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Mechanical sepsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778583/a-novel-view-on-the-pathogenesis-of-complications-after-intravesical-bcg-for-bladder-cancer
#1
Manu P Bilsen, Krista E van Meijgaarden, Hanna K de Jong, Simone A Joosten, Corine Prins, Lucia J M Kroft, Jacqueline T Jonker, Stijn Crobach, Rob C Pelger, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Sandra M Arend
Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is widely used for high-risk, non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We describe four cases which illustrate the spectrum of BCG-induced complications, varying from granulomatous prostatitis to sepsis. Considerable debate exists whether inflammation or infection is the predominant mechanism in the pathogenesis of BCG-disease. In two patients with systemic illness symptoms resolved first after adding prednisone, indicating a principle role for inflammation in systemic disease...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774558/clinical-outcome-and-comparison-of-three-different-left-ventricular-assist-devices-in-a-high-risk-cohort
#2
Konstantin Zhigalov, Ahmed Mashhour, Marcin Szczechowicz, Sabreen Mkalaluh, Sergei Karagezian, Irakli Gogia, Maxim Isaev, Bakitbek K Kadyraliev, Jerry Easo, Juergen Ennker, Harald C Eichstaedt, Alexander Weymann
We present a comparison between three left ventricular assist devices (LVADs): HeartWare (HVAD) (HeartWare International Inc., Framingham, MA, USA), HeartMate II (HMII) and HeartMate III (HMIII) (Thoratec Corp., Pleasanton, CA, USA). To our knowledge, no study to date has aimed at placing these three devices in juxtaposition. Between June 2007 and June 2017, 108 consecutive patients received HMII, n = 77 (71.3%), HVAD, n = 14 (13%), or HM III, n = 17 (15.7%), for end-stage heart failure. Mean age was 63...
May 17, 2018: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774427/largely-flat-latitudinal-life-history-clines-in-the-dung-fly-sepsis-fulgens-across-europe-diptera-sepsidae
#3
Jeannine Roy, Wolf U Blanckenhorn, Patrick T Rohner
Clinal variation in body size and related life history traits is common and has stimulated the postulation of several eco-geographical rules. Whereas some clinal patterns are clearly adaptive, the causes of others remain obscure. We investigated intra-specific body size, development time and female fecundity (egg size and number) clines across 13 European populations of the dung fly Sepsis fulgens spanning 20° latitude from southern Italy to Estonia in a genetic common garden approach. Despite very short generation times (ca...
May 17, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770701/mk2-mediates-macrophage-activation-and-acute-lung-injury-by-regulating-let-7e-mirna
#4
Yaxian Wu, Huiqiong He, Yunhe Ding, Sirui Liu, Depeng Zhang, Jun Wang, Hongchao Jiang, Dan Zhang, Lei Sun, Richard D Ye, Feng Qian
MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) plays a critical role in the development of inflammation. However, the modulatory mechanisms in macrophage activation and acute lung injury (ALI) haven't been completely defined. Here, we reported that MK2 deficient mice (MK2-/-) protected against sepsis-induced ALI. In response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, MK2-/- mice and myeloid cell-specific MK2 conditional knockout mice (MK2Lyz2-KO) exhibited attenuated inflammatory response, especially producing fewer amounts of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2)...
May 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769112/association-between-%C3%AE-blocker-use-and-mortality-in-critically-ill-patients-a-nested-cohort-study
#5
Shmeylan A Al Harbi, Khalid A Al Sulaiman, Hani Tamim, Hasan M Al-Dorzi, Musharaf Sadat, Yaseen Arabi
BACKGROUND: β-blockers have several indications in critically ill patients and are commonly used. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the use of β-blockers in critically ill patients and mortality. METHODS: This was a nested cohort study in which all medical-surgical ICU patients (N = 523) enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of intensive insulin therapy (ISRCTN07413772) were grouped according to β-blocker use during ICU stay. To account for the indication of β-blockers, we constructed a propensity score using selected clinically-relevant and statistically-significant variables related to β-blocker exposure and outcome...
