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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832087/subarachnoid-hemorrhage-promotes-proliferation-differentiation-and-migration-of-neural-stem-cells-via-bdnf-upregulation
#1
Wen-Di Lee, Kuo-Chuan Wang, Yi-Fen Tsai, Pin-Chun Chou, Li-Kai Tsai, Chung-Liang Chien
Patients who suffer from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) usually have long-term neurological impairments. Endogenous neurogenesis might play a potential role in functional recovery after SAH; however, the underlying neurogenesis mechanism is still unclear. We assessed the extent of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) to better understand the neurogenesis mechanism after SAH. We performed a rat model of SAH to examine the extent of neurogenesis in the SVZ and assessed functional effects of the neurotrophic factors in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on neural stem cells (NSCs) after SAH...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813239/combined-tissue-and-fluid-proteomics-with-tandem-mass-tags-to-identify-low-abundant-protein-biomarkers-of-disease-in-peripheral-body-fluid-an-alzheimer-s-disease-case-study
#2
Claire L Russell, Amanda Heslegrave, Vikram Mitra, Henrik Zetterberg, Jennifer M Pocock, Malcolm A Ward, Ian Pike
RATIONALE: Ideal biomarkers are present in readily accessible samples including plasma and CSF, and are directly derived from diseased tissue, therefore likely to be of relatively low abundance. Traditional unbiased proteomic approaches for biomarker discovery have struggled to detect low abundance markers due to the high dynamic range of proteins, the predominance of hyper-abundant proteins, and the use of data-dependent acquisition MS. To overcome these limitations and improve biomarker discovery in peripheral fluids, we have developed TMTcalibrator™; a novel MS workflow combining isobarically labelled diseased tissue digests in parallel with an appropriate set of labelled body fluids to increase the chance of identifying low abundance, tissue-derived biomarkers...
November 4, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779463/a-zebrafish-live-imaging-model-reveals-differential-responses-of-microglia-toward-glioblastoma-cells-in-vivo
#3
Lloyd Hamilton, Katy R Astell, Gergana Velikova, Dirk Sieger
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and deadliest form of brain cancer. Glioblastomas are infiltrated by a high number of microglia, which promote tumor growth and surrounding tissue invasion. However, it is unclear how microglia and glioma cells physically interact and if there are differences, depending on glioma cell type. Hence, we have developed a novel live imaging assay to study microglia-glioma interactions in vivo in the zebrafish brain. We transplanted well-established human glioblastoma cell lines, U87 and U251, into transgenic zebrafish lines with labelled macrophages/microglia...
December 2016: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722366/differential-regulation-of-nsc-phenotype-and-genotype-by-chronically-activated-microglia-within-cocultures
#4
Kurt Farrell, Ali Borazjani, Margot Damaser, Chandrasekhar R Kothapalli
Under disease or injury conditions in the central nervous system (CNS), activated microglia release cytokines and chemokines to modulate the microenvironment and influence tissue remodeling. To exploit the full potential of neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation approaches, a permissive microenvironment needs to be created for their survival, homing and differentiation. To investigate the role of chronically activated microglia in the fate of NSCs, spontaneously immortalized murine microglial cells (SIM-A9) were cocultured with embryonic murine cortical NSCs on 2D substrates or within 3D gels...
October 10, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687148/cathepsin-s-contributes-to-microglia-mediated-olfactory-dysfunction-through-the-regulation-of-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-axis-in-a-niemann-pick-disease-type-c1-model
#5
Yoojin Seo, Hyung-Sik Kim, Insung Kang, Soon Won Choi, Tae-Hoon Shin, Ji-Hee Shin, Byung-Chul Lee, Jin Young Lee, Jae-Jun Kim, Myung Geun Kook, Kyung-Sun Kang
Microglia can aggravate olfactory dysfunction by mediating neuronal death in the olfactory bulb (OB) of a murine model of Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder accompanied by lipid trafficking defects. In this study, we focused on the crosstalk between neurons and microglia to elucidate the mechanisms underlying extensive microgliosis in the NPC1-affected brain. Microglia in the OB of NPC1 mice strongly expressed CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (Cx3cr1), a specific receptor for the neural chemokine C-X3-C motif ligand 1 (Cx3cl1)...
