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HIV evolution

Rafael Sauter, Ruizhu Huang, Bruno Ledergerber, Manuel Battegay, Enos Bernasconi, Matthias Cavassini, Hansjakob Furrer, Matthias Hoffmann, Mathieu Rougemont, Huldrych F Günthard, Leonhard Held
Plasma HIV viral load is related to declining CD4 lymphocytes. The extent to which CD8 cells, in addition to RNA viral load, predict the depletion of CD4 cells is not well characterized so far. We examine if CD8 cell count is a prognostic factor for CD4 cell counts during an HIV infection.A longitudinal analysis is conducted using data from the Swiss HIV cohort study collected between January 2000 and October 2014. Linear mixed regression models were applied to observations from HIV-1-infected treatment naive patients (NAIVE) and cART-treated patients to predict the short-term evolution of CD4 cell counts...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Isabelle Poizot-Martin, Clotilde Allavena, Cyrille Delpierre, Claudine Duvivier, Véronique Obry-Roguet, Carla E Cano, Francine Guillouet de Salvador, David Rey, Pierre Dellamonica, Antoine Cheret, Lise Cuzin, Christine Katlama, André Cabié, Bruno Hoen
The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of first-line combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimen on the course of CD8 T-cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.A retrospective observational study conducted on the French DAT'AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected patients.We selected 605 patients initiating a first-line cART between 2002 and 2009, and which achieved a sustained undetectable HIV plasma viral load (pVL) for at least 12 months without cART modification. The evolution of CD8 T-cell counts according to cART regimen was assessed...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Etienne Karita, Sabin Nsanzimana, Felix Ndagije, Kristin M Wall, Jeannine Mukamuyango, Placidie Mugwaneza, Eric Remera, Pratima L Raghunathan, Roger Bayingana, Kayitesi Kayitenkore, Brigitte Bekan-Homawoo, Amanda Tichacek, Susan Allen
BACKGROUND: Couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) is a WHO-recommended intervention for prevention of heterosexual HIV transmission which very few African couples have received. We report the successful nationwide implementation of CVCT in Rwanda. METHODS: From 1988 to 1994 in Rwanda, pregnant and postpartum women were tested for HIV and requested testing for their husbands. Partner testing was associated with more condom use and lower HIV and sexually transmitted infection rates, particularly among HIV-discordant couples...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Joia S Mukherjee, Danika Barry, Robert D Weatherford, Ishaan K Desai, Paul E Farmer
The advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996 brought with it an urgent need to develop models of health care delivery that could enable its effective and equitable delivery, especially to patients living in poverty. Community-based care, which stretches from patient homes and communities-where chronic infectious diseases are often best managed-to modern health centers and hospitals, offers such a model, providing access to proximate HIV care and minimizing structural barriers to retention. We first review the recent literature on community-based ART programs in low- and low-to-middle-income country settings and document two key principles that guide effective programs: decentralization of ART services and long-term retention of patients in care...
October 13, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Aastha Gupta, Sandeep Juneja, Marco Vitoria, Vincent Habiyambere, Boniface Dongmo Nguimfack, Meg Doherty, Daniel Low-Beer
With anti-retroviral treatment (ART) scale-up set to continue over the next few years it is of key importance that manufacturers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS pandemic are able to anticipate and respond to future changes to treatment regimens, generics pipeline and demand, in order to secure continued access to all ARV medicines required. We did a forecast analysis, using secondary WHO and UNAIDS data sources, to estimate the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and the market share and demand for a range of new and existing ARV drugs in LMICs up to 2025...
2016: PloS One
Dan-Dan He, Yueer Lu, Rachel Gittelman, Yabin Jin, Fei Ling, Akey Joshua
Viral selection pressure has acted on restriction factors that play an important role in the innate immune system by inhibiting the replication of viruses during primate evolution. Tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) family members are some of these restriction factors. It is becoming increasingly clear that gene expression differences, rather than protein-coding regions changes, could play a vital role in the anti-retroviral immune mechanism. Increasingly, recent studies have created genome-scale catalogues of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs), which demark potentially functional regulatory DNA...
