the-issa-valley-western-tanzania
#7
Katarina Almeida-Warren, Volker Sommer, Alex K Piel, Alejandra Pascual-Garrido
OBJECTIVES: Chimpanzee termite fishing has been studied for decades, yet the selective processes preceding the manufacture of fishing tools remain largely unexplored. We investigate raw material selection and potential evidence of forward planning in the chimpanzees of Issa valley, western Tanzania. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using traditional archaeological methods, we surveyed the location of plants from where chimpanzees sourced raw material to manufacture termite fishing tools, relative to targeted mounds...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605019/the-late-neandertal-permanent-lower-left-third-premolar-from-walou-cave-trooz-belgium-and-its-context
#8
Michel Toussaint, Christine Verna, Adeline Le Cabec, Aida Gómez-Robles, Christelle Draily, Michael P Richards, Stéphane Pirson
OBJECTIVES: We describe a hominin permanent lower left third premolar unearthed in 1997 at Walou Cave (Belgium), found in direct association with a Mousterian lithic industry, in a layer directly dated to 40-38,000 years BP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The taxonomical attribution of the tooth is addressed through comparative morphometric analyses, and stable isotope analyses aimed at determining the diet of the individual. RESULTS: The Walou P3 plots within the Neandertal range of variation and is significantly different from recent modern humans in all morphometric assessments...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597395/correlates-and-catalysts-of-hominin-evolution-in-africa
#9
Jeffrey K McKee
Hominin evolution in the African Pliocene and Pleistocene was accompanied and mediated by changes in the abiotic and biotic spheres. It has been hypothesized that such environmental changes were catalysts of hominin morphological evolution and speciations. Whereas there is little doubt that ecological changes were relevant to shaping the trajectories of mammalian evolution, testing specific hypotheses with data from the fossil record has yielded ambiguous results regarding environmental disruption as a primary catalyst...
June 9, 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594068/chimpanzee-ankle-and-foot-joint-kinematics-arboreal-versus-terrestrial-locomotion
#10
Nicholas B Holowka, Matthew C O'Neill, Nathan E Thompson, Brigitte Demes
OBJECTIVES: Many aspects of chimpanzee ankle and midfoot joint morphology are believed to reflect adaptations for arboreal locomotion. However, terrestrial travel also constitutes a significant component of chimpanzee locomotion, complicating functional interpretations of chimpanzee and fossil hominin foot morphology. Here we tested hypotheses of foot motion and, in keeping with general assumptions, we predicted that chimpanzees would use greater ankle and midfoot joint ranges of motion during travel on arboreal supports than on the ground...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593967/the-age-of-the-hominin-fossils-from-jebel-irhoud-morocco-and-the-origins-of-the-middle-stone-age
#11
Daniel Richter, Rainer Grün, Renaud Joannes-Boyau, Teresa E Steele, Fethi Amani, Mathieu Rué, Paul Fernandes, Jean-Paul Raynal, Denis Geraads, Abdelouahed Ben-Ncer, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Shannon P McPherron
The timing and location of the emergence of our species and of associated behavioural changes are crucial for our understanding of human evolution. The earliest fossil attributed to a modern form of Homo sapiens comes from eastern Africa and is approximately 195 thousand years old, therefore the emergence of modern human biology is commonly placed at around 200 thousand years ago. The earliest Middle Stone Age assemblages come from eastern and southern Africa but date much earlier. Here we report the ages, determined by thermoluminescence dating, of fire-heated flint artefacts obtained from new excavations at the Middle Stone Age site of Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, which are directly associated with newly discovered remains of H...
June 7, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593953/new-fossils-from-jebel-irhoud-morocco-and-the-pan-african-origin-of-homo-sapiens
#12
Jean-Jacques Hublin, Abdelouahed Ben-Ncer, Shara E Bailey, Sarah E Freidline, Simon Neubauer, Matthew M Skinner, Inga Bergmann, Adeline Le Cabec, Stefano Benazzi, Katerina Harvati, Philipp Gunz
Fossil evidence points to an African origin of Homo sapiens from a group called either H. heidelbergensis or H. rhodesiensis. However, the exact place and time of emergence of H. sapiens remain obscure because the fossil record is scarce and the chronological age of many key specimens remains uncertain. In particular, it is unclear whether the present day 'modern' morphology rapidly emerged approximately 200 thousand years ago (ka) among earlier representatives of H. sapiens or evolved gradually over the last 400 thousand years...