May 16, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765489/gallic-acid-l-leucine-conjugate-protects-mice-against-lps-induced-inflammation-and-sepsis-via-correcting-proinflammatory-lipid-mediator-profiles-and-oxidative-stress
#6
Yuanyuan Cheng, Xuechen Li, Hung-Fat Tse, Jianhui Rong
The pathology of endotoxin LPS-induced sepsis is hallmarked by aberrant production of proinflammatory lipid mediators and nitric oxide (NO). The aim of the present study was to determine whether the new product gallic acid-L-leucine (GAL) conjugate could ameliorate the LPS-induced dysregulation of arachidonic acid metabolism and NO production. We first investigated the effects of GAL conjugate on the expression of proinflammatory enzymes and the production of proinflammatory NO and lipid mediators in mouse macrophage cell line RAW264...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763777/incorporation-of-point-of-care-ultrasound-into-morning-round-is-associated-with-improvement-in-clinical-outcomes-in-critically-ill-patients-with-sepsis
#7
Zhonghua Chen, Yucai Hong, Junru Dai, Lifeng Xing
OBJECTIVES: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has been widely used in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, it is largely unknown whether the use of POCUS is associated with improved patient-important outcomes. The study aimed to investigate whether incorporation of POCUS during morning round on a routine basis was able to improve clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis. DESIGN: It was a prospective observational study. SETTING: A tertiary care emergency intensive care unit...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763385/pyruvate-enriched-resuscitation-for-shock
#8
Robert T Mallet, Albert H Olivencia-Yurvati, Rolf Bünger
This commentary addresses the recent retraction of an article which reported favorable outcomes in septic patients treated with intravenous pyruvate. The retracted report was cited in the authors' recent minireview on the cellular mechanisms and clinical application of pyruvate to improve cardiac performance. Because the retracted article reports pyruvate-enhanced resuscitation of critically ill patients, the authors wish to inform the readership, especially critical care providers, that this particular clinical application of pyruvate is not now supported by robust evidence...
May 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760707/the-yin-and-yang-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibition-during-experimental-polymicrobial-sepsis
#9
Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Ina Rohwedder, Adriana Ribeiro Silva, Alessandra Silveira Ferreira, Angela R M Kurz, Céline Cougoule, Sarah Klapproth, Tanja Eggersmann, Johnatas D Silva, Gisele Pena de Oliveira, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Gabriel Gutfilen Schlesinger, Edlaine Rijo Costa, Rita de Cassia Elias Estrela Marins, Attila Mócsai, Isabelle Maridonneau-Parini, Barbara Walzog, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco, Markus Sperandio, Hugo Caire de Castro-Faria-Neto
Neutrophils are the first cells of our immune system to arrive at the site of inflammation. They release cytokines, e.g., chemokines, to attract further immune cells, but also actively start to phagocytose and kill pathogens. In the case of sepsis, this tightly regulated host defense mechanism can become uncontrolled and hyperactive resulting in severe organ damage. Currently, no effective therapy is available to fight sepsis; therefore, novel treatment targets that could prevent excessive inflammatory responses are warranted...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760192/circadian-rhythms-influence-the-severity-of-sepsis-in-mice-via-a-tlr2-dependent-leukocyte-intrinsic-mechanism
#10
Erica L Heipertz, Jourdan Harper, Charlie A Lopez, Erol Fikrig, Michael E Hughes, Wendy E Walker
Circadian rhythms coordinate an organism's activities and biological processes to the optimal time in the 24-h daylight cycle. We previously demonstrated that male C57BL/6 mice develop sepsis more rapidly when the disease is induced in the nighttime versus the daytime. In this report, we elucidate the mechanism of this diurnal difference. Sepsis was induced via cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) at zeitgeber time (ZT)-19 (2 am) or ZT-7 (2 pm). Like the males used in our prior study, female C57BL/6 mice had a worse outcome when CLP was induced at ZT-19 versus ZT-7, and these effects persisted when we pooled the data from both sexes...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759089/thrombocytopenia-in-bacteraemia-and-association-with-bacterial-species
#11
D Johansson, M Rasmussen, M Inghammar
Thrombocytopenia is common in patients with invasive bacterial infections. Bacteria can activate platelets, but it is unclear if this affects platelet count. The aim of this study was to examine whether bacteraemia with Staphylococcus aureus, which readily activate human platelets, was more likely to be complicated by thrombocytopenia than bacteraemia with Escherichia coli or Streptococcus pneumoniae with different abilities to activate platelets.We compared information from 600 adult patients with community-acquired bacteraemia with S...
May 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759006/interplay-between-hypercholesterolaemia-and-inflammation-in-atherosclerosis-translating-experimental-targets-into-clinical-practice
#12
José Tuñón, Magnus Bäck, Lina Badimón, Marie-Luce Bochaton-Piallat, Bertrand Cariou, Mat J Daemen, Jesus Egido, Paul C Evans, Sheila E Francis, Daniel Fj Ketelhuth, Esther Lutgens, Christian M Matter, Claudia Monaco, Sabine Steffens, Erik Stroes, Cécile Vindis, Christian Weber, Imo E Hoefer
Dyslipidaemia and inflammation are closely interconnected in their contribution to atherosclerosis. In fact, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-lowering drugs have anti-inflammatory effects. The Canakinumab Antiinflammatory Thrombosis Outcome Study (CANTOS) has shown that interleukin (IL)-1β blockade reduces the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with previous myocardial infarction and C-reactive protein levels >2 mg/L. These data confirm the connection between lipids and inflammation, as lipids activate the Nod-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome that leads to IL-1β activation...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757913/association-between-muscle-wasting-and-muscle-strength-in-patients-who-developed-severe-sepsis-and-septic-shock
#13
Rodrigo Cerqueira Borges, Francisco Garcia Soriano
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between the rectus femoris cross-sectional area (RFCSA) and the muscular strength obtained at the bedside in patients forwarded to the intensive care unit (ICU) for severe sepsis and septic shock. METHODS: A prospective cohort study. RFCSA was assessed by ultrasound on the following day of the ICU admission and monitored during hospitalization. The patients performed clinical tests of muscle strength (Medical Research Council (MRC) scale and handgrip dynamometry), when they could understand the verbal commands of the examiners...