October 12, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Cristina J Wittkopp, Madison B Adolph, Lily I Wu, Linda Chelico, Michael Emerman
Humans express seven human APOBEC3 proteins, which can inhibit viruses and endogenous retroelements through cytidine deaminase activity. The seven paralogs differ in the potency of their antiviral effects, as well as in their antiviral targets. One APOBEC3, APOBEC3C, is exceptional as it has been found to only weakly block viruses and endogenous retroelements compared to other APOBEC3s. However, our positive selection analyses suggest that APOBEC3C has played a role in pathogen defense during primate evolution...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Mohammed Asmal, Sophie Lane, Meijuan Tian, Gabrielle Nickel, Colin Venner, Brennan Dirk, Jimmy Dikeakos, Corinne Luedemann, Linh Mach, Harikrishnan Balachandran, Adam Buzby, Srinivas Rao, Norman Letvin, Yong Gao, Eric J Arts
For studies on vaccines and therapies for HIV disease, SIV-HIV chimeric viruses harboring the HIV-1 env gene (SHIVenv) remain the best virus in non-human primate models. However, there are still very few SHIVenv viruses that can cause AIDS in non-CD8-depleted animals. In the present study, a recently created CCR5-using SHIVenv_B3 virus with env gene derived from acute/early HIV-1 infections (AHI) successfully established pathogenic infection in macaques. Through a series of investigations on the evolution, mutational profile, and phenotype of the virus and the resultant humoral immune response in infected rhesus macaques, we found that the E32K mutation in the Env C1 domain was associated with macaque pathogenesis, and that the electrostatic interactions in Env may favor E32K at the gp120 N terminus and "lock" the binding to heptad repeat 1 of gp41 in the trimer and produce a SHIVenv with increased fitness and pathogenesis during macaque infections...
October 6, 2016: Virology
Kostyantyn Dumchev, Olga Varetska, Ihor Kuzin
Once facing the most severe HIV epidemic in Eastern Europe, Ukraine has built an elaborate Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) system to track the response to AIDS. This system was developed using recommendations and input from multiple international expert organizations and donors and, at the current stage, serves as a best practice model in many areas. The present paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the evolution of the M&E system in Ukraine since its inception. Notable achievements and challenges are described and illustrated by epidemiological data and the recommendations for future development are discussed...
October 6, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Amandine Cournil, Arsène Hema, Sabrina Eymard-Duvernay, Laura Ciaffi, Stéphanie Badiou, Firmin N Kabore, Assane Diouf, Liliane Ayangma, Vincent Le Moing, Jacques Reynes, Sinata Koulla-Shiro, Eric Delaporte
BACKGROUND: To investigate change in renal function in African patients initiating second line ART including ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) with or without tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). METHODS: HIV-1 positive adults, failing standard first line ART were randomized to either TDF/FTC+LPV/r; ABC+ddI+LPV/r or TDF/FTC+DRV/r and followed until 18 months. Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 ml/min/1,73m(2) at baseline were included in this analysis...
October 5, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Gelayol Nazari Golpayegani, Amir Homayoun Jafari, Nader Jafarnia Dabanloo
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, by the end of last year, about 37 million people throughout the world were diagnosed with AIDS and millions of people die each year from this disease. OBJECTIVE: To develop an appropriate model which depicts the mechanism of the dynamics involved in the interactions between HIV and immune system in peripheral bloodstream of HIV infected individuals by considering the phenomena of virus mutation and taking into account the role of latently infected cells in speared of infection and considering the effects of antiretroviral drugs and occurrence of drug resistance in our model in order to assess the results obtained from applying different therapeutic methods...
September 23, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Barbara Van Der Pol
HSV-1 and HSV-2 are among the most common causes of sexually transmitted infections (stis) globally. these infections are strongly associated with increased risk of hiv acquisition and rare, but devastating, neonatal disease. available treatment options can reduce HSV transmission and improve quality of life. accurate diagnosis early in disease can improve patient management. Areas covered: This paper describes the clinical manifestations of HSV infection often used for clinical diagnostic purposes. The paper then describes the evolution of laboratory diagnostic assays...
October 8, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Amirhossein Manzourolajdad, Mileidy Gonzalez, John L Spouge
Because of a high mutation rate, HIV exists as a viral swarm of many sequence variants evolving under various selective pressures from the human immune system. Although the Nef gene codes for the most immunogenic of HIV accessory proteins, which alone makes it of great interest to HIV research, it also encodes an RNA structure, whose contribution to HIV virulence has been largely unexplored. Nef RNA helps HIV escape RNA interference (RNAi) through nucleotide changes and alternative folding. This study examines Historic and Modern Datasets of patient HIV-1 Nef sequences during the evolution of the North American epidemic for local changes in RNA plasticity...
