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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445881/absence-of-decline-of-kidney-function-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients-under-routine-clinical-management
#1
Julie Boucquemont, Sylvie Lawson-Ayayi, Claire Rigothier, Fabrice Bonnet, Cécile Proust-Lima, Didier Neau, Carine Greib, Ghada Miremont-Salamé, François Dabis, Michel Dupon, Frédéric-Antoine Dauchy
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have a drastically improved prognosis but at the same time they are also more affected by non-HIV related complications, such as chronic kidney disease. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of proteinuria and tenofovir (TDF)-containing ART regimens on the temporal evolution of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: Between April 2008 and October 2012, we enrolled 395 patients with a complete renal evaluation among patients from the ANRS C03 Aquitaine cohort, a prospective hospital-based cohort of HIV-1-infected patients under routine clinical management in southwestern France...
April 26, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437703/antiviral-treatment-strategies-based-on-gene-silencing-and-genome-editing
#2
REVIEW
Roger Badia, Ester Ballana, José A Esté, Eva Riveira-Muñoz
The ability of some viruses to establish latently infected chronic reservoirs that escape to immune control becomes a major roadblock that impedes the cure of these infections. Therefore, new alternatives are needed to pursuit the eradication of viral persistent infections. Gene silencing technologies are in constant evolution and provide an outstanding sequence specificity that allows targeting any coding sequence of interest. Here we provide an overview of the development of gene silencing technologies ranging from initially RNA interference to the recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 and their potential as new antiviral strategies focusing on the eradication of HIV...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433855/the-electrophysiology-of-neurohiv-a-systematic-review-of-eeg-and-meg-studies-in-people-with-hiv-infection-since-the-advent-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#3
Ana Lucia Fernández-Cruz, Lesley K Fellows
OBJECTIVE: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has an impact on the brain, even when the infection is well-controlled with modern highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). While dementia is rare in those on HAART, milder cognitive impairment is common. The causes, patterns, and evolution of brain dysfunction in people living with HIV remain uncertain. We evaluate whether electrophysiological methods provide informative measures of brain dysfunction in this population. METHODS: A systematic literature search identified studies that used EEG or MEG to evaluate persons living with HIV published between 1996 (when HAART became available) and 2016...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414261/-support-your-client-at-the-space-that-they-re-in-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-prescribers-perspectives-on-prep-related-risk-compensation
#4
Sarah K Calabrese, Manya Magnus, Kenneth H Mayer, Douglas S Krakower, Adam I Eldahan, Lauren A Gaston Hawkins, Kristen Underhill, Nathan B Hansen, Trace S Kershaw, Joseph R Betancourt, John F Dovidio
Despite the demonstrated effectiveness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and evidence that most PrEP users do not engage in risk compensation (i.e., increased risk behavior due to a perceived decrease in HIV susceptibility), some healthcare providers report patient risk compensation to be a deterrent to prescribing PrEP. Overcoming this barrier is essential to supporting PrEP access and uptake among people at risk for HIV. To inform such efforts, this qualitative study explored PrEP-related risk compensation attitudes among providers with firsthand experience prescribing PrEP...
April 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401776/molecular-characteristics-of-the-envelope-of-vertically-transmitted-hiv-1-strains-from-infants-with-hiv-infection
#5
Manickam Ashokkumar, Manohar Nesakumar, Cheedarla Narayanaiah, Vidya Vijayan Kk, Babu Hemalatha, Srikanth P Tripathy, Luke Elizabeth Hanna
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV offers a good opportunity to study the dynamics of early viral evolution in the host environment to which the virus has partially adapted. Such studies would throw light on the unique features of the infecting viruses, which will subsequently help to design preventive or therapeutic measures against the newly infecting and evolving strains of HIV. Therefore, we undertook a study to determine the genetic divergence of proviral envelope sequences from the HIV infected infants (< 2 years)...
April 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398996/lessons-learned-from-option-b-in-the-evolution-toward-test-and-start-from-malawi-cameroon-and-the-united-republic-of-tanzania
#6
Thokozani Kalua, Beth A Tippett Barr, Joep J van Oosterhout, Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha, Erik J Schouten, Sundeep Gupta, Amakobe Sande, Gerald Zomba, Hannock Tweya, Edgar Lungu, Deborah Kajoka, Pius Tih, Andreas Jahn
The acceleration of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) activities, coupled with the rollout of 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, led to important discussions and innovations at global and country levels. One paradigm-shifting innovation was Option B+ in Malawi. It was later included in WHO guidelines and eventually adopted by all 22 Global Plan priority countries. This article presents Malawi's experience with designing and implementing Option B+ and provides complementary narratives from Cameroon and Tanzania...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392467/predicted-coreceptor-usage-at-end-stage-hiv-disease-in-tissues-derived-from-subjects-on-antiretroviral-therapy-with-an-undetectable-plasma-viral-load
#7
S L Lamers, G B Fogel, E S Liu, D J Nolan, M Salemi, A E Barbier, R Rose, E J Singer, M S McGrath
HIV cure research is increasingly focused on anatomical tissues as sites for residual HIV replication during combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Tissue-based HIV could contribute to low-level immune activation and viral rebound over the course of infection and could also influence the development of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, neurological disorders and cancers. cART-treated subjects have a decreased and irregular presence of HIV among tissues, which has resulted in a paucity of actual evidence concerning how or if HIV persists, replicates and evolves in various anatomical sites during therapy...
