Read by QxMD icon Read

HIV evolution

Nicolas Noël, Béatrice Jacquelin, Nicolas Huot, Cécile Goujard, Olivier Lambotte, Michaela Müller-Trutwin
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces a persistent and incurable infection. However, the combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) has markedly changed the evolution of the infection and transformed a deadly disease into a manageable chronic infection. Withdrawal of cART generally leads though to resumption of the viral replication. The eradication of the virus from its cellular and anatomical reservoirs remains a goal-to-achieve for a cure. In this context, developing novel therapies contributing to this aim are an important field of research...
March 9, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Chia-Wen Li, Chia-Jui Yang, Hsin-Yun Sun, Mao-Song Tsai, Shih-Ping Lin, Te-Yu Lin, Chien-Yu Cheng, Yi-Chien Lee, Yu-Shan Huang, Chun-Eng Liu, Yuan-Ti Lee, Hung-Jen Tang, Ning-Chi Wang, Shu-Hsing Cheng, Wen-Chien Ko, Chien-Ching Hung
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to describe the evolution of the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients included in two cohorts in Taiwan. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the information on demographic and clinical characteristics of 4,025 and 3,856 HIV-positive Taiwanese, who were aged 18 years or older at designated hospitals around Taiwan in 2004-2007, when an outbreak of HIV infection was occurring, and 2012-2016, when the outbreak was controlled with the implementation of harm reduction program, respectively...
2018: PloS One
Elodie Alessandri-Gradt, Fabienne De Oliveira, Marie Leoz, Véronique Lemee, David L Robertson, Felix Feyertag, Paul-Alain Ngoupo, Philippe Mauclere, François Simon, Jean-Christophe Plantier
OBJECTIVES: HIV/1 group P (HIV-1/P) is the last HIV/1 group discovered and to date, comprises only two strains. To obtain new insights into this divergent group, we screened for new infections by developing specific tools, and analysed phenotypic and genotypic properties of the prototypic strain RBF168. In addition, the follow-up of the unique patient monitored so far, has raised the knowledge of the natural history of this infection and its therapeutic management. DESIGN/METHODS: We developed an HIV-1/P specific sero-molecular strategy and screened over 29,498 specimen samples...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
M Chen, M H Jia, Y L Ma, H B Luo, H C Chen, C J Yang, J Dai, L Yang, L J Dong, R Lu, L J Song, Y Han, J Y Lu, A K L Cheung, Z W Chen, L Lu
Multiple human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genotypes in China were first discovered in Yunnan Province before disseminating throughout the country. As the HIV-1 epidemic continues to expand in Yunnan, genetic characteristics and transmitted drug resistance (TDR) should be further investigated among the recently infected population. Among 2828 HIV-positive samples newly reported in the first quarter of 2014, 347 were identified as recent infections with BED-captured enzyme immunoassay (CEIA). Of them, 291 were successfully genotyped and identified as circulating recombinant form (CRF)08_BC (47...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Dimitrios Pilalas, Lemonia Skoura, Apostolia Margariti, Fani Chatzopoulou, Dimitrios Chatzidimitriou, Olga Tsachouridou, Pantelis Zebekakis, Simeon Metallidis, Maria Papaioannou
OBJECTIVES: Despite successful virological suppression, HIV transcription frequently persists intracellularly. In this study, we hypothesize that HIV persistent transcription(HIVpt) may affect to a different extent patients on stable efavirenz(EFV) versus atazanavir(ATV)-based regimens. The role of the expression of drug efflux transporters in HIVpt was also investigated. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 51 virologically suppressed patients on first-line treatment for one year with EFV or ATV combined with emtricitabine and tenofovir and followed them up for one year...
