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Robert K McNamara
Over the past three decades a body of translational evidence has implicated dietary deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, including eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the pathophysiology and etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Cross-national and cross-sectional data suggest that greater habitual intake of preformed EPA+DHA is associated with reduced risk for developing depressive symptoms and syndromal MDD. Erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition is highly correlated with habitual fish or fish oil intake, and case-control studies have consistently observed lower erythrocyte EPA and/or DHA levels in patients with MDD...
September 2016: J Nutr Intermed Metab
T Komprda, V Rozíková, N Zamazalová, O Škultéty, M Vícenová, M Trčková, M Faldyna
The objective of the present study was to compare hepatic fatty acid deposition, plasma lipid level and expression of cholesterol homeostasis controlling genes in the liver of rats (Wistar Albino; n = 32) and pigs (Large White × Landrace; n = 32) randomly assigned into two groups of 16 animals each and fed 10 weeks the diet with either 2.5% of fish oil (F; source of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid, EPA+DHA) or 2.5% of palm oil (P; high content of saturated fatty acids; control). F-rats deposited in the liver three times less EPA, but 1...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Ivor B Asztalos, Joi A Gleason, Sakine Sever, Reyhan Gedik, Bela F Asztalos, Katalin V Horvath, Michael L Dansinger, Stefania Lamon-Fava, Ernst J Schaefer
BACKGROUND: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the primary omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil, have been shown to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the independent effects of EPA and DHA on lipid and apolipoprotein levels, as well as on inflammatory biomarkers of CVD risk, using doses often used in the general population. DESIGN: A blinded, randomized 6-week trial was performed in 121 healthy, normolipidemic subjects who received olive oil placebo 6g/d, EPA 600mg/d, EPA 1800mg/d, or DHA 600mg/d...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Núria Taltavull, Rosa Ras, Sílvia Mariné, Marta Romeu, Montserrat Giralt, Lucía Méndez, Isabel Medina, Sara Ramos-Romero, Josep L Torres, M Rosa Nogués
A high intake of fat and sucrose can dramatically increase bioactive lipids such as ceramides in tissues. Ceramides regulate several steps in the insulin signal pathway. The effects of n-3 PUFA on insulin resistance are inconsistent, especially in liver. We investigated the effect of n-3 PUFA (EPA/DHA 1 : 1) from fish oil on hepatic ceramides in a pre-diabetic animal model. Three groups of rats were fed standard feed, high fat high sucrose feed (HFHS) or HFHS enriched with n-3 PUFA. We investigated by lipidomic analysis how supplementation of a HFHS diet with n-3 PUFA modifies the hepatic ceramide profile triggered by a HFHS diet...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
Rahul Chaudhary, Katayoon Saadin, Kevin P Bliden, William S Harris, Bao Dinh, Tushar Sharma, Udaya S Tantry, Paul A Gurbel
INTRODUCTION: We sought to determine the associations between plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and various cardiovascular risk factors and with the use of fish oil supplements (FOS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing cardiac catheterization (n=433) were studied. Serum fatty acid (FA) composition, the concentrations of lipids and biomarkers of oxidative stress, and dietary/lifestyle factors were measured...
October 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Cristina Cruz-Hernandez, Frederic Destaillats, Sagar K Thakkar, Laurence Goulet, Emma Wynn, Dominik Grathwohl, Claudia Roessle, Sara de Giorgi, Luc Tappy, Francesca Giuffrida, Vittorio Giusti
It was hypothesized that under induced lipid malabsorption/mal-digestion conditions, an enriched sn-1(3)-monoacylglycerol oil (MAG) may be a better carrier for n-3 LC-PUFA compared to triacylglycerol (TAG) from fish oil (FO). This monocentric, double blinded clinical trial examined the accretion of EPA (500 mg/d) and DHA (300 mg/d) when consumed as TAG or MAG, into the erythrocytes, plasma and chylomicrons of 45 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and 40 kg/m(2)) volunteers who were and were not administered Orlistat, an inhibitor of pancreatic lipases...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Akira Kotani, Mizuki Watanabe, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Fumiyo Kusu, Hideki Hakamata
A high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) system was developed for the simultaneous determination of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA) in human plasma. In the present HPLC-ECD system, EPA, DHA, and AA were separated using a reverse-phase C30 column and detected based on the voltammetric reduction of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone (DBBQ). Chromatographic peak areas were proportional to the concentration of EPA, DHA, and AA from 0...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Xue Du, Yali Liu, Lizhi Lu, Weiqun Wang, Tao Zeng, Yong Tian, Xiaoqin Xu, Jianliang Shen, Dong Niu, Yingru Lu
The effects of different dietary fats with variable levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on egg quality of Shan Partridge Duck, serum, and yolk lipid parameters were examined in this study. A flock of 585 optimal produced ducks were selected and diets enriched with 0.5%, 1%, or 2% fish oil (F)/flaxseed oil (FL)/rapeseed oil (R)/tallow (T) plus basal diet were supplied through a 28-d period. Supplemental fat source and fat level had no effects on egg qualities. Proportions of yolk total cholesterol (TC), saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were reduced (P < 0...
