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ischemic penumbra

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769288/targeted-complement-inhibition-salvages-stressed-neurons-and-inhibits-neuroinflammation-after-stroke-in-mice
#1
Ali Alawieh, E Farris Langley, Stephen Tomlinson
Ischemic stroke results from the interruption of blood flow to the brain resulting in long-term motor and cognitive neurological deficits, and it is a leading cause of death and disability. Current interventions focus on the restoration of blood flow to limit neuronal death, but these treatments have a therapeutic window of only a few hours and do not address post-stroke cerebral inflammation. The complement system, a component of the innate immune system, is activated by natural immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies that recognize neoepitopes expressed in the brain after ischemic stroke...
May 16, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765502/the-phenolic-components-of-gastrodia-elata-improve-prognosis-in-rats-after-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-by-enhancing-the-endogenous-antioxidant-mechanisms
#2
Anhuan Shi, Jianming Xiang, Fangyan He, Yanping Zhu, Gongbei Zhu, Yuhan Lin, Ningna Zhou
Pharmacological or spontaneous thrombolysis in ischemic stroke triggers an outbreak of reactive oxygen species and results in neuron death. Nrf2-mediated antioxidation in cells has been proved as a pivotal target for neuroprotection. This research reports that phenolic components of Gastrodia elata Blume (PCGE), a traditional Chinese medicine, can alleviate the pathological lesions in the penumbra and hippocampus by increasing the survival of neurons and astrocytes and improve neurofunction and cognition after reperfusion in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734653/the-janus-face-of-vegf-in-stroke
#3
REVIEW
Samuel J Geiseler, Cecilie Morland
The family of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are known for their regulation of vascularization. In the brain, VEGFs are important regulators of angiogenesis, neuroprotection and neurogenesis. Dysregulation of VEGFs is involved in a large number of neurodegenerative diseases and acute neurological insults, including stroke. Stroke is the main cause of acquired disabilities, and normally results from an occlusion of a cerebral artery or a hemorrhage, both leading to focal ischemia. Neurons in the ischemic core rapidly undergo necrosis...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733986/related-research-and-recent-progress-of-ischemic-penumbra
#4
REVIEW
Yun-Cai Ran, Ming Zhu, Shu-Jian Li, Zan-Xia Zhang, Xiao Wang, Yong Zhang, Jing-Liang Cheng
In the present study, we reviewed recent studies on ischemic penumbra, including the evolution of the definitions of ischemic penumbra and observations on the characteristics of blood flow and molecular evolution mechanism of ischemic tissues. From the perspective of neuroimaging, the characteristics of cerebral blood flow, oxygen consumption, cell water content and metabolites were analyzed, in order to evaluate the diagnosis and evolution of ischemic penumbra. The analysis on the evolution characteristics of multiple gene molecules and metabolites would provide more ideas for clinical imaging diagnosis, and allow the combination of multi-parameter imaging indexes to be more accurate and effective for the assessment of ischemic penumbra...
May 4, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692708/paradigm-shift-to-neuroimmunomodulation-for-translational-neuroprotection-in-stroke
#5
REVIEW
Diana Amantea, Rosaria Greco, Giuseppe Micieli, Giacinto Bagetta
The treatment of acute ischemic stroke is still an unresolved clinical problem since the only approved therapeutic intervention relies on early blood flow restoration through pharmacological thrombolysis, mechanical thrombus removal, or a combination of both strategies. Due to their numerous complications and to the narrow time-window for the intervention, only a minority of stroke patients can actually benefit from revascularization procedures, highlighting the urgent need of identifying novel strategies to prevent the progression of an irreversible damage in the ischemic penumbra...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688134/genistein-attenuates-brain-damage-induced-by-transient-cerebral-ischemia-through-up-regulation-of-nrf2-expression-in-ovariectomized-rats
#6
Zhong-Yan Miao, Xu Xia, Lu Che, Yan-Tao Song
OBJECTIVE: Postmenopausal women possess higher incidence of stroke and worse prognosis. Although estrogen replacement therapy has obvious neuroprotective effects against stroke, it is always accompanied with several adverse effects and undesired outcomes. Genistein, a natural phytoestrogen, has been indicated to be a potential neuroprotective alternative for postmenopausal women against stroke. However, the role and mechanism of genistein's neuroprotective effects against stroke in ovariectomized rats have rarely been explored...
April 24, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682700/therapeutic-potential-of-a-combination-of-electroacupuncture-and-trkb-expressing-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-ischemic-stroke
#7
Sung Min Ahn, Yu Ri Kim, Yong-Il Shin, Ki Tae Ha, Seo-Yeon Lee, Hwa Kyoung Shin, Byung Tae Choi
We prepared and grafted tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) gene-transfected mesenchymal stem cells (TrkB-MSCs) into the ischemic penumbra and investigated whether electroacupuncture (EA) treatment could promote functional recovery from ischemic stroke. For the behavioral test, TrkB-MSCs+EA resulted in significantly improved motor function compared to that obtained with MSCs+EA or TrkB-MSCs alone. At 30 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), the largest number of grafted MSCs was detected in the TrkB-MSC+EA group...