June 7, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592838/the-first-neanderthal-remains-from-an-open-air-middle-palaeolithic-site-in-the-levant
#13
Ella Been, Erella Hovers, Ravid Ekshtain, Ariel Malinski-Buller, Nuha Agha, Alon Barash, Daniella E Bar-Yosef Mayer, Stefano Benazzi, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Lihi Levin, Noam Greenbaum, Netta Mitki, Gregorio Oxilia, Naomi Porat, Joel Roskin, Michalle Soudack, Reuven Yeshurun, Ruth Shahack-Gross, Nadav Nir, Mareike C Stahlschmidt, Yoel Rak, Omry Barzilai
The late Middle Palaeolithic (MP) settlement patterns in the Levant included the repeated use of caves and open landscape sites. The fossil record shows that two types of hominins occupied the region during this period-Neandertals and Homo sapiens. Until recently, diagnostic fossil remains were found only at cave sites. Because the two populations in this region left similar material cultural remains, it was impossible to attribute any open-air site to either species. In this study, we present newly discovered fossil remains from intact archaeological layers of the open-air site 'Ein Qashish, in northern Israel...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592672/primate-energy-input-and-the-evolutionary-transition-to-energy-dense-diets-in-humans
#14
Bruno Simmen, Patrick Pasquet, Shelly Masi, Georgius J A Koppert, Jonathan C K Wells, Claude Marcel Hladik
Humans and other large-brained hominins have been proposed to increase energy turnover during their evolutionary history. Such increased energy turnover is plausible, given the evolution of energy-rich diets, but requires empirical confirmation. Framing human energetics in a phylogenetic context, our meta-analysis of 17 wild non-human primate species shows that daily metabolizable energy input follows an allometric relationship with body mass where the allometric exponent for mass is 0.75 ± 0.04, close to that reported for daily energy expenditure measured with doubly labelled water in primates...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573649/intra-individual-metameric-variation-expressed-at-the-enamel-dentine-junction-of-lower-post-canine-dentition-of-south-african-fossil-hominins-and-modern-humans
#15
Lei Pan, John Francis Thackeray, Jean Dumoncel, Clément Zanolli, Anna Oettlé, Frikkie de Beer, Jakobus Hoffman, Benjamin Duployer, Christophe Tenailleau, José Braga
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare the degree and patterning of inter- and intra-individual metameric variation in South African australopiths, early Homo and modern humans. Metameric variation likely reflects developmental and taxonomical issues, and could also be used to infer ecological and functional adaptations. However, its patterning along the early hominin postcanine dentition, particularly among South African fossil hominins, remains unexplored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using microfocus X-ray computed tomography (µXCT) and geometric morphometric tools, we studied the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) morphology and we investigated the intra- and inter-individual EDJ metameric variation among eight australopiths and two early Homo specimens from South Africa, as well as 32 modern humans...
June 2, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559355/assessing-human-weaning-practices-with-calcium-isotopes-in-tooth-enamel
#16
Théo Tacail, Béatrice Thivichon-Prince, Jeremy E Martin, Cyril Charles, Laurent Viriot, Vincent Balter
Weaning practices differ among great apes and likely diverged during the course of human evolution, but behavioral inference from the fossil record is hampered by a lack of unambiguous biomarkers. Here, we show that early-life dietary transitions are recorded in human deciduous tooth enamel as marked variations in Ca isotope ratios (δ(44/42)Ca). Using a sequential microsampling method along the enamel growth axis, we collected more than 150 enamel microsamples from 51 deciduous teeth of 12 different modern human individuals of known dietary histories, as well as nine enamel samples from permanent third molars...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556825/modelling-the-role-of-groundwater-hydro-refugia-in-east-african-hominin-evolution-and-dispersal
#17
M O Cuthbert, T Gleeson, S C Reynolds, M R Bennett, A C Newton, C J McCormack, G M Ashley
Water is a fundamental resource, yet its spatiotemporal availability in East Africa is poorly understood. This is the area where most hominin first occurrences are located, and consequently the potential role of water in hominin evolution and dispersal remains unresolved. Here, we show that hundreds of springs currently distributed across East Africa could function as persistent groundwater hydro-refugia through orbital-scale climate cycles. Groundwater buffers climate variability according to spatially variable groundwater response times determined by geology and topography...
May 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542710/behavioral-inferences-from-the-high-levels-of-dental-chipping-in-homo-naledi
#18
Ian Towle, Joel D Irish, Isabelle De Groote
OBJECTIVES: A variety of mechanical processes can result in antemortem dental chipping. In this study, chipping data in the teeth of Homo naledi are compared with those of other pertinent dental samples to give insight into their etiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Permanent teeth with complete crowns evidencing occlusal wear were examined macroscopically. The location, number, and severity of fractures were recorded and compared to those found in samples of two other South African fossil hominin species and in samples of nonhuman primates (n = 3) and recent humans (n = 7)...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542642/early-upper-paleolithic-colonization-across-europe-time-and-mode-of-the-gravettian-diffusion
#19
Nuno Bicho, João Cascalheira, Célia Gonçalves
This study presents new models on the origin, speed and mode of the wave-of-advance leading to the definitive occupation of Europe's outskirts by Anatomically Modern Humans, during the Gravettian, between c. 37 and 30 ka ago. These models provide the estimation for possible demic dispersal routes for AMH at a stable spread rate of c. 0.7 km/year, with the likely origin in Central Europe at the site of Geissenklosterle in Germany and reaching all areas of the European landscape. The results imply that: 1. The arrival of the Gravettian populations into the far eastern European plains and to southern Iberia found regions with very low human occupation or even devoid of hominins; 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533391/thoracic-vertebral-count-and-thoracolumbar-transition-in-australopithecus-afarensis
#20
Carol V Ward, Thierra K Nalley, Fred Spoor, Paul Tafforeau, Zeresenay Alemseged
The evolution of the human pattern of axial segmentation has been the focus of considerable discussion in paleoanthropology. Although several complete lumbar vertebral columns are known for early hominins, to date, no complete cervical or thoracic series has been recovered. Several partial skeletons have revealed that the thoracolumbar transition in early hominins differed from that of most extant apes and humans. Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus sediba, and Homo erectus all had zygapophyseal facets that shift from thoracic-like to lumbar-like at the penultimate rib-bearing level, rather than the ultimate rib-bearing level, as in most humans and extant African apes...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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