September 24, 2016: Poultry Science
Gabriel Nasri Marzuca-Nassr, Kaio Fernando Vitzel, Luís Gustavo De Sousa, Gilson M Murata, Amanda Rabello Crisma, Carlos Flores Rodrigues Junior, Phablo Abreu, Rosângela Pavan Torres, Jorge Mancini-Filho, Sandro M Hirabara, Philip Newsholme, Rui Curi
The effects of either eicosapentaenoic (EPA)- or docosahexaenoic (DHA)-rich fish oils on hindlimb suspension (HS)-induced muscle disuse atrophy were compared. Daily oral supplementations (0.3 mL/100 g b.w.) with mineral oil (MO) or high EPA or high DHA fish oils were performed in adult rats. After 2 weeks, the animals were subjected to HS for further 2 weeks. The treatments were maintained alongside HS At the end of 4 weeks, we evaluated: body weight gain, muscle mass and fat depots, composition of fatty acids, cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the soleus muscle and soleus muscle fibers, activities of cathepsin L and 26S proteasome, and content of carbonylated proteins in the soleus muscle...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
Zhenzhen Zhang, Mark Garzotto, Tomasz M Beer, Philippe Thuillier, Stephen Lieberman, Motomi Mori, Wesley A Stoller, Paige E Farris, Jackilen Shannon
Animal and human studies suggest fish oil and green tea may have protective effect on prostate cancer. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) has been hypothesized to be linked to chemoprotective effects of both compounds. This study evaluated the independent and joint effects of fish oil (FO) and green tea supplement (epigallocatechin-3-gallate, EGCG) on FAS and Ki-67 levels in prostate tissue. Through a double-blinded, randomized controlled trial with 2 × 2 factorial design, 89 men scheduled for repeat prostate biopsy following an initial negative prostate biopsy were randomized into either FO alone (1...
September 20, 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
Jenifer I Fenton, Eric A Gurzell, Emily A Davidson, William S Harris
Numerous clinical trials examining the use of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) on various health outcomes have been conducted, and fish oil remains one of the most widely used nutritional supplements. More recently, studies have begun to utilize the omega-3 index, defined as the sum of EPA+DHA in red blood cells (RBCs), as both a biomarker of n-3 LCPUFA exposure and a potential risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Considerably less research evaluates whether RBC phospholipid fatty acids reflect the phospholipid fatty acid composition of other tissues across increasing intakes of n-3 LCPUFAs...
September 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Thomas C Hall, Dilraj K Bilku, Christopher P Neal, Jill Cooke, Helena L Fisk, Philip C Calder, Ashley R Dennison
BACKGROUND: Death from sepsis in the intensive therapy unit (ITU) is frequently preceded by the development of multiple organ failure as a result of uncontrolled inflammation. Treatment with omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs), principally eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been demonstrated to attenuate the effects of uncontrolled inflammation and may be clinically beneficial in reducing mortality from organ dysfunction. Fish oil (FO) is a source of EPA and DHA...