December 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651844/are-temporal-differences-in-gdnf-and-nos-isoform-induction-contributors-to-neurodegeneration-a-fluorescence-microscopy-based-study
#6
Marie-Francoise Doursout, Yangyan Liang, Mya C Schiess, Angelica Padilla, Brian J Poindexter, Diane L M Hickson-Bick, Roger J Bick
BACKGROUND: Specific factors in Parkinson's disease have become targets as to their protective and degenerative effects. We have demonstrated that cytokines and PD-CSF detrimentally affect microglia and astrocyte growth. While glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been recognized as a possible neuron-rescue agent, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been implicated in neurodegenerative processes. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that glial cell activation, cytokine production, and NOS induction, play an intimate role in the loss of dopaminergic signaling, via mechanisms that are a result of inflammation and inflammatory stimuli...
2016: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629482/evaluation-of-the-potential-effects-of-as03-adjuvanted-a-h1n1-pdm09-vaccine-administration-on-the-central-nervous-system-of-non-primed-and-a-h1n1-pdm09-primed-cotton-rats
#7
Camille Planty, Corey P Mallett, Kevin Yim, Jorge C G Blanco, Marina Boukhvalova, Thomas March, Robbert van der Most, Eric Destexhe
An increased risk of narcolepsy following administration of an AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic influenza vaccine (Pandemrix™) was described in children and adolescents in certain European countries. We investigated the potential effects of administration of the AS03-adjuvanted vaccine, non-adjuvanted vaccine antigen and AS03 Adjuvant System alone, on the central nervous system (CNS) in one-month-old cotton rats. Naïve or A(H1N1)pdm09 virus-primed animals received 2 or 3 intramuscular injections, respectively, of test article or saline at 2-week intervals...
September 14, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596437/identification-of-a-novel-mechanism-of-blood-brain-communication-during-peripheral-inflammation-via-choroid-plexus-derived-extracellular-vesicles
#8
Sriram Balusu, Elien Van Wonterghem, Riet De Rycke, Koen Raemdonck, Stephan Stremersch, Kris Gevaert, Marjana Brkic, Delphine Demeestere, Valerie Vanhooren, An Hendrix, Claude Libert, Roosmarijn E Vandenbroucke
Here, we identified release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) by the choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) as a new mechanism of blood-brain communication. Systemic inflammation induced an increase in EVs and associated pro-inflammatory miRNAs, including miR-146a and miR-155, in the CSF Interestingly, this was associated with an increase in amount of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and exosomes per MVB in the CPE cells. Additionally, we could mimic this using LPS-stimulated primary CPE cells and choroid plexus explants...
October 4, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596278/regulation-of-inflammatory-responses-by-neuregulin-1-in-brain-ischemia-and-microglial-cells-in-vitro-involves-the-nf-kappa-b-pathway
#9
Lauren J Simmons, Monique C Surles-Zeigler, Yonggang Li, Gregory D Ford, Gale D Newman, Byron D Ford
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) was neuroprotective in rats following ischemic stroke. Neuroprotection by NRG-1 was associated with the suppression of pro-inflammatory gene expression in brain tissues. Over-activation of brain microglia can induce pro-inflammatory gene expression by activation of transcriptional regulators following stroke. Here, we examined how NRG-1 transcriptionally regulates inflammatory gene expression by computational bioinformatics and in vitro using microglial cells...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576527/colony-stimulating-factor-1-receptor-blockade-prevents-fractionated-whole-brain-irradiation-induced-memory-deficits
#10
Xi Feng, Timothy D Jopson, Maria Serena Paladini, Sharon Liu, Brian L West, Nalin Gupta, Susanna Rosi
BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms and brain metastases are routinely treated with whole-brain radiation. Long-term survival occurs in many patients, but their quality of life is severely affected by the development of cognitive deficits, and there is no treatment to prevent these adverse effects. Neuroinflammation, associated with activation of brain-resident microglia and infiltrating monocytes, plays a pivotal role in loss of neurological function and has been shown to be associated with acute and long-term effects of brain irradiation...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570219/csf-1r-inhibition-attenuates-renal-and-neuropsychiatric-disease-in-murine-lupus
#11
Samantha A Chalmers, Jing Wen, Justine Shum, Jessica Doerner, Leal Herlitz, Chaim Putterman
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease that can affect multiple end organs. Kidney and brain are two of the organs most commonly involved in SLE. Past studies have suggested the importance of macrophages in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis (LN). Furthermore, as the immune effectors of the brain, microglia have been implicated in pathways leading to neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE). We depleted macrophages and microglia using GW2580, a small colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) kinase inhibitor, in MRL-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mice, a classic murine lupus model that displays features of both LN and NPSLE...
