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HIV crispr cas9

Kristin Nicole Harper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Xiaotang Hu
Since 2012, the CRISPR-Cas9 system has been quickly and successfully tested in a broad range of organisms and cells including hematopoietic cells. The application of CRISPR-Cas9 in human hematopoietic cells mainly involves the genes responsible for HIV infection, β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease (SCD). The successful disruption of CCR5 and CXCR4 genes in T cells by CRISPR-Cas9 promotes the prospect of the technology in the functional cure of HIV. More recently, eliminating CCR5 and CXCR4 in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from patients and targeting the HIV genome have been successfully carried out in several laboratories...
October 2, 2016: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
Di Qu, Chuan Li, Feng Sang, Qiang Li, Zhi-Qiang Jiang, Li-Ran Xu, Hui-Jun Guo, Chiyu Zhang, Jian-Hua Wang
The 5' end of HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) serves as a promoter that plays an essential role in driving viral gene transcription. Manipulation of HIV-1 LTR provides a potential therapeutic strategy for suppressing viral gene expression or excising integrated provirus. Subtype-specific genetic diversity in the LTR region has been observed. The minor variance of LTR, particularly in the transcription factor binding sites, can have a profound impact on its activity. However, the LTR profiles from major endemic Chinese subtypes are not well characterized...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Oliver I Fregoso, Michael Emerman
UNLABELLED: There has been extraordinary progress in understanding the roles of lentiviral accessory proteins in antagonizing host antiviral defense proteins. However, the precise primary function of the accessory gene Vpr remains elusive. Here we suggest that engagement with the DNA damage response is an important function of primate lentiviral Vpr proteins because of its conserved function among diverse lentiviral lineages. In contrast, we show that, for HIV-1, HIV-2, and related Vpr isolates and orthologs, there is a lack of correlation between DNA damage response activation and interaction with the host SLX4 protein complex of structure specific endonucleases; some Vpr proteins are able to interact with SLX4, but the majority are not...
2016: MBio
Maria Czarnek, Joanna Bereta
Precise and efficient genome modifications present a great value in attempts to comprehend the roles of particular genes and other genetic elements in biological processes as well as in various pathologies. In recent years novel methods of genome modification known as genome editing, which utilize so called "programmable" nucleases, came into use. A true revolution in genome editing has been brought about by the introduction of the CRISP-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated) system, in which one of such nucleases, i...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Andrea L J Marschall, Stefan Dübel
Challenges posed by complex diseases such as cancer, chronic viral infections, neurodegenerative disorders and many others have forced researchers to think beyond classic small molecule drugs, exploring new therapeutic strategies such as therapy with RNAi, CRISPR/Cas9 or antibody therapies as single or as combination therapies with existing drugs. While classic antibody therapies based on parenteral application can only reach extracellular targets, intracellular application of antibodies could provide specific advantages but is so far little recognized in translational research...
2016: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
Rafal Kaminski, Yilan Chen, Julian Salkind, Ramona Bella, Won-Bin Young, Pasquale Ferrante, Jonathan Karn, Thomas Malcolm, Wenhui Hu, Kamel Khalili
The CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing method is comprised of the guide RNA (gRNA) to target a specific DNA sequence for cleavage and the Cas9 endonuclease for introducing breaks in the double-stranded DNA identified by the gRNA. Co-expression of both a multiplex of HIV-1-specific gRNAs and Cas9 in cells results in the modification and/or excision of the segment of viral DNA, leading to replication-defective virus. In this study, we have personalized the activity of CRISPR/Cas9 by placing the gene encoding Cas9 under the control of a minimal promoter of HIV-1 that is activated by the HIV-1 Tat protein...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kristine E Yoder, Ralf Bundschuh
CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing has been proposed as a therapeutic treatment for HIV-1 infection. CRISPR/Cas9 induced double strand breaks (DSBs) targeted to the integrated viral genome have been shown to decrease production of progeny virus. Unfortunately HIV-1 evolves rapidly and may readily produce CRISPR/Cas9 resistant strains. Here we used next-generation sequencing to characterize HIV-1 strains that developed resistance to six different CRISPR/Cas9 guide RNAs (gRNAs). Reverse transcriptase (RT) derived base substitution mutations were commonly found at sites encoding unpaired bases of RNA stem-loop structures...
2016: Scientific Reports
Rafal Kaminski, Yilan Chen, Tracy Fischer, Ellen Tedaldi, Alessandro Napoli, Yonggang Zhang, Jonathan Karn, Wenhui Hu, Kamel Khalili
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Scientific Reports
Julia K Bialek, Gábor A Dunay, Maike Voges, Carola Schäfer, Michael Spohn, Rolf Stucka, Joachim Hauber, Ulrike C Lange
CRISPR/Cas9 technology is currently considered the most advanced tool for targeted genome engineering. Its sequence-dependent specificity has been explored for locus-directed transcriptional modulation. Such modulation, in particular transcriptional activation, has been proposed as key approach to overcome silencing of dormant HIV provirus in latently infected cellular reservoirs. Currently available agents for provirus activation, so-called latency reversing agents (LRAs), act indirectly through cellular pathways to induce viral transcription...