April 22, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628940/moderate-to-severe-anemia-is-associated-with-poor-functional-outcome-in-acute-stroke-patients-treated-with-mechanical-thrombectomy
#8
Cetin Kursad Akpinar, Erdem Gurkas, Emrah Aytac
Background: Anemia will negatively affect cerebral collaterals and penumbra. Eventually, it may cause worse clinical outcomes and even increase mortality rates in stroke patients. Anemia has recently been suggested to be an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of the presence of anemia on clinical outcomes in ischemic stroke patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving the prospectively and consecutively collected data of 90 adult patients between January 2015 and August 2016...
February 2018: Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620280/melatonin-protects-brain-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-attenuating-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#9
Yu Wen Lin, Tsung Ying Chen, Chia Yang Hung, Shih Huang Tai, Sheng Yang Huang, Che Chao Chang, Hsin Yi Hung, E Jian Lee
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a vital role in mediating ischemic reperfusion damage in brain. In this study, we evaluated whether melatonin inhibits ER stress in cultured neurons exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and in rats subjected to transient focal cerebral ischemia. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with melatonin (5 mg/kg) or control at reperfusion onset after transient occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) for 90 min. Brain infarction and hemorrhage within infarcts were measured...
July 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617449/assessment-of-veins-in-t2-weighted-mr-angiography-predicts-infarct-growth-in-hyperacute-ischemic-stroke
#10
Susumu Yamaguchi, Nobutaka Horie, Minoru Morikawa, Yohei Tateishi, Takeshi Hiu, Yoichi Morofuji, Tsuyoshi Izumo, Kentaro Hayashi, Takayuki Matsuo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: T2*-weighted magnetic resonance angiography (SWAN) detects hemodynamic insufficiency as hypointense areas in medullary or cortical veins. We therefore investigated whether SWAN can help predict ischemic penumbra-like lesions in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) records-including SWAN, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)-of consecutive patients with major vessel occlusion within 6 h from AIS onset were analyzed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557515/susceptibility-weighted-imaging-predicts-infarct-size-and-early-stage-clinical-prognosis-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#11
Song Luo, Lijuan Yang, Yanfei Luo
Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a non-invasive technique that can reveal venous structures and iron in the brain. This retrospective study evaluated SWI, relative to other imaging techniques, for determining cerebral infarct size and early-stage clinical prognosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Within 3 days after onset, 22 patients with acute ischemic stroke underwent SWI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)...
March 20, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556351/perfluorocarbon-enhanced-glasgow-oxygen-level-dependent-gold-magnetic-resonance-metabolic-imaging-identifies-the-penumbra-following-acute-ischemic-stroke
#12
Graeme A Deuchar, David Brennan, William M Holmes, Martin Shaw, I Mhairi Macrae, Celestine Santosh
The ability to identify metabolically active and potentially salvageable ischaemic penumbra is crucial for improving treatment decisions in acute stroke patients. Our solution involves two complementary novel MRI techniques (Glasgow Oxygen Level Dependant (GOLD) Metabolic Imaging), which when combined with a perfluorocarbon (PFC) based oxygen carrier and hyperoxia can identify penumbra due to dynamic changes related to continued metabolism within this tissue compartment. Our aims were (i) to investigate whether PFC offers similar enhancement of the second technique (Lactate Change) as previously demonstrated for the T2 *OC technique (ii) to demonstrate both GOLD metabolic imaging techniques working concurrently to identify penumbra, following administration of Oxycyte® (O-PFC) with hyperoxia...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554649/pioglitazone-confers-neuroprotection-against-ischemia-induced-pyroptosis-due-to-its-inhibitory-effects-on-hmgb-1-rage-and-rac1-ros-pathway-by-activating-ppar-%C3%A9
#13
Pingping Xia, Yundan Pan, Fan Zhang, Na Wang, E Wang, Qulian Guo, Zhi Ye
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent researches highlighted the protective potential of pioglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist, in the progression of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, there has been no study on the application of pioglitazone in treating ischemic stroke through mechanisms involving pyroptosis. METHODS: The cerebral injury was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). in vitro ischemia in primary cultured astrocytes was induced by the oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)...