April 6, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384158/accurate-predictions-of-population-level-changes-in-sequence-and-structural-properties-of-hiv-1-env-using-a-volatility-controlled-diffusion-model
#8
Orlando DeLeon, Hagit Hodis, Yunxia O'Malley, Jacklyn Johnson, Hamid Salimi, Yinjie Zhai, Elizabeth Winter, Claire Remec, Noah Eichelberger, Brandon Van Cleave, Ramya Puliadi, Robert D Harrington, Jack T Stapleton, Hillel Haim
The envelope glycoproteins (Envs) of HIV-1 continuously evolve in the host by random mutations and recombination events. The resulting diversity of Env variants circulating in the population and their continuing diversification process limit the efficacy of AIDS vaccines. We examined the historic changes in Env sequence and structural features (measured by integrity of epitopes on the Env trimer) in a geographically defined population in the United States. As expected, many Env features were relatively conserved during the 1980s...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380208/evolution-of-hepatitis-b-serological-markers-in-hiv-coinfected-patients-a-case-study
#9
Ana Luiza de Castro Conde Toscano, Maria Cássia Mendes Corrêa
OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolution of serological markers among HIV and hepatitis B coinfected patients, with emphasis on evaluating the reactivation or seroreversion of these markers. METHODS: The study population consisted of patients met in an AIDS Outpatient Clinic in São Paulo State, Brazil. We included in the analysis all HIV-infected and who underwent at least two positive hepatitis B surface antigen serological testing during clinical follow up, with tests taken six months apart...
March 30, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379346/a-penalized-regression-approach-to-haplotype-reconstruction-of-viral-populations-arising-in-early-hiv-siv-infection
#10
Sivan Leviyang, Igor Griva, Sergio Ita, Welkin E Johnson
Motivation: Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly applied to characterize viral evolution during HIV and SIV infections. In particular, NGS datasets sampled during the initial months of infection are characterized by relatively low levels of diversity as well as convergent evolution at multiple loci dispersed across the viral genome. Consequently, fully characterizing viral evolution from NGS datasets requires haplotype reconstruction across large regions of the viral genome...
April 4, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378026/considerations-on-the-relevance-of-cerebral-fusiform-aneurysms-observed-during-hiv-infection
#11
Bruno Law-Ye, Robert-Yves Carlier, Raphaël Richard, Raphaël Blanc, Claire Jourdan, Pierre de Truchis, Flore Viry, Didier Dormont, Delphine Leclercq, Frédéric Clarençon
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated ectatic cerebral vasculitis (HIV-AECV) is a rare form of vasculitis with diffuse fusiform aneurysms. Its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Although extensively described in children, it is still incompletely studied in adults. Our objective was to present five adult cases with emphasis on imaging findings and long-term evolution. From 2006 to 2014, we included 5 HIV-infected patients presenting with fusiform cerebral aneurysms. Vessels abnormalities were assessed with brain computed tomography (CT) angiography, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and/or digital subtraction angiography (DSA)...
April 4, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377768/role-of-natural-killer-cells-in-hiv-associated-malignancies
#12
REVIEW
Fabio E Leal, Thomas A Premeaux, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu
Now in its fourth decade, the burden of HIV disease still persists, despite significant milestone achievements in HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment, care, and support. Even with long-term use of currently available antiretroviral therapies (ARTs), eradication of HIV remains elusive and now poses a unique set of challenges for the HIV-infected individual. The occurrence of HIV-associated non-AIDS-related comorbidities outside the scope of AIDS-defining illnesses, in particular non-AIDS-defining cancers, is much greater than the age-matched uninfected population...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373274/the-variable-internal-structure-of-the-mycoplasma-penetrans-attachment-organelle-revealed-by-biochemical-and-microscopic-analyses-implications-for-attachment-organelle-mechanism-and-evolution
#13
Steven L Distelhorst, Dominika A Jurkovic, Jian Shi, Grant J Jensen, Mitchell F Balish
Although mycoplasmas have small genomes, many of them, including the HIV-associated opportunist Mycoplasma penetrans, construct a polar attachment organelle (AO) used for both adherence to host cells and gliding motility. However, the irregular phylogenetic distribution of similar structures within the mycoplasmas as well as compositional and ultrastructural differences among these AOs suggest that AOs have arisen several times by convergent evolution. We investigated the ultrastructure and protein composition of the cytoskeleton-like material of the M...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369607/the-influence-of-hiv-on-the-evolution-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#14
Anastasia Koch, Daniela Brites, David Stucki, Joanna C Evans, Ronnett Seldon, Alexa Heekes, Nicola Mulder, Mark Nicol, Tolu Oni, Digby F Warner, Valerie Mizrahi, Julian Parkhill, Sebastien Gagneux, Darren P Martin, Robert J Wilkinson