2016: PloS One
Lorenzo Bulli, Luis Apolonia, Juliane Kutzner, Darja Pollpeter, Caroline Goujon, Nikolas Herold, Sarah-Marie Schwarz, Yannick Giernat, Oliver T Keppler, Michael H Malim, Torsten Schaller
UNLABELLED: Type I interferons (IFNs), including IFN-α, upregulate an array of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) and potently suppress Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infectivity in CD4(+) T cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, and dendritic cells. Recently, we and others identified ISG myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2) as an inhibitor of HIV-1 nuclear entry. However, additional antiviral blocks exist upstream of nuclear import, but the ISGs that suppress infection, e.g., prior to (or during) reverse transcription, remain to be defined...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Shuhei Ueda, Hirotaka Ebina, Yuka Kanemura, Naoko Misawa, Yoshio Koyanagi
The range of genome-editing tools has recently been expanded. In particular, an RNA-guided genome-editing tool, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated 9 (Cas9) system, has many applications for human diseases. In this study, guide RNA (gRNA) to target gag, pol and a long terminal repeat of HIV-1 was designed and used to generate gRNA-expressing lentiviral vectors. An HIV-1-specific gRNA and Cas9 were stably dually transduced into a highly HIV-1-susceptible human T-cell line and the inhibitory ability of the anti-HIV-1 CRISPR/Cas9 lentiviral vector assessed...
July 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Chen Liang, Mark A Wainberg, Atze T Das, Ben Berkhout
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Retrovirology
R Kaminski, R Bella, C Yin, J Otte, P Ferrante, H E Gendelman, H Li, R Booze, J Gordon, W Hu, K Khalili
A CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing strategy has been remarkable in excising segments of integrated HIV-1 DNA sequences from the genome of latently infected human cell lines and by introducing InDel mutations, suppressing HIV-1 replication in patient-derived CD4+ T-cells, ex vivo. Here, we employed a short version of the Cas9 endonuclease, saCas9, together with a multiplex of guide RNAs (gRNAs) for targeting the viral DNA sequences within the 5'-LTR and the Gag gene for removing critically important segments of the viral DNA in transgenic mice and rats encompassing the HIV-1 genome...
August 2016: Gene Therapy
Serena Bonifati, Michele B Daly, Corine St Gelais, Sun Hee Kim, Joseph A Hollenbaugh, Caitlin Shepard, Edward M Kennedy, Dong-Hyun Kim, Raymond F Schinazi, Baek Kim, Li Wu
SAMHD1 limits HIV-1 infection in non-dividing myeloid cells by decreasing intracellular dNTP pools. HIV-1 restriction by SAMHD1 in these cells likely prevents activation of antiviral immune responses and modulates viral pathogenesis, thus highlighting a critical role of SAMHD1 in HIV-1 physiopathology. Here, we explored the function of SAMHD1 in regulating cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in monocytic THP-1 cells. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we generated THP-1 cells with stable SAMHD1 knockout...
August 2016: Virology
Stacey C Tobin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2016: AIDS
Zhen Wang, Qinghua Pan, Patrick Gendron, Weijun Zhu, Fei Guo, Shan Cen, Mark A Wainberg, Chen Liang
Cas9 cleaves specific DNA sequences with the assistance of a programmable single guide RNA (sgRNA). Repairing this broken DNA by the cell's error-prone non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) machinery leads to insertions and deletions (indels) that often impair DNA function. Using HIV-1, we have now demonstrated that many of these indels are indeed lethal for the virus, but that others lead to the emergence of replication competent viruses that are resistant to Cas9/sgRNA. This unexpected contribution of Cas9 to the development of viral resistance is facilitated by some indels that are not deleterious for viral replication, but that are refractory to recognition by the same sgRNA as a result of changing the target DNA sequences...
April 19, 2016: Cell Reports
J G Choi, Y Dang, S Abraham, H Ma, J Zhang, H Guo, Y Cai, J G Mikkelsen, H Wu, P Shankar, N Manjunath
The CRISPR/Cas9 system provides an easy way to edit specific site/s in the genome and thus offers tremendous opportunity for human gene therapy for a wide range of diseases. However, one major concern is off-target effects, particularly with long-term expression of Cas9 nuclease when traditional expression methods such as via plasmid/viral vectors are used. To overcome this limitation, we pre-packaged Cas9 protein (Cas9P LV) in lentiviral particles for transient exposure and showed its effectiveness for gene disruption in cells, including primary T cells expressing specific single guide RNAs (sgRNAs)...
July 2016: Gene Therapy
Chunxia Qi, Xiaopeng Jia, Lingling Lu, Ping Ma, Min Wei
C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a receptor for chemokines and a co-receptor for HIV-1 entry into the target CD4+ cells. CCR5 delta 32 deletion is a loss-of-function mutation, resistant to HIV-1 infection. We tried to induce the CCR5 delta 32 mutation harnessing the genome editing technique, CRISPR-Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, CRISPR and CRISPR associated protein 9, Cas9) in the commonly used cell line human embryonic kidney HEK 293T cells. Surprisingly, we found that HEK293T cells are heterozygous for CCR5 delta 32 mutation, in contrast to the wild type CCR5 cells, human acute T cell leukemia cell line Jurkat and human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 cells...
2016: PloS One
Manjunath N Swamy, Haoquan Wu, Premlata Shankar
RNA interference (RNAi) provides a powerful tool to silence specific gene expression and has been widely used to suppress host factors such as CCR5 and/or viral genes involved in HIV-1 replication. Newer nuclease-based gene-editing technologies, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system, also provide powerful tools to ablate specific genes. Because of differences in co-receptor usage and the high mutability of the HIV-1 genome, a combination of host factors and viral genes needs to be suppressed for effective prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection...
August 1, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
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