September 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Jessay Gopuran Devassy, Shan Leng, Melissa Gabbs, Md Monirujjaman, Harold M Aukema
Alzheimer disease (AD) is becoming one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative conditions worldwide. Although the disease progression is becoming better understood, current medical interventions can only ameliorate some of the symptoms but cannot slow disease progression. Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the advancement of this disorder, and n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are involved in both the reduction in and resolution of inflammation. These effects may be mediated by the anti-inflammatory and proresolving effects of bioactive lipid mediators (oxylipins) derived from n-3 PUFAs [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] in fish oil...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
M K Park, W Li, S Y Paek, X Li, S Wu, T Li, A A Qureshi, E Cho
Fish are rich in marine omega-3 fatty acids (FA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Since marine omega-3 FAs have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties(1) , their potential use as a dietary adjunct in the treatment of psoriasis has been explored(2,3) . Fish oil supplements have shown potentially protective effects on progression of psoriasis in small-scale (n=9~145) clinical studies(2-4) . However, fish oil's benefit for psoriasis has been difficult to confirm because of the lack of baseline measures of dietary and nutritional status(5) ...
September 15, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Tahere Ghorbanzade, Seid Mahdi Jafari, Sahar Akhavan, Roxana Hadavi
Fish oils have many dietary benefits, but due to their strong odors and rapid deterioration, their application in food formulations is limited. For these reasons, nano-liposome was used to nano-encapsulate fish oil in this study and encapsulated fish oil was utilized in fortifying yogurt. Physicochemical properties of produced yogurt including pH, acidity, syneresis, fatty acid composition, peroxide value as well as sensory tests were investigated during three weeks storage at 4°C. Nano-liposome encapsulation resulted in a significant reduction in acidity, syneresis and peroxide value...
February 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Shaoxin Cai, Alison M Coates, Jonathan D Buckley, Narelle M Berry, Lisa Burres, John Beltrame, Peter R C Howe, Geoffrey Schrader
BACKGROUND: Long chain Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3PUFAs) may improve cardiovascular health and depression. This study investigated the relationships between erythrocyte membrane LCn3PUFA status, depression and angina symptoms in patients with heart disease. METHODS: We recruited 91 patients (65 males and 26 females, mean age 59.2±10.3 years) with heart disease and depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, CES-D ≥ 16) and low fish/fish oil intakes...
August 16, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Mónica B Betancor, M Sprague, D Montero, S Usher, O Sayanova, P J Campbell, J A Napier, M J Caballero, M Izquierdo, D R Tocher
Omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are essential components of the diet of all vertebrates. The major dietary source of n-3 LC-PUFA for humans has been fish and seafood but, paradoxically, farmed fish are also reliant on marine fisheries for fish meal and fish oil (FO), traditionally major ingredients of aquafeeds. Currently, the only sustainable alternatives to FO are vegetable oils, which are rich in C18 PUFA, but devoid of the eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) abundant in FO...
October 2016: Lipids
Abilasha Gayani Jayathilake, Paul Vincent Senior, Xiao Qun Su
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world. The current available treatments for CRC include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, surgery is only useful when the disease is diagnosed at the earlier stage. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are associated with numerous side effects that decrease the patients' quality of life. Safer, effective alternatives, such as natural compounds, to chemotherapy are desirable. This study assessed the efficacy of free fatty acid (FFA) extract of krill oil on three human CRC cells lines...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Chad M Gilmer, Ned B Bowden
Membrane separations are highly desired for the chemical industry because they are inexpensive, avoid the use of heat, can be applied to the purification of a wide range of chemicals, and can be scaled to industrial levels. Separating chemicals with molecular weights between 100 and 300 g mol(-1) remains a significant challenge in the field of organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN) due to their similar sizes and rotational flexibility. In this work, we report the fabrication of poly(epoxy) membranes that show excellent selectivity of over 100:1 for chemicals in this range...
September 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Mari C W Myhrstad, Inger Ottestad, Clara-Cecilie Günther, Einar Ryeng, Marit Holden, Astrid Nilsson, Kirsti W Brønner, Achim Kohler, Grethe I A Borge, Kirsten B Holven, Stine M Ulven
BACKGROUND: Marine long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are susceptible to oxidation, generating a range of different oxidation products with suggested negative health effects. The aim of the present study was to utilize sensitive high-throughput transcriptome analyses to investigate potential unfavorable effects of oxidized fish oil (PV: 18 meq/kg; AV: 9) compared to high-quality fish oil (PV: 4 meq/kg; AV: 3). METHODS: In a double-blinded randomized controlled study for seven weeks, 35 healthy subjects were assigned to 8 g of either oxidized fish oil or high quality fish oil...
2016: Genes & Nutrition
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