HIV significantly affects the immunological environment during tuberculosis co-infection, and therefore may influence the selective landscape upon which M. tuberculosis evolves. To test this hypothesis whole genome sequences were determined for 169 South African M. tuberculosis strains from HIV-1 co-infected and uninfected individuals and analysed using two Bayesian codon-model based selection analysis approaches: FUBAR which was used to detect persistent positive and negative selection (selection respectively favouring and disfavouring nonsynonymous substitutions); and MEDS which was used to detect episodic directional selection specifically favouring nonsynonymous substitutions within HIV-1 infected individuals...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363735/evolution-of-tenofovir-resistant-hiv-1-isolates-exposed-to-tenofovir-alafenamide-dose-escalation
#15
Stephanie Cox, Nicolas Margot, Renee Ram, Audun Johnson, Michael Miller, Christian Callebaut
Resistance selection experiments using HIV-1 isolates harboring pre-existing tenofovir (TFV)-resistance (K65R, 3TAMs, and Q151M complex) were carried out with the novel tenofovir prodrug tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) as well as with tenofovir (TFV), to investigate the potential for additional resistance development in the presence of TAF or TFV. Extended resistance selection of these TFV resistance associated mutations (RAMs)-containing viruses with TAF or TFV did not lead to the accumulation of additional known RAMs, or significant additional phenotypic resistance, after 6 months in culture...
March 28, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362805/effects-of-contact-structure-on-the-transient-evolution-of-hiv-virulence
#16
Sang Woo Park, Benjamin M Bolker
Early in an epidemic, high densities of susceptible hosts select for relatively high parasite virulence; later in the epidemic, lower susceptible densities select for lower virulence. Thus over the course of a typical epidemic the average virulence of parasite strains increases initially, peaks partway through the epidemic, then declines again. However, precise quantitative outcomes, such as the peak virulence reached and its timing, may depend sensitively on epidemiological details. Fraser et al. proposed a model for the eco-evolutionary dynamics of HIV that incorporates the tradeoffs between transmission and virulence (mediated by set-point viral load, SPVL) and their heritability between hosts...
March 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362068/liver-fibrosis-regression-and-progression-during-controlled-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-hiv-hbv-patients-treated-with-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-in-france-a-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Anders Boyd, Julie Bottero, Patrick Miailhes, Caroline Lascoux-Combe, Hayette Rougier, Pierre-Marie Girard, Lawrence Serfaty, Karine Lacombe
INTRODUCTION: Long-term tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) use has been associated with significant regression of liver fibrosis during hepatitis B virus (HBV) mono-infection, yet little is known during HIV-HBV coinfection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of liver fibrosis and its determinants in TDF-treated coinfected patients. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 167 HIV-HBV-infected patients initiating TDF-containing antiretroviral therapy were included...
February 28, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360890/driving-hiv-1-into-a-vulnerable-corner-by-taking-advantage-of-viral-adaptation-and-evolution
#18
REVIEW
Shigeyoshi Harada, Kazuhisa Yoshimura
Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is crucial for controlling human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Recently, progress in identifying and characterizing highly potent broadly neutralizing antibodies has provided valuable templates for HIV-1 therapy and vaccine design. Nevertheless, HIV-1, like many RNA viruses, exhibits genetically diverse populations known as quasispecies. Evolution of quasispecies can occur rapidly in response to selective pressures, such as that exerted by ART and the immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348941/cutting-the-stone-health-defined-in-the-era-of-value-based-care
#19
REVIEW
Ger Rijkers
The immune system contributes to the maintenance of health by preventing and limiting the clinical consequences of infections by pathogenic microorganisms. During the evolution of Homo sapiens, those with the fittest immune system survived. The immune system of Homo sapiens was further improved and adapted by admixture with Neanderthal genes. Nowadays, the human immune system provides adequate protection against the majority of infections. For some 20 infectious diseases, the immune system needs to be improved by vaccination...
February 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348854/bayesian-codon-substitution-modelling-to-identify-sources-of-pathogen-evolutionary-rate-variation
#20
Guy Baele, Marc A Suchard, Filip Bielejec, Philippe Lemey
Phylodynamic reconstructions rely on a measurable molecular footprint of epidemic processes in pathogen genomes. Identifying the factors that govern the tempo and mode by which these processes leave a footprint in pathogen genomes represents an important goal towards understanding infectious disease evolution. Discriminating between synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates is crucial for testing hypotheses about the sources of evolutionary rate variation. Here, we implement a codon substitution model in a Bayesian statistical framework to estimate absolute rates of synonymous and non-synonymous substitution in unknown evolutionary histories...
June 2016: Microbial Genomics
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