2018: PloS One
Theodoros Kelesidis, Carlee B Moser, Elizabeth Johnston, James H Stein, Michael P Dube, Otto O Yang, Grace A McComsey, Judith S Currier, Todd T Brown
BACKGROUND: The contributions of the Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) axis to cardiovascular and bone disease in treated HIV-1 infection is not well-defined. SETTING: Prospective, observational, longitudinal study. METHODS: In a subset analysis of a prospective randomized clinical trial, 234 HIV-1-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve participants received tenofovir-emtricitabine plus either atazanavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ritonavir, or raltegravir and achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml by week 24 and thereafter...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Anas Z Abidin, Adora M DSouza, Mahesh B Nagarajan, Lu Wang, Xing Qiu, Giovanni Schifitto, Axel Wismüller
HIV is capable of invading the brain soon after seroconversion. This ultimately can lead to deficits in multiple cognitive domains commonly referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Clinical diagnosis of such deficits requires detailed neuropsychological assessment but clinical signs may be difficult to detect during asymptomatic injury of the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore neuroimaging biomarkers are of particular interest in HAND. In this study, we constructed brain connectivity profiles of 40 subjects (20 HIV positive subjects and 20 age-matched seronegative controls) using two different methods: a non-linear mutual connectivity analysis approach and a conventional method based on Pearson's correlation...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Quang N Nguyen, David R Martinez, Jonathon E Himes, R Whitney Edwards, Qifeng Han, Amit Kumar, Riley Mangan, Nathan I Nicely, Guanhua Xie, Nathan Vandergrift, Xiaoying Shen, Justin Pollara, Sallie R Permar
BACKGROUND: The initial envelope (Env)-specific antibody response in acutely HIV-1-infected individuals and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkeys (RMs) is dominated by non-neutralizing antibodies targeting Env gp41. In contrast, natural primate SIV hosts, such as African green monkeys (AGMs), develop a predominant Env gp120-specific antibody response to SIV infection. However, the fine-epitope specificity and function of SIV Env-specific plasma IgG, and their potential role on autologous virus co-evolution in SIV-infected AGMs and RMs remain unclear...
March 9, 2018: Retrovirology
Z Wyżewski, K P Gregorczyk, J Szczepanowska, L Szulc-Dąbrowska
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are a family of proteins highly conserved in evolution. Members of the Hsp family are mainly responsible for proper protein folding, however they perform many other functions in living organisms. Hsp60 is a molecular chaperone that is present in mitochondria and cytosol of eukaryotic cells, as well as on their surface. It is also found in the extracellular space and in the peripheral blood. Apart from its role in assisting protein folding in cooperation with Hsp10, Hsp60 contributes to regulation of apoptosis, as well as participates in modulation of the immune system activity...
2018: Acta Virologica
Nicholas R Meyerson, Cody J Warren, Daniel A S A Vieira, Felipe Diaz-Griferro, Sara L Sawyer
HIV-1 arose as the result of spillover of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) from great apes in Africa, namely from chimpanzees and gorillas. Chimpanzees and gorillas were, themselves, infected with SIV after virus spillover from African monkeys. During spillover events, SIV is thought to require adaptation to the new host species. The host barriers that drive viral adaptation have predominantly been attributed to restriction factors, rather than cofactors (host proteins exploited to promote viral replication)...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Norma Rallón, Marcial García, Javier García-Samaniego, Alfonso Cabello, Beatriz Álvarez, Clara Restrepo, Sara Nistal, Miguel Górgolas, José M Benito
INTRODUCTION: T-cell exhaustion has been involved in the pathogenesis of HIV infection. We have longitudinally analyzed PD1 and Tim3 surrogate markers of T-cells exhaustion, in parallel with other markers of HIV progression, and its potential association with CD4 changes in treated and untreated infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 96 HIV patients, 49 of them followed in the absence of cART (cART-naïve group) and 47 after initiation of cART (cART group) were included and followed for a median of 43 [IQR: 31-60] months...
2018: PloS One
Enkelejda Miho, Alexander Yermanos, Cédric R Weber, Christoph T Berger, Sai T Reddy, Victor Greiff
The adaptive immune system recognizes antigens via an immense array of antigen-binding antibodies and T-cell receptors, the immune repertoire. The interrogation of immune repertoires is of high relevance for understanding the adaptive immune response in disease and infection (e.g., autoimmunity, cancer, HIV). Adaptive immune receptor repertoire sequencing (AIRR-seq) has driven the quantitative and molecular-level profiling of immune repertoires, thereby revealing the high-dimensional complexity of the immune receptor sequence landscape...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Dian Peng, Bin Cao, Ying-Jun Zhou, Ya-Qiu Long
The CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a highly reserved G-protein coupled 7-transmembrane (TM) chemokine receptor which consists of 352 amino acids. CXCR4 has only one endogenous chemokine ligand of CXCL12, besides several other natural nonchemokine ligands such as extracellular ubiquitin and noncognate ligand of MIF. CXCR4 strongly binds to CXCL12 and the resulting CXCLl2/CXCR4 axis is the molecular basis of their various biological functions, which include: (1) mediating immune and inflammatory response; (2) regulation of hematopoietic stem cell migration and homing; (3) an essential co-receptor for HIV entry into host cells; (4) participation in the process of embryonic development; (5) malignant tumor invasion and metastasis; (6) myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke and acute kidney injury...