May 11, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756430/-evaluation-of-a-pcr-multiplex-technique-for-the-rapid-diagnosis-of-bacteriemia
#14
M F López-Fabal, J L Gómez-Garcés, M López Lomba, M Ruiz Bastián
OBJECTIVE: Rapid and safe diagnosis of bacteremia is a continuous challenge in clinical microbiology. In this work, we evaluated a multiple PCR system that identifies 23 common pathogens as well as the production of 3 resistance mechanisms potentially present in them. METHODS: During a period of 2 months the positive blood cultures were processed in the usual way for identification and determination of their antimicrobial sensitivity. At the same time were incorporated into FilmArray panels...
May 11, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753820/association-of-pre-operative-cell-counts-with-outcomes-after-surgery-for-congenital-heart-disease
#15
Shannon Jones, Courtney McCracken, Bahaaldin Alsoufi, William T Mahle, Matthew E Oster
BACKGROUND: We examined the association of pre-operative cell count abnormalities, which have been shown to be associated with outcomes in adult cardiac patients, with morbidity and mortality following surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) in children. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study on 4865 children undergoing cardiac surgery from 2004- 2014. Our exposures of interest were presence of pre-operative lymphopenia (lymphocyte count ≤ 3000 cells/μL), thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 150 x103 / μL), and neutrophilia (neutrophil count ≥ 7000 cells/ μL)...
May 10, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752615/effects-of-simvastatin-on-the-function-of-splenic-cd4-and-cd8-t-cells-in-sepsis-mice
#16
Bingbing Kong, Xiaofeng Wang, Wenping Yang, Xin Zhao, Rong Zhang, Yu Wang
Simvastatin may be beneficial for treating sepsis due to its immune-regulating properties, although the mechanisms remain elusive. Herein, we hypothesized simvastatin may attenuate T cell dysfunction induced by sepsis. To test this hypothesis, we used a model based on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce sepsis in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were pre-treated with simvastatin (0.2 μg/g of body weight) before CLP. The expression of B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) on splenic CD4+ T cells and T cell apoptosis, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were quantified by flow cytometry...
May 11, 2018: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751683/a-new-venue-of-tnf-targeting
#17
REVIEW
Sophie Steeland, Claude Libert, Roosmarijn E Vandenbroucke
The first Food and Drug Administration-(FDA)-approved drugs were small, chemically-manufactured and highly active molecules with possible off-target effects, followed by protein-based medicines such as antibodies. Conventional antibodies bind a specific protein and are becoming increasingly important in the therapeutic landscape. A very prominent class of biologicals are the anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) drugs that are applied in several inflammatory diseases that are characterized by dysregulated TNF levels...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750914/pro-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-on-immune-and-endothelial-cells
#18
Meng Li, Betty C A M van Esch, Gerry T M Wagenaar, Johan Garssen, Gert Folkerts, Paul A J Henricks
In the gastro-intestinal tract, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have protective effects on epithelial cells. However, their effects on inflammatory cytokine production by endothelial and immune cells and the recruitment of immune cells and their trans-migration across the endothelial layer remain controversial. Both cell types are associated with the initiation and development of inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis and sepsis. SCFAs modulate immune and inflammatory responses via activation of free fatty acid (FFA) receptors type 2 and 3 (FFA2 and FFA3 receptors), G protein-coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A) and inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs)...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750814/one-year-mortality-after-recovery-from-critical-illness-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Sharukh Lokhandwala, Ned McCague, Abdullah Chahin, Braiam Escobar, Mengling Feng, Mohammad M Ghassemi, David J Stone, Leo Anthony Celi
RATIONALE: Factors associated with one-year mortality after recovery from critical illness are not well understood. Clinicians generally lack information regarding post-hospital discharge outcomes of patients from the intensive care unit, which may be important when counseling patients and families. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine which factors among patients who survived for at least 30 days post-ICU admission are associated with one-year mortality. METHODS: Single-center, longitudinal retrospective cohort study of all ICU patients admitted to a tertiary-care academic medical center from 2001-2012 who survived ≥30 days from ICU admission...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750636/outcomes-of-very-elderly-treated-with-dialysis-for-acute-kidney-injury
#20
Ezra Gabbay, Yehudit Zangi, Alon Bnayah, Jawad Atrash, Itzchak Slotki, Linda Shavit
BACKGROUND: The factors that determine prognosis in elderly patients with dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (AKI-D) is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of in-hospital mortality in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective, single-center study of hospitalized patients ≥ 70 years old with AKI-D. Clinical and demographic variables were compared between survivors and non-survivors, independent predictors of hospital mortality were identified by logistic regression...
May 11, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
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