August 25, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570180/histological-changes-in-the-rat-brain-and-spinal-cord-following-prolonged-intracerebroventricular-infusion-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-from-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-are-similar-to-those-caused-by-the-disease
#12
U Gómez-Pinedo, L Galán, M Yañez, J Matias-Guiu, C Valencia, A Guerrero-Sola, F Lopez-Sosa, J R Brin, M S Benito-Martin, G Leon-Espinosa, A Vela-Souto, C Lendinez, T Guillamon-Vivancos, J A Matias-Guiu, J A Arranz-Tagarro, J A Barcia, A G Garcia
INTRODUCTION: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients induces cytotoxic effects in in vitro cultured motor neurons. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We selected CSF with previously reported cytotoxic effects from 32 ALS patients. Twenty-eight adult male rats were intracerebroventricularly implanted with osmotic mini-pumps and divided into 3 groups: 9 rats injected with CSF from non-ALS patients, 15 rats injected with cytotoxic ALS-CSF, and 4 rats injected with a physiological saline solution...
August 25, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538994/development-and-characterization-of-a-human-microglia-cell-model-of-hiv-1-infection
#13
Pratima Rawat, Stephen A Spector
Microglia cells are the major reservoir of HIV-1 (HIV) within the CNS. However, current models using transformed cell lines are not representative of primary microglia and fetal brain samples for isolation of primary human microglia (HMG) are increasingly difficult to obtain. Here, we describe a monocyte-derived microglia (MMG) cell model of HIV infection that recapitulates infection of primary HMG. CD14(+) cells isolated from healthy donors were cultured with M-CSF, beta-nerve growth factor, GM-CSF, and CCL2, and compared to HMG...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538969/early-applications-of-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-g-csf-can-stabilize-the-blood-optic-nerve-barrier-and-ameliorate-inflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-raion
#14
Yao-Tseng Wen, Tzu-Lun Huang, Sung-Ping Huang, Chung-Hsing Chang, Rong-Kung Tsai
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was reported to have a neuroprotective effect in a rat model of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION model). However, the therapeutic window and anti-inflammatory effects of G-CSF in a rAION model have yet to be elucidated. Thus, this study aimed to determine the therapeutic window of G-CSF and investigate the mechanisms of G-CSF via regulation of optic nerve (ON) inflammation in a rAION model. Rats were treated with G-CSF on day 0, 1, 2 or 7 post-rAION induction for 5 consecutive days, and a control group were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)...
October 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497943/mesenchymal-stem-cells-enhance-%C3%AE-synuclein-clearance-via-m2-microglia-polarization-in-experimental-and-human-parkinsonian-disorder
#15
Hyun Jung Park, Se Hee Oh, Ha Na Kim, Yu Ju Jung, Phil Hyu Lee
Microglia in the brain show distinctive phenotypes that serve different functions. In particular, M2-polarized microglia are anti-inflammatory and phagocytic cells that serve a restorative function. In this study, we investigated whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) enhance the phagocytic clearance of α-synuclein via M2 microglia polarization, and thereby exert neuroprotective effects in α-synuclein-enriched experimental models and patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). Treatment of BV2 cells with α-synuclein induced an inflammatory phenotype, whereas co-culture of α-synuclein-treated BV2 cells with MSCs induced an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, with decreased α-synuclein levels and increased lysosomal activity, leading to greater viability of neuronal cells co-cultured with BV2 cells...