February 17, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Marion Cornelissen, Astrid Gall, Antoinette van der Kuyl, Chris Wymant, François Blanquart, Christophe Fraser, Ben Berkhout
We describe a detailed protocol for the manual workup of blood (plasma/serum) samples from individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) for deep sequence analysis of the viral genome. The study optimizing the assay was performed in the context of the BEEHIVE (Bridging the Evolution and Epidemiology of HIV in Europe) project, which analyzes complete viral genomes from more than 3000 HIV-1-infected Europeans with high-throughput deep sequencing techniques. The goal of the BEEHIVE project is to determine the contribution of viral genetics to virulence...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Douglas Webb, Lucie Cluver, Chewe Luo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Kazem Baesi, Marzyeh Nili, Katayoun Tayeri, Mohamad Gholami, Samaneh Moallemi, Farzaneh Sabahi, Saber Kalhori, Mehrdad Hasibi
BACKGROUND: The rate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Iran has increased dramatically in the past few years. HIV-1 genome sequences are pivotal for large-scale studies of inter- and intra-host evolution. To understand the molecular difference between reference HIV-1 isolate and two HIV-1 infected patients in Iran, we conducted this study to analyze some genome segments of Iranian HIV-1 isolates. METHODS: Two HIV-1-infected individuals who were under antiretroviral therapy (ARV) for 8 years with stable clinical status were enrolled...
February 21, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Rebecca Hodes, Robert Morrell
Research about HIV constitutes a global domain of academic knowledge. The patterns that structure this domain reflect inequalities in the production and dissemination of knowledge, as well as broader inequalities in geopolitics. Conventional metrics for assessing the value and impact of academic research reveal that "Northern" research remains dominant, while "Southern" research remains peripheral. Southern theory provides a framework for greater critical engagement with knowledge produced by researchers within the global South...
February 22, 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Shelby Baird
Over the past forty years, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has successfully restricted consumers' access to home-testing applications based on the notion that it should protect individuals from their own reactions to test results. In the 1970s, the FDA briefly denied women access to home pregnancy tests that were identical to those used in laboratories. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, it relied on concerns about consumer responses to HIV status results to justify a categorical ban on applications for HIV home-testing technology...
November 2017: Duke Law Journal
Denise Kühnert, Roger Kouyos, George Shirreff, Jūlija Pečerska, Alexandra U Scherrer, Jürg Böni, Sabine Yerly, Thomas Klimkait, Vincent Aubert, Huldrych F Günthard, Tanja Stadler, Sebastian Bonhoeffer
Drug resistant HIV is a major threat to the long-term efficacy of antiretroviral treatment. Around 10% of ART-naïve patients in Europe are infected with drug-resistant HIV type 1. Hence it is important to understand the dynamics of transmitted drug resistance evolution. Thanks to routinely performed drug resistance tests, HIV sequence data is increasingly available and can be used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship among viral lineages. In this study we employ a phylodynamic approach to quantify the fitness costs of major resistance mutations in the Swiss HIV cohort...
February 20, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Arjun K Mishra, Roy A Mariuzza
Affinity maturation is the process whereby the immune system generates antibodies of higher affinities during a response to antigen. It is unique in being the only evolutionary mechanism known to operate on a molecule in an organism's own body. Deciphering the structural mechanisms through which somatic mutations in antibody genes increase affinity is critical to understanding the evolution of immune repertoires. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has allowed the reconstruction of antibody clonal lineages in response to viral pathogens, such as HIV-1, which was not possible in earlier studies of affinity maturation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"