March 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552091/mechanical-thrombectomy-in-a-young-stroke-patient-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#14
Charlotte Spicher, Ruth Schneider, Peter Mönnings, Christiane Schneider-Gold, Dennis Kallenberg, Bilal Cevik, Carsten Lukas, Ralf Gold, Christos Krogias
Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive skeletal muscle myopathy which is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Lack of dystrophin also results to cardiomyopathy, which raises significantly the stroke risk in DMD-patients. However, data about therapeutic opportunities in the acute setting are scarce in literature. So far, only two cases receiving IV thrombolysis are described, one of them with fatal outcome. Method: Case report of a case of successful mechanical thrombectomy (MTE) in an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patient with DMD and associated dilatative cardiomyopathy...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543142/use-of-computed-tomography-perfusion-for-acute-stroke-in-routine-clinical-practice-complex-scenarios-mimics-and-artifacts
#15
Carlos Garcia-Esperon, Andrew Bivard, Christopher Levi, Mark Parsons
Background Computed tomography perfusion is becoming widely accepted and used in acute stroke treatment. Computed tomography perfusion provides pathophysiological information needed in the acute decision making. Moreover, computed tomography perfusion shows excellent correlation with diffusion-weighted imaging and perfusion-weighted sequences to evaluate core and penumbra volumes. Multimodal computed tomography perfusion has practical advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including availability, accessibility, and speed...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527151/protective-effects-of-l-902-688-a-prostanoid-ep4-receptor-agonist-against-acute-blood-brain-barrier-damage-in-experimental-ischemic-stroke
#16
Kelly M DeMars, Austin O McCrea, David M Siwarski, Brian D Sanz, Changjun Yang, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil
Ischemic stroke occurs when a clot forms in the brain vasculature that starves downstream tissue of oxygen and nutrients resulting in cell death. The tissue immediately downstream of the blockage, the core, dies within minutes, but the surrounding tissue, the penumbra is potentially salvageable. Prostaglandin E2 binds to four different G-protein coupled membrane receptors EP1-EP4 mediating different and sometimes opposing responses. Pharmacological activation of the EP4 receptor has already been established as neuroprotective in stroke, but the mechanism(s) of protection are not well-characterized...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513810/efficacy-of-phosphocreatine-pre-administration-on-xiap-and-smac-in-ischemic-penumbra-of-rats-with-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#17
Wei Wang, Qi Wang, Wanyou Yu, Lianhua Chen, Zhong Li
PURPOSE: To observe the efficacy of phosphocreatine pre-administration (PCr-PA) on X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), the second mitochondia-derived activator of caspase (Smac) and apoptosis in the ischemic penumbra of rats with focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI). METHODS: A total of 60 healthy male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=20): group A (the sham operation group), group B <intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg (10 mg/ml) of saline before preparing the ischemia-reperfusion (IR) model>, and group C <intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg (10 mg/ml) of PCr immediately before preparing the IR model>...
February 2018: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513676/mechanical-endovascular-therapy-for-acute-ischemic-stroke-an-indirect-treatment-comparison-between-solitaire-and-penumbra-thrombectomy-devices
#18
Jonathan T Caranfa, Elaine Nguyen, Rafay Ali, Iregi Francis, Albert Zichichi, Elliott Bosco, Craig I Coleman, William L Baker, Christine G Kohn
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have compared mechanical endovascular therapy (MET) in addition to intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IVtPA) to IVtPA alone for the management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Direct comparative studies between individual METs are not available. In lieu of head-to-head randomized control trials, we performed an adjusted indirect treatment comparison (ITC) meta-analysis to assess the comparative efficacy and safety of different METs, Solitaire+IVtPA and Penumbra+IVtPA in AIS patients...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502498/perfusion-imaging-and-recurrent-cerebrovascular-events-in-intracranial-atherosclerotic-disease-or-carotid-occlusion
#19
Daniel C Sacchetti, Shawna M Cutting, Ryan A McTaggart, Andrew D Chang, Morgan Hemendinger, Brian Mac Grory, Matthew S Siket, Tina Burton, Bradford Thompson, Sara K Rostanski, Shyam Prabhakaran, Joshua Z Willey, Randolph S Marshall, Mitchell Sv Elkind, Pooja Khatri, Karen L Furie, Mahesh V Jayaraman, Shadi Yaghi
Background Large vessel disease stroke subtype carries the highest risk of early recurrent stroke. In this study we aim to look at the association between impaired perfusion and early stroke recurrence in patients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease or total cervical carotid occlusion. Methods This is a retrospective study from a comprehensive stroke center where we included consecutive patients 18 years or older with intracranial atherosclerotic disease or total cervical carotid occlusion admitted with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke within 24 h from symptom onset with National Institute Health Stroke Scale < 15, between 1 December 2016 and 30 June 2017...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468175/rapamycin-prevents-cerebral-stroke-by-modulating-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-penumbra-in-rats
#20
Meiling Wu, Huadan Zhang, Jiejing Kai, Feng Zhu, Jingyin Dong, Ziwei Xu, Michael Wong, Ling-Hui Zeng
Objective: Whether activation or inhibition of the mTOR pathway is beneficial to ischemic injury remains controversial. It may result from the different reaction of ischemic penumbra and core to modulation of mTOR pathway after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods: Longa's middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method was conducted to induce the focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Western blot analysis was used to examine the protein expression involving mTOR pathway, apoptosis, and autophagy-related proteins...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
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