2016: PloS One
Elodie Cassan, Anne-Muriel Arigon-Chifolleau, Jean-Michel Mesnard, Antoine Gross, Olivier Gascuel
Recent experiments provide sound arguments in favor of the in vivo expression of the AntiSense Protein (ASP) of HIV-1. This putative protein is encoded on the antisense strand of the provirus genome and entirely overlapped by the env gene with reading frame -2. The existence of ASP was suggested in 1988, but is still controversial, and its function has yet to be determined. We used a large dataset of ∼23,000 HIV-1 and SIV sequences to study the origin, evolution, and conservation of the asp gene. We found that the ASP ORF is specific to group M of HIV-1, which is responsible for the human pandemic...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Fanny Lanternier, Karima Amazzough, Loic Favennec, Marie-France Mamzer-Bruneel, Hendy Abdoul, Jérome Touret, Stéphane Decramer, Julien Zuber, Anne Scemla, Christophe Legendre, Olivier Lortholary, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a frequent complication of solid organ transplantation. Cryptosporidiosis is classically reported in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and emerged as a cause of persistent diarrhea in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients. METHODS: Through the ANOFEL Cryptosporidium National Network and the French Transplantation Society, we collected all cryptosporidiosis cases identified in solid organ transplanted patients between 2006 and 2010 in France...
September 27, 2016: Transplantation
Robert Polster, Christos J Petropoulos, Sebastian Bonhoeffer, Frédéric Guillaume
The genotype-phenotype (GP) map is a central concept in evolutionary biology as it describes the mapping of molecular genetic variation onto phenotypic trait variation. Our understanding of that mapping remains partial, especially when trying to link functional clustering of pleiotropic gene effects with patterns of phenotypic trait co-variation. Only on rare occasions have studies been able to fully explore that link and tend to show poor correspondence between modular structures within the GP map and among phenotypes...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Sushama Telwatte, Chanson J Brumme, Anna C Hearps, Catherine F Latham, Joshua A Hayward, Secondo Sonza, Nicolas Sluis-Cremer, P Richard Harrigan, Gilda Tachedjian
OBJECTIVE: Synonymous substitutions K65K or K66K in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) alleviate fitness and fidelity defects in HIV-1 molecular clones harboring thymidine analog mutations (TAMs); however their potential for transmission and persistence is unknown. Here we investigated the temporal appearance of K65K/K66K relative to TAMs in a HIV-1 cohort, their prevalence over time, and their impact on viral fitness in the context of patient-derived RT sequences. METHODS: Retrospective analyses of the temporal appearance and longitudinal prevalence of synonymous substitutions and drug resistance mutations were performed using the British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS Drug Treatment Program (DTP) database...
September 24, 2016: AIDS
Peter Rusert, Roger D Kouyos, Claus Kadelka, Hanna Ebner, Merle Schanz, Michael Huber, Dominique L Braun, Nathanael Hozé, Alexandra Scherrer, Carsten Magnus, Jacqueline Weber, Therese Uhr, Valentina Cippa, Christian W Thorball, Herbert Kuster, Matthias Cavassini, Enos Bernasconi, Matthias Hoffmann, Alexandra Calmy, Manuel Battegay, Andri Rauch, Sabine Yerly, Vincent Aubert, Thomas Klimkait, Jürg Böni, Jacques Fellay, Roland R Regoes, Huldrych F Günthard, Alexandra Trkola
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are a focal component of HIV-1 vaccine design, yet basic aspects of their induction remain poorly understood. Here we report on viral, host and disease factors that steer bnAb evolution using the results of a systematic survey in 4,484 HIV-1-infected individuals that identified 239 bnAb inducers. We show that three parameters that reflect the exposure to antigen-viral load, length of untreated infection and viral diversity-independently drive bnAb evolution. Notably, black participants showed significantly (P = 0...
September 26, 2016: Nature Medicine
E M Le Coustumier, E Denes, C Martin, P Weinbreck
INTRODUCTION: Nocardiosis are uncommon. The diagnosis may be difficult, with significant morbidity and mortality, often occurring on frail patients. Few data are available in France. METHODS: A retrospective single center study was conducted from 2002 to 2014 and included all patients with at least one positive microbiological sample for Nocardia with a follow-up in our hospital. RESULTS: Nineteen patients, including 15 men, were included with a mean age of 58 years (25-85)...
September 19, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Marlies M van Haaren, Tom L G M van den Kerkhof, Marit J van Gils
So far, the development of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine has been unsuccessful. However, recent progress in the field of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) has reinvigorated the search for an HIV vaccine. bNAbs develop in a minority of HIV infected individuals and passive transfer of these bNAbs to non-human primates provides protection from HIV infection. Studies in a number of HIV infected individuals on bNAb maturation alongside viral evolution and escape have shed light on the features important for bNAb elicitation...
September 20, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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