November 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490250/characteristic-microglial-features-in-patients-with-hereditary-diffuse-leukoencephalopathy-with-spheroids
#16
Mari Tada, Takuya Konno, Masayoshi Tada, Toshiyuki Tezuka, Takeshi Miura, Naomi Mezaki, Ken-Ichi Okazaki, Musashi Arakawa, Kyoko Itoh, Toru Yamamoto, Hideaki Yokoo, Nobuaki Yoshikura, Kenji Ishihara, Masao Horie, Hirohide Takebayashi, Yasuko Toyoshima, Makoto Naito, Osamu Onodera, Masatoyo Nishizawa, Hitoshi Takahashi, Takeshi Ikeuchi, Akiyoshi Kakita
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the histopathological alterations of microglia in the brains of patients with hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) caused by mutations of the gene encoding the colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R). METHODS: We examined 5 autopsied brains and 1 biopsy specimen from a total of 6 patients with CSF-1R mutations. Detailed immunohistochemical, biochemical, and ultrastructural features of microglia were examined, and quantitative analyses were performed...
October 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466339/the-alarmin-hmgb1-mediates-age-induced-neuroinflammatory-priming
#17
Laura K Fonken, Matthew G Frank, Meagan M Kitt, Heather M D'Angelo, Diana M Norden, Michael D Weber, Ruth M Barrientos, Jonathan P Godbout, Linda R Watkins, Steven F Maier
UNLABELLED: Amplified neuroinflammatory responses following an immune challenge occur with normal aging and can elicit or exacerbate neuropathology. The mechanisms mediating this sensitized or "primed" immune response in the aged brain are not fully understood. The alarmin high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) can be released under chronic pathological conditions and initiate inflammatory cascades. This led us to investigate whether HMGB1 regulates age-related priming of the neuroinflammatory response...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444966/rae-1-expression-is-induced-during-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-is-correlated-with-microglia-cell-proliferation
#18
Mehdi Djelloul, Natalia Popa, Florence Pelletier, Gilda Raguénez, José Boucraut
Retinoic acid early induced transcript-1 (RAE-1) glycoproteins are ligands of the activating immune receptor NKG2D. They are known as stress molecules induced in pathological conditions. We previously reported that progenitor cells express RAE-1 in physiological conditions and we described a correlation between RAE-1 expression and cell proliferation. In addition, we showed that Raet1 transcripts are induced in the spinal cord of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. EAE is a model for multiple sclerosis which is accompanied by microglia proliferation and activation, recruitment of immune cells and neurogenesis...
November 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400786/post-paralysis-tyrosine-kinase-inhibition-with-masitinib-abrogates-neuroinflammation-and-slows-disease-progression-in-inherited-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#19
Emiliano Trias, Sofía Ibarburu, Romina Barreto-Núñez, Joël Babdor, Thiago T Maciel, Matthias Guillo, Laurent Gros, Patrice Dubreuil, Pablo Díaz-Amarilla, Patricia Cassina, Laura Martínez-Palma, Ivan C Moura, Joseph S Beckman, Olivier Hermine, Luis Barbeito
BACKGROUND: In the SOD1(G93A) mutant rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), neuronal death and rapid paralysis progression are associated with the emergence of activated aberrant glial cells that proliferate in the degenerating spinal cord. Whether pharmacological downregulation of such aberrant glial cells will decrease motor neuron death and prolong survival is unknown. We hypothesized that proliferation of aberrant glial cells is dependent on kinase receptor activation, and therefore, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor masitinib (AB1010) could potentially control neuroinflammation in the rat model of ALS...
July 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27394965/the-taming-of-the-tams
#20
Joan Seoane
Tumor-associated macrophages and microglia (TAMs) are considered crucial elements in cancer progression. Recent work reveals the molecular mechanisms underlying acquired resistance to colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) inhibitors in glioblastoma (GBM) and shows that targeting TAMs with CSF-1R inhibitors leads to an antitumor response in GBM followed by the acquisition of resistance to treatment through the induction of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) expression in TAMs.
August 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
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